Michał Choraś's research while affiliated with PozLab sp. z o.o and other places

Publications (228)

Chapter
The Denial of Service attacks are one of the most common attacks used to disrupt the services of public institutions. The criminal act of exhausting a network resource with the intent to obstruct the utility of a service is associated with hacktivism, blackmailing and extortion attempts. Intrusion Prevention Systems are an essential line of defence...
Article
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Network flow-based cyber anomaly detection is a difficult and complex task. Although several approaches to tackling this problem have been suggested, many research topics remain open. One of these concerns the problem of model transferability. There is a limited number of papers which tackle transfer learning in the context of flow-based network an...
Article
In intelligent information systems data play a critical role. The issue of missing data is one of the commonplace problems occurring in data collected in the real world. The problem stems directly from the very nature of data collection. In this paper, the notion of handling missing values in a real-world application of computational intelligence i...
Article
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Digital literacy has been included in the set of the eight key competences, which are necessary to enjoy life to the full in the twenty-first century. According to the previous studies, women tend to possess lower digital competence than men; the older the person, the lower the level of digital literacy. To date, Polish citizens in general have wor...
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Contemporary cyberthreats continue to evolve, powering the neverending development arms race [...]
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to challenge the prevailing, stereotypical approach of the human aspect of cybersecurity, i.e. treating people as weakness or threat. Instead, several reflections are presented, pertaining to the ways of making cybersecurity human-centred. Design/methodology/approach This paper bases on the authors’ own experie...
Chapter
Currently, the doors are open to novel paradigms of the use of connected technologies. E-commerce and the Internet of Things devices experience substantial growth in popularity. However, this unprecedented increase in popularity comes at a price of a wide attack surface. This paper proposes an efficient Post Event Analysis and Incident Response pro...
Article
The goal of this systematic and broad survey is to present and discuss the main challenges that are posed by the implementation of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in the form of Artificial Neural Networks in Cybersecurity, specifically in Intrusion Detection Systems. Based on the results of the state-of-the-art analysis with a number o...
Article
In recent years, false information has acquired a new significance, with the (in)famous term fake news' entering the collective consciousness. False but controversial or sensational news tends to spread incomparably faster than genuine information. The world has already witnessed how Internet news can help raise the publica's doubt in the actions t...
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Contemporary Artificial Intelligence methods, especially their subset-deep learning, are finding their way to successful implementations in the detection and classification of intrusions at the network level. This paper presents an intrusion detection mechanism that leverages Deep AutoEncoder and several Deep Decoders for unsupervised classificatio...
Article
Countering the fake news phenomenon has become one of the most important challenges for democratic societies, governments and non-profit organizations, as well as for the researchers coming from several domains. This is not a local problem and demands a holistic approach to analyzing heterogeneous data and storing the results. The research problem...
Article
Fake news detection is a challenging and complex task. Yet, several approaches to deal with this problem have already been proposed. The majority of solutions employ the NLP-based approach, where various architectures of a deep artificial neural network are proposed. However, as the experiments show, different NLP-based solutions have great perform...
Article
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This Special Issue aimed to gather high-quality advancements in theoretical and practical aspects of computer recognition, pattern recognition, image processing and machine learning (shallow and deep), including, in particular, novel implementations of these techniques in the areas of modern telecommunications and cybersecurity [...]
Chapter
The paper deals with the issue of hate speech and radicalization. Oftentimes, they are spread by means of social media. Twitter lets one express their views in a relatively anonymous way; however, it seems to be a simple, yet effective tool for disseminating offensive or radical contents, too. The paper proposes an effective solution which applies...
Chapter
With the advancement of internet technologies, network traffic monitoring and cyber-attack detection are becoming more and more important for critical infrastructure. Unfortunately, there are still relatively few works in the literature that interpret the available benchmark data as data streams and take into account the dynamic characteristics of...
Chapter
Cybersecurity is relevant to everyone, as cyberthreat concerns individuals and whole societies, and a precise cyberattack targeted at critical infrastructure may pose danger to millions of citizens. At a European level, several initiatives have aimed at protecting CI, one of them being InfraStress. This paper presents a part of the InfraStress arch...
Book
This book presents a collection of high-quality research papers accepted to multi-conference consisting of International Conference on Image Processing and Communications (IP&C 2021), International Conference on Computer Recognition Systems (CORES 2021), International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2021) held jointly in Bydgoszcz, Pol...
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The ubiquity of social media and their deep integration in the contemporary society has granted new ways to interact, exchange information, form groups, or earn money—all on a scale never seen before. Those possibilities paired with the widespread popularity contribute to the level of impact that social media display. Unfortunately, the benefits br...
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The number of security breaches in the cyberspace is on the rise. This threat is met with intensive work in the intrusion detection research community. To keep the defensive mechanisms up to date and relevant, realistic network traffic datasets are needed. The use of flow-based data for machine-learning-based network intrusion detection is a promis...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) appliances often expose sensitive data, either directly or indirectly. They may, for instance, tell whether you are at home right now or what your long or short-term habits are. Therefore, it is crucial to protect such devices against adversaries and has in place an early warning system which indicates compromised devic...
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has found a myriad of applications in many domains of technology, and more importantly, in improving people’s lives. Sadly, AI solutions have already been utilized for various violations and theft, even receiving the name AI or Crime (AIC). This poses a challenge: are cybersecurity experts thus justified to attack malic...
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The development of cyberspace has brought about innumerable advantages for the mankind. However, it also came with several serious drawbacks; as cyberspace evolves, so does cybercrime. Since the birth of cyberspace, individuals, groups and whole nations have been engaging in computer-related offences of various significance and impact, trying to ex...
Article
Nowadays, societies, businesses and citizens are strongly dependent on information, and information has become one of the most crucial (societal and economical) values. People expect that both traditional and online media provide trustful and reliable news and content. The right to be informed is one of the fundamental requirements for making the r...
Chapter
Handling the data imbalance problem is one of the crucial steps in a machine learning pipeline. The research community is well aware of the effects of data imbalance on machine learning algorithms. At the same time, there is a rising need for explainability of AI, especially in difficult, high-stake domains like network intrusion detection. In this...
Chapter
The aim of the article is to give the rationale behind employing AI tools to help Law Enforcement Agencies analyze data, based on the existing solution, i.e., the MAGNETO (Multimedia Analysis and correlation enGine for orgaNised crime prevention and investigation) platform. In order to do this, the challenges Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) face wi...
Chapter
E-commerce services have expanded tremendously in the recent years, with market value estimations for cross-border trade reaching well over a hundred billion euro just in the European Union. At the same time, e-commerce-related fraud rate and cybersecurity issues are staggering. With e-commerce clearly gaining the critical infrastructure status, an...
Article
The commentary touches upon the topic which is relevant to hundreds of thousands of researchers in the world. When trying to publish in English, they are often advised to ask the native speakers of the language for their opinion. However, as English has become the international, cross-border language of science, it may have ceased to be the propert...
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Recent progress in the area of modern technologies confirms that information is not only a commodity but can also become a tool for competition and rivalry among governments and corporations, or can be applied by ill-willed people to use it in their hate speech practices. The impact of information is overpowering and can lead to many socially undes...
Article
Cybercrime and cybersecurity are like two sides of the same coin: They are opposites but cannot exist without each other. Their mutual relation generates a myriad of ethical issues, ranging from minor to vital. The rapid development of technology will surely involve even more ethical concerns, like the infamous example of a fitness tracking company...
Chapter
Artificial Intelligence has found innumerable applications, becoming ubiquitous in the contemporary society. From making unnoticeable, minor choices to determining people’s fates (the case of predictive policing). This fact raises serious concerns about the lack of explainability of those systems. Finding ways to enable humans to comprehend the res...
Chapter
The article presents models for detecting fake news and the results of the analyzes of the application of these models. The precision, f1-score, recall metrics were proposed as a measure of the model quality assessment. Neural network architectures, based on the state-of-the-art solutions of the Transformer type were applied to create the models. T...
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Nowadays,the use of digital technologies is promoting three main characteristics of information, i.e. the volume, the modality and the frequency. Due to the amount of information generated by tools and individuals, it has been identified a critical need for the Law Enforcement Agencies to exploit this information and carry out criminal investigatio...
Chapter
In intelligent information systems data plays a critical role. Preparing data for the use of artificial intelligence is therefore a substantial step in the processing pipeline. Sometimes, modest improvements in data quality can translate into a vastly superior model. The issue of missing data is one of the commonplace problems occurring in data col...
Article
In this paper, the performance of a solution providing stream processing is evaluated, and its accuracy in the classification of suspicious flows in simulated network traffic is investigated. The concept of the solution is fully disclosed along with its initial evaluation in a real-world environment. The proposition features Apache Kafka for effici...
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Agile methods can deliver software that fulfills customer needs rapidly and continuously. Quality requirements (QRs) are important in this regard; however, detailed studies on how companies applying agile methods to manage QRs are limited, as are studies on the rationale for choosing specific QR management practices and related challenges. The aim...
Article
The growing volume of cloud-based applications, services and cyber-physical IoT solutions presents vital challenges linked to resource allocation, misconfiguration, scaling, and running software updates. Various solutions and applications have different hardware and energy requirements of the involved elements. Hence, the recent technology trends s...
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Background: the machine learning (ML) techniques have been implemented in numerous applications, including health-care, security, entertainment, and sports. In this article, we present how the ML can be used for building a professional football team and planning player transfers. Methods: in this research, we defined numerous parameters for play...
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Cybersecurity and cybercrime cannot exist without each other. They are not contraries, but rather two opposite poles of the same idea. Although it may seem that it is a rather black and white kind of relationship, the measures aimed at protecting innocent people raise a myriad of ethical dilemmas. This paper presents the results of a horizon scanni...
Chapter
Countering the fake news phenomenon has become one of the most important challenges for democratic societies, governments and non-profit organizations, as well as for the researchers coming from several domains. This is not a local problem, and demands a holistic approach to analyzing heterogeneous data and storing the results. The major contributi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recently developed machine learning techniques, with emphasis on deep learning, are finding their successful implementations in detection and classification of anomalies at both network-and host-levels. However, the utilisation of deep learning in Intrusion Detection Systems is still in its early stage, coping with problems like the emergence of un...
Chapter
Recent progress in the area of modern technologies confirms that information is not only a commodity but can also become a tool for competition and rivalry among governments and corporations, or can be applied by ill-willed people to use it in their hate speech practices. The impact of information is overpowering and can lead to many socially undes...
Chapter
Call Detail Records (CDRs) are one of the most popular information sources used in criminal investigations. They allow police officers to quickly identify the key actors and relations between them. Of course, the challenge for law enforcement officers is to process and understand the large volume of such data. Typically, the process is long and mos...
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Cyber attacks are currently blooming, as the attackers reap significant profits from them and face a limited risk when compared to committing the “classical” crimes. One of the major components that leads to the successful compromising of the targeted system is malicious software. It allows using the victim’s machine for various nefarious purposes,...
Preprint
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Fake news has now grown into a big problem for societies and also a major challenge for people fighting disinformation. This phenomenon plagues democratic elections, reputations of individual persons or organizations, and has negatively impacted citizens, (e.g., during the COVID-19 pandemic in the US or Brazil). Hence, developing effective tools to...
Article
Biometrics, as an intelligent and secure authentication method, has recently become increasingly popular. Modern society uses fingerprints, iris and face recognition on a daily basis, even on a large scale; for example, in biometric passports. However, there are still other biometric traits that may provide sufficiently high accuracy but have not b...
Article
Fake news has now grown into a big problem for societies and also a major challenge for people fighting disinformation. This phenomenon plagues democratic elections, reputations of individual persons or organizations, and has negatively impacted citizens, (e.g., during the COVID-19 pandemic in the US or Brazil). Hence, developing effective tools to...
Article
Context and Rationale Intrusion Detection, the ability to detect malware and other attacks, is a crucial aspect to ensure cybersecurity. So is the ability to identify this myriad of attacks. Objective Artificial Neural Networks (as well as other machine learning bio-inspired approaches) are an established and proven method of accurate classificati...
Article
Never before has cybersecurity been as significant for societies as today; its importance is still on the rise as people rely on computer systems every day. Recently, the ever-growing issues of personal data being stolen or misused have been addressed by several legal regulations, the most significant of them being the General Data Protection Regul...
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Artificial Intelligence plays a significant role in building effective cybersecurity tools. Security has a crucial role in the modern digital world and has become an essential area of research. Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are among the first security systems that encounter network attacks and facilitate attack detection to protect a...
Chapter
Practitioners adopt software metrics programs to support their software development from the perspective of either overall quality, performance, or both. Current literature details and justifies the role of a metrics program in a software organization’s software development, but empirical evidence to demonstrate its actual use and concomitant benef...
Chapter
Using fake news as a political or economic tool is not new, but the scale of their use is currently alarming, especially on social media. The authors of misinformation try to influence the users' decisions, both in the economic and political sphere. The facts of using disinformation during elections are well known. Currently, two fake news detectio...
Article
ORCID stands for the Open Researcher & Contributor ID. It is both the digital identifier (number) for scientists and researchers, and the name of the non-profit organization. ORCID wanted to solve the problem of name ambiguity by assigning a unique identifier to the interested researchers. It was started several years ago as a voluntary community-b...
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Quality requirements (QRs) are a key artifact needed to ensure the quality and success of a software system. Despite their importance, QRs rarely get the same degree of attention as their functional counterpart in agile software development (ASD) projects. Moreover, crucial information that can be obtained from software development repositories (e....
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Currently, expert systems and applied machine learning algorithms are widely used to automate network intrusion detection. In critical infrastructure applications of communication technologies, the interaction among various industrial control systems and the Internet environment intrinsic to the IoT technology makes them susceptible to cyber-attack...
Chapter
The problem of fake news has become one of the most challenging issues having an impact on societies. Nowadays, false information may spread quickly through social media. In that regard, fake news needs to be detected as fast as possible to avoid negative influence on people who may rely on such information while making important decisions (e.g., p...
Chapter
Machine learning methods are now widely used to detect a wide range of cyberattacks. Nevertheless, the commonly used algorithms come with challenges of their own - one of them lies in network dataset characteristics. The dataset should be well-balanced in terms of the number of malicious data samples vs. benign traffic samples to achieve adequate r...
Chapter
Recent advances in machine learning (ML) and the surge in computational power have opened the way to the proliferation of ML and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in many domains and applications. Still, apart from achieving good accuracy and results, there are many challenges that need to be discussed in order to effectively apply ML algorithms in crit...
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At present, many researchers see hope that artificial intelligence, machine learning in particular, will improve several aspects of the everyday life for individuals, cities and whole nations alike. For example, it has been speculated that the so-called machine learning could soon relieve employees of part of the duties, which may improve processes...
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Context: Agile software development has become commonplace in software development companies due to the numerous benefits it provides. However, conducting Agile projects is demanding in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), because projects start and end quickly, but still have to fulfil customers’ quality requirements. Objective: This paper aims at...
Article
Intrusion Detection and the ability to detect attacks is a crucial aspect to ensure cybersecurity. However, what if an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) itself is attacked; in other words what defends the defender? In this work, the focus is on countering attacks on machine learning-based cyberattack detectors. In principle, we propose the adversari...
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Ontologies have developed into a prevailing technique for establishing semantic interoperability among heterogeneous systems transacting information. An ontology is an unambiguous blueprint of a concept. For Artificial Intelligence, only the defined notions can be considered existent. Thus, in relation to AI, an ontology can be understood as part o...
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In this paper we have investigated the fault proneness of the software source code using artificial intelligence methods. The main contribution lies on improving the data pre-processing step. Before we put the data into an Artificial Neural Network, are implementing PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and k-means clustering. The data-clustering step...
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In this paper, we address the challenge of palmprint-based human verification in the mobile scenario. We propose a novel way of palmprint acquisition that will be used in order to create a new palmprint benchmark dataset. The palmprints are acquired by the handheld devices using an application dedicated to the Android operating system. The applicat...
Book
This book presents a selection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers on various aspects of computer science and networks. It not only discusses emerging applications of currently available solutions, but also outlines potential future techniques and lines of research in pattern recognition, image processing and communications. Given its sco...
Chapter
As the arms race between the new kinds of attacks and new ways to detect and prevent those attacks continues, better and better algorithms have to be developed to stop the malicious agents dead in their tracks. In this paper, we evaluate the use of one of the youngest additions to the deep learning architectures, the Gated Recurrent Unit for its fe...
Chapter
The problem of the fake news publication is not new and it already has been reported in ancient ages, but it has started having a huge impact especially on social media users. Such false information should be detected as soon as possible to avoid its negative influence on the readers and in some cases on their decisions, e.g., during the election....
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Machine learning algorithms found their way into a surprisingly wide range of applications, providing utility and allowing for insights gathered from data in a way never before possible. Those tools, however, have not been developed with security in mind. A deployed algorithm can meet a multitude of risks in the real world. This work explores one o...
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Hosting applications in the cloud has become very popular. In this context, automatic application scaling, health checking and bootstrapping required services has never been easier. However, there are some types of services that require direct communication between a server and a client, bypassing the cloud. Popular examples include data grids (dis...
Conference Paper
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The extreme growth and adoption of Social Media, in combination with their poor governance and the lack of quality control over the digital content being published and shared, has led information veracity to a continuous deterioration. Current approaches entrust content verification to a single centralised authority, lack resilience towards attempt...
Chapter
The extreme growth and adoption of Social Media and User Generated Content (UGC) websites, in combination with their poor governance and the lack of quality control over the digital content being published and shared, has led information veracity to a continuous deterioration. Therefore, there is a growing need for reliable information assurance, c...
Chapter
The software development process is an intricate task, with the growing complexity of software solutions and inflating code-line count being part of the reason for the fall of software code coherence and readability thus being one of the causes for software faults and it’s declining quality. Debugging software during development is significantly le...