Michael Hiltl's research while affiliated with University of Wuerzburg and other places

Publications (34)

Conference Paper
The claim that meteorite impacts shaped human history is a well-known element of (neo-)catastrophism. But many methodological caveats, shortly summarised in the first part of this article, should be considered before drawing such far-reaching conclusions. So far no evidence existed of any archaeological site directly being involved in an impact pro...
Conference Paper
To the best of our knowledge, the first examples worldwide of artificial remnants, which directly co-exist with meteorite impact-diagnostic shock metamorphism, come from an excavation site in Stöttham (Chiemgau, SE-Germany). Archaeological finds (‘slags’), analysed by polarising microscope and SEM-EDS, exhibit complex structures of rocky partitions...
Conference Paper
The largest meteorite impact of the Holocene known to date occurred during the Bronze/Iron Age in southeastern Bavaria, between Altötting and the edge of the Alps. The event is known as the "Chiemgau Impact". More than 100 craters with diameters from 5 m up to several hundred meters are distributed over an area of about 60 km length and 30 km width...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The finds of iron silicides composed, among others, of xifengite, gupeiite, hapkeite with inclusions of titanium carbide, khamrabaevite and moissanite, and CAIs, together with about 30 elements including uranium and REE, which have been regarded as extraterrestrial for about 15 years in the crater strewn field of the Chiemgau impact, have been enri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A hitherto worldwide unique evidence of a new type of impactite contains particles of metallic bronze and iron artefacts in a strongly shocked polymictic impact breccia from an archaeological excavation in the crater strewn field of the Chiemgau impact, dating the impact to relatively precise 900-600 BC.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: The Ries crater impact structure in Germany measuring about 25 km in diameter, formed almost 15 million years ago in the Upper Miocene. In the early seventies, when the Ries impact origin began to replace the earlier volcanic explosion theory among most geologists, research results of the reputable Ba-varian geologist Erwin Rutte caus...
Poster
Full-text available
https://curator. jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/lmc.cfm, accessed 1/6/18.-A peculiar geological element in the Niederrhein region completely alien to established geologic mapping and knowledge suggests an origin from an extended (50 km at least) meteorite impact event in the Middle Pleistocene.-Considerable amounts of the impactor are preserved as meteori...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: The Holocene Chiemgau impact event is considered to have produced a large meteorite crater strewn field in southeast Germany in the Bronze Age/Celtic era ([1], and ref. therein). The impact is documented by impact melt rocks and various glasses, strong shock metamorphism, geophysical anomalies and ejecta deposits, and substantiated by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A microtektite deposit in Alpine foreland soils reveals an unusual glass composition and suggests an origin from local rocks in a nearby Holocene impact event.
Article
Full-text available
We report on particles containing hapkeite Fe_2Si in conjunction with xifengite and gupeiite, and inclusions of cubic SiC (moissanite) and (Ti,V,Fe)C (khambraevite) and suggest a cosmic origin related with a meteorite impact.
Article
Full-text available
CAIs Ca_2Al_2O_5 and CaAl_2O_4 add to SiC and (Ti,V,Fe)C pure crystal inclusions in an iron silicide (xifengite, gupeiite, hapkeite) matrix constituting metallic particles from the subsoil in the Alpine Foreland. A cosmic origin is suggested.
Article
Full-text available
SEM and TEM analyses of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles from Holocene soils reveal a multi-stoichiometric iron silicide matrix containing purest crystals of titanium carbide and cubic moissanite. A cosmochemical origin is suggested.
Article
Full-text available
We show and discuss unusual impact melt rocks from the sedimentary target of the Azuara/Rubielos de la Cérida multiple impact in Spain: a silicate melt rock originating from the melting of shale, a carbonate-phosphate melt rock showing liquid immiscibility of carbonate and phosphate melt, carbonate and sulfate melt rocks, a carbonate-psilomelane me...
Article
Quartzite cobbles in Lower Triassic Buntsandstein conglomerates from northeastern Spain display unusual millimeter- to centimeter-sized circular craters, commonly having central mounds and surrounded by radial fractures. The conglomerates are also marked by intense fracturing down to microscopic scale. These features have traditionally been attribu...
Article
Wave profile measurements have been performed on dry and water-saturated Berea sandstone under shock compression loading conditions using a single-stage light gasgun. The wave motion was monitored with a VISAR velocity interferometer. The impact velocities achieved in the experiment were in the range between 433 m/s and 1013 m/s. Significant differ...
Article
We determined the dynamic behavior of the iron-nickel meteorites Gibeon and Canyon Diablo at room temperature as well as 700°C by using a single-stage light-gas gun in combination with a VISAR interferometer up to 22 GPa. Gibeon is a fine octahedrite (Of) IVA meteorite containing about 7.93 wtoctahedrite (Og) IA with 7.10 wtGibeon and Canyon Diablo...
Article
Because of the high transparency, high shock impedance, cubic garnet structure, great hardness, high melting temperature, and commercial availability gadolinium gallium garnet or short GGG (Gd3Ga5O12) is a potential window and anvil material for dynamic shock experiments. To determine the dynamic behavior of the material under shock-loading, we per...
Article
Quartzite cobbles in Lower Triassic Buntsandstein conglomerates from northeastern Spain display unusual millimeter- to centimeter-sized circular craters, commonly having central mounds and surrounded by radial fractures. The conglomerates are also marked by intense fracturing down to microscopic scale. These features have traditionally been attribu...
Article
Fines created by grain fragmentation from shaped-charge, jet perforation treatment often plug-up pores in the vicinity of the perforation tunnel. We analyze and model grain damage on samples recovered from impact tests of dry and water saturated sandstone at stress levels and duration similar to that of perforation loading. Analyses of Scanning Ele...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A series of impact recovery experiments have been conducted on dry, water-saturated (wet), and water-pressurized Berea sandstone samples using a single stage light gas gun. The samples are subjected to various stress levels using a flyer plate impact. The recovered samples provide a large database of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images depict...
Article
A number of shock-recovery experiments have been performed on Berea sandstone for different conditions: dry, water-saturated, hydrostatically water-pressurized and Helium gas-pressurized. The authors also conducted experiments with purified quartz sand in dry and water-saturated conditions with a grain size between 212 to 250 μm and 250 to 300 μm...
Article
Full-text available
We performed micro-modeling of impact recovery experiments on Berea sandstone with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic and the Discrete Element methods. Each grain was represented with clusters of particles to provide explicit representation of the grain/pore structure obtained from synchrotron tomography and SEM images. The modeling accounts for the...
Article
Shock-recovery experiments have been performed on Berea Sandstone under dry and water-saturated conditions using a single-stage light-gas gun. Stress levels in the range between 3.1 and 9.8 GPa were achieved by impacting projectiles in a recovery fixture. The microstructural damage of the shocked samples were analyzed with scanning electron microsc...

Citations

... In our commentary on the Kenkmann et al. article, we discuss not only these methodologically serious shortcomings of the paper, which culminate in the fact that such a large primary impact event with a comparably large crater strewn field has been established long ago and for 15 years. This Holocene event of the Chiemgau impact in SE Germany can, according to the extensively published literature (Schüssler et al. 2005;Rappenglück et al. 2009;Ernstson et al. 2010Ernstson et al. , 2012Liritzis et al. 2010;Hiltl et al. 2011;Isaenko et al. 2012;Shumilova et al. 2012;Rappenglück et al. 2013;Bauer et al. 2013;Neumair and Ernstson 2013;Rappenglück et al. 2014;Ernstson et al. 2014;Ernstson 2012Ernstson , 2016Ernstson and Poßekel 2017;Rappenglück et al. 2017;Shumilova et al. 2018;Poßekel and Ernstson 2019;Bauer et al. 2019;Bauer et al. 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020a;B. Rappenglück et al. 2020;Poßekel and Ernstson 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020b;Rappenglück et al. 2021), be described as probably the most important terrestrial impact crater strewn field at present, leaving the Wyoming strewn field now described far behind in scientific importance. ...
... This Holocene event of the Chiemgau impact in SE Germany can, according to the extensively published literature (Schüssler et al. 2005;Rappenglück et al. 2009;Ernstson et al. 2010Ernstson et al. , 2012Liritzis et al. 2010;Hiltl et al. 2011;Isaenko et al. 2012;Shumilova et al. 2012;Rappenglück et al. 2013;Bauer et al. 2013;Neumair and Ernstson 2013;Rappenglück et al. 2014;Ernstson et al. 2014;Ernstson 2012Ernstson , 2016Ernstson and Poßekel 2017;Rappenglück et al. 2017;Shumilova et al. 2018;Poßekel and Ernstson 2019;Bauer et al. 2019;Bauer et al. 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020a;B. Rappenglück et al. 2020;Poßekel and Ernstson 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020b;Rappenglück et al. 2021), be described as probably the most important terrestrial impact crater strewn field at present, leaving the Wyoming strewn field now described far behind in scientific importance. This great Chiemgau impact is not mentioned with a word in the Kenkmann et al. article. ...
... In our commentary on the Kenkmann et al. article, we discuss not only these methodologically serious shortcomings of the paper, which culminate in the fact that such a large primary impact event with a comparably large crater strewn field has been established long ago and for 15 years. This Holocene event of the Chiemgau impact in SE Germany can, according to the extensively published literature (Schüssler et al. 2005;Rappenglück et al. 2009;Ernstson et al. 2010Ernstson et al. , 2012Liritzis et al. 2010;Hiltl et al. 2011;Isaenko et al. 2012;Shumilova et al. 2012;Rappenglück et al. 2013;Bauer et al. 2013;Neumair and Ernstson 2013;Rappenglück et al. 2014;Ernstson et al. 2014;Ernstson 2012Ernstson , 2016Ernstson and Poßekel 2017;Rappenglück et al. 2017;Shumilova et al. 2018;Poßekel and Ernstson 2019;Bauer et al. 2019;Bauer et al. 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020a;B. Rappenglück et al. 2020;Poßekel and Ernstson 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020b;Rappenglück et al. 2021), be described as probably the most important terrestrial impact crater strewn field at present, leaving the Wyoming strewn field now described far behind in scientific importance. ...
... t al. 2011;Isaenko et al. 2012;Shumilova et al. 2012;Rappenglück et al. 2013;Bauer et al. 2013;Neumair and Ernstson 2013;Rappenglück et al. 2014;Ernstson et al. 2014;Ernstson 2012Ernstson , 2016Ernstson and Poßekel 2017;Rappenglück et al. 2017;Shumilova et al. 2018;Poßekel and Ernstson 2019;Bauer et al. 2019;Bauer et al. 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020a;B. Rappenglück et al. 2020;Poßekel and Ernstson 2020;Ernstson et al. 2020b;Rappenglück et al. 2021), be described as probably the most important terrestrial impact crater strewn field at present, leaving the Wyoming strewn field now described far behind in scientific importance. This great Chiemgau impact is not mentioned with a word in the Kenkmann et al. article ...
... Big sparkling crystals (moissanite) protruding from the metallic matrix are visible to the naked eye. Fersilicite/naquite (FeSi), ferdisilicite/linzhiite (FeSi 2 ), hapkeite (Fe 2 Si) as cubic (hapkeite-1C) and trigonal (hapkeite-1T), gupeiite (Fe 3 Si), suessite (Fe,Ni) 3 Si, xifengite (Fe 5 Si 3 ), and in traces suessite (Fe,Ni) 3 Si were detected [404,[424][425][426][427]. Fe x Si y appeared as irregular, round blebs (5-40 µm) and pyramid-shaped formations (≈600 µm) in the microstructure. ...
... The published research results evidence an impact event based on the relevant criteria and methodology required in the scientific community. However, the relationship of the geological and archaeological structures and material findings to an impact event has been questioned [409][410][411][412][413] and debated [404,408,[414][415][416][417][418][419][420][421][422]. ...
... The scarcity of known strewn fields regarding the number of identified impact craters indicates the special and rare circumstances under which tektites are formed by meteorite impact (King, 2020). According to Ernstson et al. (2014) and Rappenglück et al. (2017), the microtektite-like glasses probably originate from the Northern Calcareous Alps, from the Holocene Chiemgau meteorite crater stream field. Several experts (O'Keefe, 1966;Fehr et al., 2005;Schüssler et al., 2005;Prasad et al., 2013) do not approve this hypothesis as they expect other localities and crater strewn fields to be much older (millions of years before present). ...
... The interference of the compressive and tensile pulses for a short period of time leads to doubling of the wave particle velocities causing fragments called "spalls" to break off near the free surface (Rinehart, 1968;Melosh, 1989). Shock experiments at 0.55-2.5 GPa carried out by Ernstson et al. (2001) on quartz spheres were able to produce spall fractures together with evidence of microbrecciation, formation of planar fractures, mosaicism, isotropization and incipient PDF formation. Radial concussion fractures are also tensile fractures that form during impact between neighbouring grains as pore spaces close and collapse during progression of a shock front through porous material. ...
... Impact ejecta deposits in a catastrophic mixture contain polymictic breccias, shocked rocks, melt rocks, artifacts from Bronze Age/ Celtic era people, charcoal and, as noted above, finely crushed wood fibers Ernstson et al. 2010Ernstson et al. , 2013. The impact is substantiated by the abundant occurrence of metallic, glass and carbonaceous spherules, accrecionary lapilli, microtektites and of strange, possible meteoritic matter in the form of iron silicides like gupeiite, xifengite, hapkeite, naquite and linzhite, various carbides like, e.g., moissanite SiC and khamrabaevite (Ti, V, Fe) C, and calciumaluminum-rich inclusions (CAI), minerals krotite and dicalcium dialuminate (Hiltl et al. 2011;Bauer et al. 2013;Rappenglück et al. 2013Rappenglück et al. , 2014. Carbonaceous spherules contain fullerene-like structures and nanodiamonds that point to an impact-related origin (Yang et al. 2008). ...
... Schon die bislang weltweit seltenen Funde von Xifengit und Gupeiit sind in 13 von 19 Fällen gesichert kosmischen Ursprungs. Die neuen Analysen ( Bauer et al., 2013) wiesen in Eisensiliziden aus dem Chiemgau-Kraterfeld aber sogar Hapkeit (Fe 2 Si) nach, der zum ersten Mal 2004 in dem Mondmeteoriten Dhofar 280 entdeckt wurde, und seitdem nur in anderem meteoritischem bzw. Supernova-Material. ...