Michael Habig's research while affiliated with Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel and other places

Publications (20)

Article
Full-text available
Mutations are the source of genetic variation and the substrate for evolution. Genome-wide mutation rates appear to be affected by selection and are probably adaptive. Mutation rates are also known to vary along genomes, possibly in response to epigenetic modifications, but causality is only assumed. In this study we determine the direct impact of...
Article
Full-text available
In host-pathogen interactions RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a pivotal mechanism to modify both, the immune responses of the host as well as the pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogen. In addition, in some fungi RNAi is also known to affect chromosome biology via its effect on chromatin conformation. Previous studies reported no effect...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation is found throughout all domains of life, yet the extent and function of DNA methylation differ among eukaryotes. Strains of the plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici appeared to lack cytosine DNA methylation (5mC) because gene amplification followed by Repeat-Induced Point mutation (RIP) resulted in the inactivation of the di...
Chapter
Fungal genomes are highly diverse and remarkably variable—even within species. Presence/absence polymorphisms of entire chromosomes are frequently found between individuals of a population. The affected chromosomes are considered accessory and therefore not essential for growth. How these accessory chromosomes are maintained in a population is unkn...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome structure may...
Article
Full-text available
Barley mlo mutants are well known for their profound resistance against powdery mildew disease. Recently, mlo mutant plants were generated in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with the help of transgenic (transcription-activator-like nuclease, TALEN) and non-transgenic (targeted induced local lesions in genomes, TILLING) biotechnological ap...
Preprint
Full-text available
DNA methylation is found throughout all domains of life, yet the extent and function of DNA methylation differ between eukaryotes. Strains of the plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici appeared to lack cytosine DNA methylation (5mC) because gene amplification followed by Repeat-Induced Point mutation (RIP) resulted in the inactivation of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Barley mlo mutants are well known for their profound resistance against powdery mildew disease. Recently, mlo mutant plants were generated in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with the help of transgenic (transcription-activator-like nuclease, TALEN) and non-transgenic (targeted induced local lesions in genomes, TILLING) biotechnological ap...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome architecture ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome structure may e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome structure may e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome structure may e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Antagonistic co-evolution can drive rapid adaptation in pathogens and shape genome architecture. Comparative genome analyses of several fungal pathogens revealed highly variable genomes, for many species characterized by specific repeat-rich genome compartments with exceptionally high sequence variability. Dynamic genome architecture ma...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici is a filamentous fungus causing Septoria tritici blotch in wheat. The pathogen has a narrow host range and infections of grasses other than susceptible wheat are blocked early after stomatal penetration. During these abortive infections, the fungus shows a markedly different gene expression pattern. However, the underlying mech...
Preprint
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici is a filamentous fungus causing Septoria tritici blotch in wheat. The pathogen has a narrow host range and infections of grasses other than susceptible wheat are blocked early after stomatal penetration. During these abortive infections the fungus shows a markedly different expression pattern. However, the underlying mechanisms...
Article
Full-text available
Meiosis is a key cellular process of sexual reproduction involving the pairing of homologous sequences. In many species however, meiosis can also involve the segregation of supernumerary chromosomes, which can lack a homolog. How these unpaired chromosomes undergo meiosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated chromosome segregation duri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Meiosis is a key cellular process of sexual reproduction involving the pairing of homologous sequences. In many species however, meiosis can also involve the segregation of supernumerary chromosomes, which can lack a homolog. How these unpaired chromosomes undergo meiosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated chromosome segregation duri...
Article
The ability to rapidly adapt to changing environments is crucial for the success of pathogens infecting plants and animals. In some eukaryotic pathogens, rapid evolution can be mediated by genome rearrangements, which... The haploid genome of the pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is contained on “core” and “accessory” chromosomes. While 13 cor...
Preprint
The haploid genome of the pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is contained on “core” and “accessory” chromosomes. While 13 core chromosomes are found in all strains, as many as eight accessory chromosomes show presence/absence variation and rearrangements among field isolates. We investigated chromosome stability using experimental evolution, ka...
Article
Full-text available
The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addres...

Citations

... Point mutations can lead to heterokaryosis where both wild type and fungicide resistant nuclei coexist (Miao et al., 2021). Interestingly, the rates at which mutations occur in some fungi have been observed to be environment-dependent (Lamb et al., 2008), e.g., increase with higher temperatures (Habig et al., 2021) and freezing (Stoycheva et al., 2007). Higher mutation rates could be just a by-product of stress-induced malfunctions or of adaptive significance. ...
... Genome and transcriptome studies have demonstrated that infection of Z. tritici relies not on major virulence determinants but on a large repertoire of effector proteins that are produced to facilitate host invasion. Interspecific hybridization has occurred repeatedly in Z. tritici and has been demonstrated to be an important mechanism of gene exchange between species as well as a source of within-species variation (49,50). In addition to proteinaceous virulence determinants, fungal pathogens also produce secondary metabolites during host infection. ...
... This may have caused microclimatic differences between the two replicates and such differences are known to affect infection success of Z. tritici (Shaw, 1990). The fungal inoculum was grown from the same batch and prepared with the same protocol in both replicates, but the fungus is capable of rapidly accumulating genetic changes through mitotic events (Möller et al., 2018) and this may have contributed to the difference in the estimates of infection efficiency. ...
... We have recently described extensive variation in genome composition among closely related species of grass pathogens in the genus Zymoseptoria (18). This genus includes the important wheat pathogen Z. tritici, which has devastating impacts on wheat production worldwide. ...
... For example, the mlo gene discovered in barley (Hordeum vulgare) was used for decades in several crop species for inducing broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. However, the pleiotropic effects of mlo can negatively affect yield [79]. To circumvent this issue, different mlo allele combinations can be used to modulate the degree of plant susceptibility to the pathogen and pleiotropic phenotype [80]. ...
... The role of the epigenome is increasingly recognized in plant pathogenic fungi as an important regulator of genome structure (e.g. Basenko et al. 2015;Möller et al. 2019Möller et al. , 2020 and the expression of genes encoding effectors (e.g. Chujo and Scott 2014; Soyer et al. 2014Soyer et al. , 2019Meile et al. 2020). ...
... A promising way to apply ANOVA to non-normal data is the rank transformation, which has been suggested as a link between parametric and nonparametric statistical tests (Conover & Iman, 1981). Once rank-transformed, the data often follow a normal distribution, which allows the use of ANOVA (Habig et al., 2017;Habig, Bahena-Garrido, Barkmann, Haueisen, & Stukenbrock, 2019 (Tukey, 1949). ...
... Z. tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that infects wheat worldwide and causes dramatic losses in yield 34 . The bipartite genome of this fungus includes a set of 13 core chromosomes and a variable number of accessory chromosomes (i.e., eight in the reference isolate IPO323), which are subject to chromosome loss during mitosis and a meiotic drive during sexual reproduction [35][36][37][38] . In contrast to the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Z. tritici possesses both H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 histone modifications -similar to the majority of plant and animal species. ...
... The identification of chromosomes with large chromosomal alterations (≤ 400 kb) in clone D11 suggests the occurrence of segmental aneuploidy. Although aneuploidy is often considered to be deleterious, some fungi and protozoa seem to benefit from it (Pagès et al., 1989;Sterkers et al., 2011;Sterkers et al., 2012;Hirakawa et al., 2015;Reis-Cunha et al., 2015;Möller et al., 2018;Reis-Cunha et al., 2018). T. cruzi is considered to be mainly a diploid organism with different-sized homologous chromosomes, but recent studies have suggested the occurrence of aneuploidy in this parasite (Minning et al., 2011;Reis-Cunha et al., 2015;Reis-Cunha et al., 2018). ...