Michael F. Romano's research while affiliated with St. Elizabeth's Medical Center and other places

Publications (13)

Article
In a recent article from Cell Reports Medicine, Kwak et al. generate novel insights about subtyping cognitively impaired individuals based on structural imaging. Quantifying heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s disease via subtyping could help us harness new disease-modifying therapies and improve patient care by providing a more targeted approach.
Preprint
Full-text available
Quantifying heterogeneity in Alzheimers disease (AD) risk is critical for individualized care and management. Recent attempts to assess AD heterogeneity have used structural (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based) or functional (Ab-42; or tau) imaging, which focused on generating quartets of atrophy patterns and protein spreading, respectively. He...
Article
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of p‐tau, t‐tau, and Aβ42 are widely accepted in vivo biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, lumbar puncture comes with limitations, including severe infection, headache, bleeding at the site, a lack of spatial information about regions of neurodegeneration, and substantial inter‐lab variability. A less i...
Article
Full-text available
Comparatively little is known about how new instrumental actions are encoded in the brain. Using whole-brain c-Fos mapping, we show that neural activity is increased in the anterior dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) of mice that successfully learn a new lever-press response to earn food rewards. Post-learning chemogenetic inhibition of aDLS disrupts con...
Article
Full-text available
Testicular torsion is a known cause of morbidity in pediatric patients, but the burden in the adult population is poorly understood. We sought to determine the incidence of testicular torsion and risk factors for orchiectomy in a population encompassing all ages. A cohort analysis of 1625 males undergoing surgery for torsion was performed using the...
Article
Methods for one-photon fluorescent imaging of calcium dynamics can capture the activity of hundreds of neurons across large fields of view at a low equipment complexity and cost. In contrast to two-photon methods, however, one-photon methods suffer from higher levels of crosstalk from neuropil, resulting in a decreased signal-to-noise ratio and art...
Article
Full-text available
A longstanding goal in neuroscience has been to image membrane voltage across a population of individual neurons in an awake, behaving mammal. Here we describe a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, SomArchon, which exhibits millisecond response times and is compatible with optogenetic control, and which increases the sensitivity, sig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methods for one-photon fluorescent imaging of calcium dynamics in vivo are popular due to their ability to simultaneously capture the dynamics of hundreds of neurons across large fields of view, at a low equipment complexity and cost. In contrast to two-photon methods, however, one-photon methods suffer from higher levels of crosstalk between cell...
Preprint
Full-text available
A longstanding goal in neuroscience has been to image membrane voltage, with high temporal precision and sensitivity, in awake behaving mammals. Here, we report a genetically encoded voltage indicator, SomArchon, which exhibits millisecond response times and compatibility with optogenetic control, and which increases the sensitivity, signal-to-nois...
Article
Full-text available
Striatal parvalbumin (PV) and cholinergic interneurons (CHIs) are poised to play major roles in behavior by coordinating the networks of medium spiny cells that relay motor output. However, the small numbers and scattered distribution of these cells have hindered direct assessment of their contribution to activity in networks of medium spiny neuron...
Article
Cortico‐basal ganglia‐thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15–30 Hz) are ele‐ vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15–30 Hz) are elevated in Parkinson’s disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively in...

Citations

... Currently, it is established that the dorsal striatum (DS) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the ventral part of the striatum manifest the coordinated regulation of motor activity and stereotypical behaviors [5]. They are reported to be involved in a variety of cognitive, reward and social hierarchy maintenance and learning processes [6]. In particular, the dorsal striatum has been proven to supervise the consolidation of the new response upon the learning process [6]. ...
... Duration of testicular torsion is one of the most important factors affecting testicular viability. Therefore, intervention in testicular torsion should be performed without delay [3]. ...
... 30,31 In addition, animal models and new fluorescence indicators with specific labeling strategies can greatly reduce the background fluorescence in normal wide-field microscopes, facilitating single-cell resolution neural recoding with simple systems, e.g., layer-specific labeling, 3 and soma-targeted sensors. 32,33 In addition, with special optical designs, several works have been done to further increase the resolution or depth of field with better fidelity to retrieve the single-cell neural traces. For instance, in the RUSH system, 17 a 5 × 7 camera array was tiled to cover centimeter-level FOV and reach 0.8-μm resolution with dense sampling density and layer-specific neuron labeling; the COSMOS macroscope 4 uses multifocal optical sampling to record in-focus projection of 1 cm × 1 cm × 1.3 mm volume at near cellular resolution (1-15 neurons/unit). ...
... This triggered another burst of research dedicated to improve the voltage sensing of these pumps (minimizing pump activity, shifting spectral range, improving quantum yield, voltage sensing potential, temporal resolution, etc.) by a range of technologies like directed and scanning mutagenesis, multidimensional directed evolution, library screening and machine learning (McIsaac et al., 2014;Engqvist et al., 2015;McIsaac et al., 2015;Abdelfattah et al., 2016;Karasuyama et al., 2018;Kojima et al., 2020a). This was initially mostly performed on AR3, generating a whole family of mutants with different response characteristics (Quasar1 to 3, pa-Quasar3, Novarch, Archon1 and 2, Arch-EEN, Quasar6, Somarchon to name a few) (Piatkevich et al., 2019;Chien et al., 2021). The fluorescence of these voltage sensors most likely originates in late-stage photointermediates (Maclaurin et al., 2013). ...
... In the first stage, we describe how to assemble and calibrate the wide-field macroscope (Steps 1-24). In the second stage, we highlight our procedures for skull clearing (Steps [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. In the third stage, we describe procedures for imaging neural activity in behaving mice expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators (Steps [41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... We scrutinized the dF/F 0 traces and did find fluctuations in many putative excitatory PCs suggesting ongoing spiking, but generally did not observe this in INs, which could suggest depolarization block, or saturation of the calcium indicator. Other approaches such as combined imaging and in vivo patchclamp recording, or in vivo voltage imaging [43], could potentially be used to address this issue. ...
... Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the direct (D1 MSNs) and indirect pathways (D2 MSNs) in the basal ganglia play important yet complex roles in motor behaviors (Barbera et al., 2016;Costa et al., 2004;Cui et al., 2013;Gritton et al., 2019;Jin et al., 2014;Klaus et al., 2017;Kravitz et al., 2010;Parker et al., 2018;Santos et al., 2015;Tecuapetla et al., 2014;Yin et al., 2009;Yttri and Dudman, 2016), including motor skill learning (Costa et al., 2004;Jin et al., 2014;Kupferschmidt et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2015). Increasing evidence (Barbera et al., 2016;Cui et al., 2013;Klaus et al., 2017;Kupferschmidt et al., 2017;Parker et al., 2018) suggests that the rate of striatal MSN activity, MSN spatiotemporal profiles, and local circuits is crucial to striatal function. ...
... In addition to dopamine, muscarinic receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease. It was also shown that altered striatal cholinergic tone differentially modulates distinct beta sub-bands (Pittman-Polletta et al., 2018). Secondly, the overall loop structure also can be improved in future studies. ...