Michael D. Mumford's research while affiliated with University of Oklahoma and other places

Publications (353)

Book
Creativity, the generation of novel and useful ideas, and innovation, the transformation of these ideas into new products, processes, and services, are both critical for the long-term viability, profitability, and growth of organizations. Moreover, the complex, risky, and uncertain nature of innovative efforts demonstrates the importance of organiz...
Article
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Utterance clustering is one of the actively researched topics in audio signal processing and machine learning. This study aims to improve the performance of utterance clustering by processing multichannel (stereo) audio signals. Processed audio signals were generated by combining left- and right-channel audio signals in a few different ways and the...
Article
Prior studies have examined the impacts of sensemaking processes, such as forecasting, on ethical decision making (EDM) but only a few have considered how aspects of the ethical issue itself, such as social consensus and magnitude of consequences, might interact with sensemaking processes to influence EDM. The present effort examines both forecasti...
Article
Research examining ethical decision-making (EDM) has focused on how people engage in EDM, leading many researchers to focus on sensemaking models of EDM. Although the merits of a sensemaking approach with respect to EDM are evident in the literature, less is known about the specific cognitive processes by which sensemaking impacts EDM. This study e...
Article
Prior research has demonstrated the importance of forecasting to creative problem-solving performance. Less is known about how case analysis and outcome valence impact forecasting performance. In this study, 266 participants were asked to assume the role of a Marketing Director of a clothing company and develop a marketing campaign for entering a n...
Preprint
Leaders are often identified in empirical studies by either their position in an organizationally defined hierarchy or by survey responses, yet such methods conflate behavioral antecedents and outcomes with behaviors themselves. Furthermore, without an external standard for comparison, it cannot be known to what extent differences in leader assignm...
Preprint
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Speaker diarization is one of the actively researched topics in audio signal processing and machine learning. Utterance clustering is a critical part of a speaker diarization task. In this study, we aim to improve the performance of utterance clustering by processing multichannel (stereo) audio signals. We generated processed audio signals by combi...
Article
Full-text available
Effective teamwork in an initially leaderless group requires a high level of collective leadership emerging from dynamic interactions among group members. Leader emergence is a crucial topic in collective leadership, yet it is challenging to investigate as the problem context is typically highly complex and dynamic. Here, we explore leadership emer...
Article
The large, positive correlation between speaking time and leader emergence is well-established. As such, some authors have argued for a “babble hypothesis” of leadership, suggesting that only the quantity of speaking, not its quality, determines leader emergence. However, previous tests of this notion may have been problematic. Some studies have as...
Article
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Research has examined various cognitive processes underlying ethical decision-making, and has recently begun to focus on the differential effects of specific emotions. The present study examines three self-focused moral emotions and their influence on ethical decision-making: guilt, shame, and embarrassment. Given the potential of these discrete em...
Chapter
The chapter by Michael Mumford and Mark Fichtel focuses on the environment in creativity occurs, specifically, a climate for creativity. Amabile was a pioneer in this work and developed a measure of climate for creativity. In this chapter, Mumford and Fichtel highlight the dimensions of creative climate, and applies those to the study of creativity...
Article
It is often assumed creative performance is error free. Even a cursory inspection of eminent, creative, individuals indicates errors permeate creative efforts. In the present effort, the impact of error management on creative problem-solving is examined. Undergraduates, 136 in all, were asked to work through 10 potential problem solutions where hal...
Article
Forecasting is an integral component to idea evaluation and has been shown to positively impact creative performance. However, less is known about what set of conditions, namely forecasting timing and valence, maximizes the impact that forecasting has on creative performance. Along related lines, much is unknown about how quality and originality st...
Article
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Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing m...
Article
Although the majority of creative ideas are passed on or fail during implementation, little research has examined the creative processes that unfold between idea generation and implementation. This study investigated how the source of ideas, as well as the goals and climate operating in the task environment, influence idea selection, refinement, an...
Article
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Creativity is wrought with competing demands, tensions, and paradoxes. In this study, we examine how people manage three such paradoxical tensions (specifically, learning–performance, exploration–exploitation, and novelty–usefulness) when developing creative products. Drawing upon achievement goal theory and theories of self-regulation, we hypothes...
Article
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Although scholars have identified many variables that contribute to creative problem-solving, less attention has been given to variables that might lead to failure in creative problem-solving. One set of variables that might lead to poor performance in creative problem-solving efforts may be found in various decision biases. In this study, the impa...
Article
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For some time, it has been argued that stories articulated by leaders are an important vehicle for exercising influence, but stories of leadership might also serve as a means for developing leadership potential. One critical activity involved in leadership is vision formation, which involves constructing and communicating a future state that guides...
Article
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This empirical study investigates cognitive shifts in both leader and follower teams when developing consensus or agreement in how to resolve a slowly emerging organizational crisis over time. The cognitive maps of leaders and followers are analyzed in team settings to explain where consensus is formed. The findings indicate that consensus, or the...
Article
Although traditional conceptions of creativity argue for the benefits of a free and unconstrained creative process, recent research suggests that constraints may enhance creativity. However, the majority of research in this area has focused solely on idea generation, ignoring other key processes involved in creative problem solving. The present eff...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is wrought with competing demands, tensions, and paradoxes. In this study, we examine how people manage three such paradoxical tensions (specifically, learning–performance, exploration–exploitation, and novelty–usefulness) when developing creative products. Drawing upon achievement goal theory and theories of self-regulation, we hypothes...
Article
Although people attempt many creative problem solutions, in general, most creative problem‐solving efforts, at least real‐world efforts, fail. In the present effort, we examine the reasons creative problem‐solving efforts typically fail. We argue that creative problem‐solving efforts fail, in part, due to the fundamental nature of the kinds of prob...
Article
In conducting research on humans, respect for human dignity requires investigators to obtain informed consent. Institutional pressures, however, often reduce the informed consent form to a signature on a document. Unfortunately, people often do not read or understand these documents. In the present effort, we argue that the key problem here arises...
Article
Genius and eminence has traditionally been understood in terms of basic abilities such as intel- ligence and creative thinking. Although we do not dispute the importance of basic abilities, we argue that eminent achievement in real-world settings also depends on the skills people acquire with experience. In the present effort, seven skills which ap...
Article
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A great need for systematic evaluation of ethics training programs exists.Those tasked with developing an ethics training program may be quick to dismiss the value of training evaluation in continuous process improvement. In the present effort,we use a case study approach to delineate how to leverage formative and summative evaluation measures to c...
Article
We commonly assume that leadership is not critical to the success of creative efforts. Prior research, however, indicates that effective leadership is, in fact, critical to the success of research and development efforts that allow creative ideas to be developed into innovative new technologies. In the present effort, we examine the key functions t...
Article
Stories about notable, 20th-century politicians were investigated as a means by which reading stories of leadership influences subsequent ethical decision-making performance. Undergraduates read four short stories in which charismatic politicians exhibited a personalized, socialized, or neutral power orientation, followed by responding to four ethi...
Article
Given human aggression and warfare are often described as the most pressing behavioral problems of our time, we focus on a related phenomenon, with large-scale social, political, and economic consequences: assassination of political leaders. We explore the role of social conflict as a predictor of political assassination and use historiometric meth...
Article
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Leaders have been classified as having charismatic, ideological, or pragmatic (CIP) leadership styles, each characterized by distinct patterns in cognition and interaction. Although each CIP style has been shown to facilitate certain aspects of the creative process for followers, questions remain regarding the impact of leadership style on overall...
Article
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Ethics courses are most commonly evaluated using reaction measures. However, little is known about the specific types of reaction data being collected (e.g., content relevance, course satisfaction), and how these reaction data relate to improvements in trainee performance (e.g., knowledge, moral reasoning). Using a sample of 381 ethics training...
Chapter
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Although many variables influence the creativity of teams, leadership has been found to be one of the more important influences. In the present effort, a tripartite model describing the key functions leaders must perform to encourage team creativity is proposed. This model holds that leadership of creative teams requires complex thinking skills. In...
Article
For more than one hundred years, students of creativity, including seminal efforts published in the Journal of Creative Behavior, have sought to identify the key processes people must execute to produce creative problem solutions. In recent years, we have seen a consensual model of key creative thinking processes being accepted by the field. In the...
Article
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Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses (i.e., face-to-face, online, hybrid). The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, represen...
Article
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Predictive modeling in education draws on data from past courses to forecast the effectiveness of future courses. The present effort sought to identify such a model of instructional effectiveness in scientific ethics. Drawing on data from 235 courses in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), structural equation modeling techniques were used to...
Article
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Requirements for business ethics education and organizational ethics trainings mark an important step in encouraging ethical behavior among business students and professionals. However, the lack of specificity in these guidelines as to how, what, and where business ethics should be taught has led to stark differences in approaches and content. The...
Article
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Given the growing public concern and attention placed on cases of research misconduct, government agencies and research institutions have increased their efforts to develop and improve ethics education programs for scientists. The present study sought to assess the impact of these increased efforts by sampling empirical studies published since the...
Article
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Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. As of yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In tota...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Various instructional frameworks have been adopted in ethics education. Yet, there has been no systematic attempt to classify ethics training approaches. In the present study, a cluster analysis featuring 330 ethics training programs was conducted to identify ethics training approaches. The training programs were appraised based on four general cat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Predictive modeling in education draws on data from past courses to forecast the effectiveness of future courses. The present effort sought to identify such a model of instructional effectiveness in scientific ethics. Drawing on data from 235 courses in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), structural equation modeling techniques were used to...
Article
Over the past decade, the effectiveness of ethics education programs has increased with regard to trainee outcomes, such as knowledge, awareness, and ethical decision making. However, despite the overall improvement in training effectiveness, considerable variability still exists across programs. One potential source of variability arises from the...
Article
In order to delineate best practices for courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR), the goal of the present effort was to identify themes related to instructional methods reflected in effective RCR courses. By utilizing a qualitative review, four themes relevant to instructional methods were identified in effective RCR courses: active pa...
Conference Paper
Meta-analytic techniques were used to test the effectiveness of 106 ethics courses by delivery format (i.e., face-to-face, online, hybrid). Hybrid courses were found to be most effective, followed by face-to-face and online courses. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed by delivery fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Undergraduates read excerpts from the biographies of notable, charismatic politicians from the 20th century and then were asked to solve four, complex ethical dilemmas. Results indicated that participants who processed story content in depth were more likely to imitate the ethics of the leaders about which they read.
Chapter
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Although, traditionally, planning has not been seen to be critical to the success of creative efforts, more recent studies indicate leader planning may, in fact, prove crucial. In the present effort, we argue leaders must work with expertise to craft adaptive plans that allow opportunities for creativity to emerge. We examine the skills leaders nee...
Article
Although qualitative research offers some unique advantages over quantitative research, qualitative methods are rarely employed in the evaluation of ethics education programs and are often criticized for a lack of rigor. This systematic review investigated the use of qualitative methods in studies of ethics education. Following a review of the lite...
Chapter
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Although the external evaluation of ideas was once held to inhibit creative thought, the role of evaluation has recently been re-conceptualized as a tool with the potential to facilitate the generation and implementation of creative ideas. Along these lines, idea evaluation is proposed as a critical, albeit virtually unexamined, function of leaders...
Chapter
Full-text available
Despite the importance of constraints in creative efforts, little research examines the role of constraints in the creative process, how leaders manage these constraints, and implications for educating leaders of creative efforts. The present chapter synthesizes the literature on constraints and leadership of creative efforts to provide an initial...
Article
Research misconduct negatively impacts the scientific community and society in general. Providing training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) to researchers is one viable approach to minimizing research misconduct. Although recent evidence suggests ethics training can indeed be effective, little empirical work has examined the similaritie...
Article
Although recent evidence suggests ethics education can be effective, the nature of specific training programs, and their effectiveness, varies considerably. Building on a recent path modeling effort, the present study developed and validated a predictive modeling tool for responsible conduct of research (RCR) education. The predictive modeling tool...
Article
Over the years, a growing body of evidence indicates that certain cognitive skills are a critical determinant of leader performance. In the present effort we show that application of these skills is typically founded in case-based knowledge. Subsequently, we identify nine key skills people in leadership positions employ when working with case-based...
Article
A common management task in organizations is decision making, and some of the most important decisions made by business leaders are those that involve an ethical component. This study utilizes historiometric methods to explore the ethical decision making processes of business leaders in order to improve outcomes. We identify a series of cognitive b...
Article
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For many years, leadership operations within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have utilized a primarily hierarchical approach. In the present effort, we investigated the leadership needs and considerations given the increased interest in and potential for long-duration space exploration. Specifically, it is argued that a col...
Article
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Planning is critical to organizations, especially for those involved in pursuing technologic, scientific, and innovative ventures. Examination of planning processes is particularly important in high-stake and high-risk environments. In the present study, to highlight the significance of planning in the context of long-duration space missions, 11 cu...
Article
Two approaches have been widely applied in ethics education in the biomedical sciences: field-specific compliance and professional decision processes. Both approaches offer unique benefits to trainees, but future courses that integrate these two approaches might prove particularly valuable.
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Training is a costly investment. As such, it is of great interest to know the extent to which that investment is yielding a positive return. Recent meta-analytic efforts have observed that ethics training programs are, indeed, having a positive effect, leading to the conclusion that the programs are working. However, they have also uncovered consid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Narratives articulated by leaders are an important means through which influence is exercised, but they may also serve to develop leadership potential. This study asked participants to read six stories of charismatic leadership in business settings, then examined their performance on a leader vision-formation task.
Article
The focus on non-hierarchical, collectivistic, leadership has been steadily increasing with several different theories emerging (Yammarino, Salas, Serban, Shirreffs, & Shuffler, 2012). While most take the view that collectivistic approaches to leadership (e.g., shared and distributed leadership) are emergent properties of the team, a recent, integr...
Chapter
Methods of individual communication continue to expand through online media. Given the dynamic nature of online communications, traditional methods for studying communications may not suffice. A hybridized content analytic approach that combines qualitative and quantitative methods offers a unique methodological tool to researchers who seek to bett...
Article
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As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Stud...
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In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR) measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity meas...