Michael A. Schroeder's research while affiliated with Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife and other places

Publications (57)

Article
Age-specific patterns of primary molt facilitate age classification of native North American upland gamebirds, a critical step in understanding their ecology, behavior, life history, population dynamics and harvest. However, deviations from typical molt patterns can create confusing plumages that complicate age classification. We examined data from...
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Long-term monitoring of natural resources is imperative for increasing the understanding of ecosystem processes, services, and how to manage those ecosystems to maintain or improve function. Challenges with using these data may occur because methods of monitoring changed over time, multiple organizations collect and manage data differently, and mon...
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Numerous studies provide estimates of nesting propensity rates (proportion of females attempting to nest at least once in a given year) for greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus. However, females may initiate nests without being detected during the course of normal research, leading to negatively biased estimates. We evaluated nesting prope...
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Concerns over the status of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations have been expressed for many years (Patterson 1952). Agencies began to focus more intently on population trends following publications addressing the status of sage-grouse populations in the western United States (Connelly and Braun 1997, Braun 1998) and several...
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The delineation of intraspecific units that are evolutionarily and demographically distinct is an important step in the development of species-specific management plans. Neutral genetic variation has served as the primary data source for delineating “evolutionarily significant units,” but with recent advances in genomic technology, we now have an u...
Article
Local extirpations influence species’ range contractions and are often precursors of range-wide extinction. Understanding extinction dynamics is important for devising effective management strategies to protect threatened and endangered species. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is an example of a species undergoing range contract...
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Natal dispersal distances are difficult to measure, yet important for estimating the genetic structure and demographic connectedness of natural populations. Here we provide estimates of the distributions of male and female natal dispersal distances from a long-term study of Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis (L., 1758)) in southwestern Alberta,...
Article
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) have declined substantially in Washington, USA, primarily because native shrub-steppe has been converted to agriculture. In response, state and federal agencies have acquired and restored habitat, and augmented and reintroduced g...
Article
Conversion of extensive shrubsteppe communities to cropland has greatly reduced the habitat available to grassland- and sagebrush-obligate birds in the Intermountain West of the United States. In Washington State, approximately 600,000 ha of converted farmland have been planted to perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs under the Conservation Reserve...
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Context The ability of landscapes to impede species’ movement or gene flow may be quantified by resistance models. Few studies have assessed the performance of resistance models parameterized by expert opinion. In addition, resistance models differ in terms of spatial and thematic resolution as well as their focus on the ecology of a particular spe...
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We redefine and clarify procedures to classify sex and age (juveniles, yearlings, adults, and breeding-age) of greater (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus) from wings. Existing keys for greater sage-grouse age and sex classification do not incorporate more recent information on timing and sequence of molt or regional va...
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We conducted a comprehensive analysis of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) populations throughout the species' range by accumulating and analyzing counts of males at 9,870 leks identified since 1965. A substantial number of leks are censused each year through-out North America providing a combined total of 75,598 counts through 2007,...
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Geographic ranges of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison Sage-Grouse (C. minimus) have contracted across large areas in response to habitat loss and detrimental land uses. However, quantitative analyses of the environmental factors most closely associated with range contraction have been lacking, results of which could be h...
Article
This study examined the relationship between the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands and Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Washington state including an assessment of population change, nest-site selection, and general habitat use. Nest-site selection of eighty-nine female sage-grouse was monitored between 1992 and 1997 with t...
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Early investigations supported the view that Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population dynamics were typical of other upland game birds. More recently, greater insights into the demographics of Greater Sage-Grouse revealed this species was relatively unique because populations tended to have low winter mortality, relatively high an...
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The distribution and range of the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus have been reduced by 56% since the European settlement of western North America. Although there is an unprecedented effort to conserve the species, there is still considerable debate about the vegetation composition and structure required for nesting and brood-rearing h...
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We revised distribution maps of potential presettlement habitat and current populations for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison Sage- Grouse (C. minimus )i n North America. The revised map of potential presettlement habitat included some areas omitted from previously published maps such as the San Luis Valley of Colorado an...
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Aim Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods Logistic regression was used...
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A critique to the 2005 issue paper of the Society for Range Management (SRM) entitled "Ecology and Management of Sage-Grouse and Sage-Grouse Habitat" and based on Crawford et al's compilation of the 2001 SRM symposium on sage-grouse is presented. Focus is on issues and concerns regarding sage-grouse distribution, habitat relationships, habitat mana...
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We revised distribution maps of potential presettlement habitat and current populations for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison Sage- Grouse (C. minimus) in North America. The revised map of potential presettlement habitat included some areas omitted from previously published maps such as the San Luis Valley of Colorado and...
Article
Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus and C. minimus) historically inhabited much of the sagebrush-dominated habitat of North America. Today, sage-grouse populations are declining throughout most of their range. Population dynamics of sage-grouse are marked by strong cyclic behavior. Adult survival is high, but is offset by low juvenile survival,...
Article
In this paper, we report on breeding site fidelity for a small, localized population of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus inhabiting a highly altered and fragmented landscape in north-central Washington, USA. One hundred sixteen greater sage-grouse were captured, fitted with radio transmitters and monitored during 1992-1998. Of 19 males...
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Degradation, fragmentation, and loss of native sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes have imperiled these habitats and their associated avifauna. Historically, this vast piece of the Western landscape has been undervalued: even though more than 70% of all remaining sagebrush habitat in the United States is publicly owned, <3% of it is protected as...
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Full-text available
Degradation, fragmentation, and loss of native sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes have imperiled these habitats and their associated avifauna. Historically, this vast piece of the Western landscape has been undervalued: even though more than 70% of all remaining sagebrush habitat in the United States is publicly owned, <3% of it is protected as...
Article
Clearing of shrubsteppe communities for agriculture has created a highly fragmented landscape in eastern Washington, a condition that has been shown to adversely affect nesting success of birds in some forest and grassland communities. We used artificial nests monitored by cameras to examine relative effects of fragmentation, distance to edge, and...
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Clearing of shrubsteppe communities for agriculture has created a highly fragmented landscape in eastern Washington, a condition that has been shown to adversely affect nesting success of birds in some forest and grassland communities. We used artificial nests monitored by cameras to examine relative effects of fragmentation, distance to edge, and...
Article
This paper examines the importance of predation in the life cycles of sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), greater prairie-chicken (T. cupido), and lesser prairie-chicken (T. pallidicinctus). Most individual prairie grouse eventually succumb to predation, with substantial effects on nest success,...
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The status of sage grouse populations and habitats has been a concern to sportsmen and biologists for >80 years. Despite management and research efforts that date to the 1930s, breeding populations of this species have declined throughout much of its range. In May 1999, the western sage grouse (C. urophasianus phaios) in Washington was petitioned f...
Article
Productivity of Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) was studied in north-central Washington during 1992-1996. Nest timing and success, clutch size, proba-bility of nesting and renesting, and variation associated with age and year were examined for 84 females monitored with the aid of radio telemetry. Although date of nest initiation varied annu...
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Seasonal movements of radio-marked Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) were examined in northeastern Colorado during 1986-1989. Many birds migrated between breeding and winter areas; all appeared to display fidelity to both breeding and winter sites. The average date of migration from winter to breeding areas was 20 February for males and...
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Knowledge of the migratory patterns and site fidelity of band-tailed pigeons (Columba fasciata) is necessary to manage them properly. Consequently, we examined movement and philopatry of 26,480 band-tailed pigeons captured and banded in Colorado, 1969-81. When birds were recaptured within a breeding season, 92% of 2,314 birds were <50 km from their...
Article
Spruce Grouse Dendragapus canadensis were studied on a 247 ha main study area from 1965 to 1985 and on 31 additional areas (25.9-61.3 ha) in 1984 in southwestern Alberta. Numbers of cocks and/or hens were estimated annually with the use of transects, dogs, and/or playbacks of a hen's aggressive call. In addition, radio transmitters were placed on 2...
Article
We compared an index of abundance for territorial male Franklin's spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis franklinii) based on wing clapping with population counts obtained with playbacks of recorded female calls on 24 study areas in the Sheep River Valley, southwestern Alberta. The population counts obtained with playbacks appeared accurate because...
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The loss of eggs from clutches deposited in simulated and natural nests of spruce grouse was investigated during the spring of 1983 in lodgepole pine forests of southwestern Alberta. Two-thirds of all clutches, both in simulated and natural nests, were partially or completely lost. Density of simulated nests had no impact on proportional loss. Evid...
Article
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the Species Assessment Core Team for Region 2 of the USDA Forest Service for guidance during this project. K. Giesen kindly provided an extensive bibliography of lesser prairie-chicken literature and was helpful answering inquiries about lesser prairie-chickensin Colorado. The manuscript benefited gre...

Citations

... This leads to a lack of interoperability between datasets, which represents a major challenge for wider data integration. This is likely one of the main reasons why data integration, which is needed for the "bottom-up" approach, remains poorly developed (Henry et al. (2008) but see Miller et al., 2019;O'Donnell et al., 2021) outside of large databases such as GBIF (GBIF: The Global Biodiversity Information Facility, 2021) or OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System, OBIS (2021)). An increased use of data integration may lead to a deeper understanding of status and trends in biodiversity and ecosystems, without having to acquire new data (Carpenter et al., 2009;Jones et al., 2006). ...
... Atypical primary replacement or retention, defined as any deviation from the typical primary molt patterns described above (excluding adventitious molt), can create confusing and sometimes contradictory plumages that lead to uncertainty or errors in age classification. Three previous studies have suggested that atypical primary molt occurs in greater sage-grouse (Pyle 2008, Braun and Schroeder 2015, Braun et al. 2020). However, evidence presented for atypical primary retention during definitive prebasic molt in those studies could instead be explained by other phenomena, such as temporary suspension of prebasic molt or atypical replacement through P10 during preformative molt (Braun et al. 2020). ...
... Regulated hunting seasons for sage-grouse started in the 1870s for some states with Montana starting in 1870, Colorado in 1877, Idaho in 1900, Wyoming in 1902, Oregon in 1903, and Washington in 1933 [35,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]. Sage-grouse were commercially harvested in the late-1800s but transitioned to sport hunting as state management agencies implemented hunting regulations. ...
... During the last century, all species of the North American prairie-grouse (genus Tympanuchus) and sage-grouse (genus Centrocercus) have undergone substantial range contraction (Connelly et al. 2020, Hagen and Giesen 2020, Johnson et al. 2020. As lekking grouse decline worldwide (Storch 2007), active population restoration techniques like translocation (Griffith et al. 1989) become important tools in combating the negative paradigms of small or declining populations (Caughley 1994). ...
... In years with more fall and winter precipitation, evidence suggests sage-grouse lay larger clutches (Blomberg et al., 2014). Chick survival may also be higher in years with more cumulative winter precipitation because the herbaceous understory responds positively to more moisture, and sagegrouse rely on grasses and forbs for energetic demands as well as for cover (Gibson et al., 2017;Wann et al., 2020). We suggest that, as a result of the relative lack of attention to this vital rate, the role of pre-fledging survival in population dynamics and individual fitness has been under-appreciated in sage-grouse (Dahlgren et al., 2016;Taylor et al., 2012) and other species with precocial young (Acevedo et al., 2020;Cooch et al., 2001). ...
... We also evaluated the ability of the resistance surface created from our top ranked model to give rise to the observed data. We simulated genetic data from resistance surfaces created from the top ranked modelled relationship and an undifferentiated surface (isolation by distance or null hypothesis) for both the rangewide and Gunnison Basin extents using the PopGenReport R package (Adamack & Gruber, 2014) alleles per locus (median alleles per locus in observed data), four offspring per reproductive event (based on the product of average clutch = 8 [Young et al., 2020], average hatchability = 82.5% [Young et al., 2020], average nest success = 46.7% [Davis, 2012;Stanley et al., 2019;Young et al., 1994] and rounded up to the nearest whole number), 0.01 as the percentage of individuals moving the maximum dispersal distance (proportion moved > the 99th percentile of all max distances in Aldridge et al., 2012), an empirical estimate of migrants per year (Wilson & Rannala, 2003), and simulated data for 1000 and 500 years for the rangewide and Gunnison Basin extents respectively. ...
... In this study, we investigated the effects of anthropogenic development (oil wells, roads, and power lines) on the greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido; from this point forwards, prairie-chicken) movement patterns and habitat selection. The prairie-chicken is a North American prairie grouse species that requires expansive intact grassland landscapes with variable vegetation structures (Hardy et al., 2020;Johnson et al., 2011;Londe et al., 2019;McNew et al., 2012). Because of their sensitivity to landscape conditions prairie-chickens, like other grouse, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of development (Hovick et al., 2014). ...
... A suite of sagebrush species and subspecies (Artemisia sp.) form the foundation of the sagebrush ecosystem of western North America, a vast, semiarid landscape that has been imperiled for decades (Knick et al., 2003;Miller et al., 2011). Among the many factors leading to the decline in sagebrush habitat, increasing size and frequency of wildfires are perhaps the most detrimental, particularly in the Great Basin, where increased humanignited wildfires and non-native annual plant species have contributed to fire frequencies up to four times historic levels (Balch et al., 2013;Balch et al., 2017;. ...
... Land-use change in the sagebrush steppe of western North America has been extensive (Bock & Webb, 1984;Braun, 1998;Knick et al., 2013). Over 50% of the sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) distribution has been removed or degraded Knick et al., 2013;Schroeder et al., 2004), imperiling the resident sagebrush obligate wildlife species (Anderson & Inouye, 2001). The Gunnison sagegrouse is one such sagebrush obligate species (Patterson, 1952;Young et al., 2000) impacted by the alteration of western landscapes (Oyler-McCance et al., 2001;Primack, 1993;Theobald et al., 1996). ...
... The effects of edge habitats on bird species shows that birds, especially passerines, are particularly affected by the introduction of fragmentation and edges into the landscape [51][52][53][54][55][56][57], while natural gas sites in grasslands are associated with an increase in non-native invasive plants, a reduction in native ground cover, and changes in soil properties [58], which could reduce nesting attempts or success. Typically, concern is due to increased brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) [49,55,[59][60][61] and increased nest predation by species such as corvids, raptors, raccoons (Procyon lotor), and snakes [52,55,60,[62][63][64]. Shale gas development within Pennsylvania and West Virginia's contiguous forests showed a decrease in forest-interior songbirds and an increase in synanthropic or human-associated species [21,56]. ...