Mercedes Campos's research while affiliated with Florida Department of Environmental Protection and other places

Publications (68)

Article
The olive moth, Prays oleae, is one of the most common insects that damages olives in the Mediterranean region. The establishment of ground cover within olive orchards has been promoted in this region in recent years to avoid erosion and soil degradation. Nevertheless, its role as a shelter for natural enemies of pests has been controversial. In th...
Article
Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of biological control agents, such as predators and parasitoids, by providing them access to key requisites, for example floral or other alternative food resources. However, the occurrence of floral resources in agricultural systems may have positive effects not only on natural enemies bu...
Article
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Recent research highlights the predator Anthocoris nemoralis as an effective biocontrol agent against an important olive pest, Prays oleae. This work tries to corroborate that an increase of natural habitats proportion surrounding the crop, together with a high abundance of the secondary pest Euphyllura olivina, could increase the population of A....
Article
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Crops under indoor agriculture are extremely vulnerable to pests. It has been evidenced the role of functional biodiversity in pest control by using natural pest enemies. Directly linked to these assumptions have emerged the concept of Ecological Infrastructures, patches of semi-natural habitats distributed throughout greenhouses providing shelter...
Article
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The quality of a habitat is related to its lifetime (age) and the disturbances to which it has been exposed. Natural enemies and their interactions in trophic networks can be affected by the maturity of the systems they inhabit. The positive effects of ground covers and adjacent vegetation on natural enemies have been demonstrated in olive groves;...
Article
Olive orchards have been shown to be able to improve the abundance of natural enemies due to the establishment of adjacent vegetation and ground cover in recent years. Yet evidence regarding the positive effects that such semi-natural habitats provide to the presence and movement of the trophic guilds of the arthropod community is lacking. In this...
Article
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Non-crop cultivated plants can provide agriculture with ecosystem services, such as biological pest control and, a sound knowledge of the relationships between these plants and arthropod communities is important. Given its entomophilous characteristics, Dittrichia viscosa, a plant commonly found in the Mediterranean region, could potentially be use...
Article
Using native seeds to establish semi-natural habitats is a novel strategy to restore biodiversity and ecosystem services such as biological control. As green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are regarded as major biological control agents in different crops, the objective of this study was to test the attractiveness of selected native plant spec...
Article
In this study, we assess how chrysopids (generalist predators widely used as biological control agents) use olive, almond, oak, and pine trees for oviposition. We sampled clutches of chrysopids from tree canopies in August 2016 and 2017. Additionally, we checked the stage (alive, predated, emerged, or parasitized) and the site (upper side, edge, or...
Article
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Natural habitat at the landscape scale can promote biological control of crop pests, but farmers often regard natural habitat as a cost or a lost economic opportunity. Evaluating the benefits of promoting natural habitats in economic terms should make different management alternatives easier to compare. However, it is important to understand the me...
Article
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Numerous species of the family Chrysopidae, commonly found in agroecosystems, whose larvae predate on several pests of economic importance, are regarded as biological control agents. Their abundance and diversity are influenced by vegetation cover, although little is known about the effects of semi-natural habitats on their populations. The objecti...
Conference Paper
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- Objetivos de la investigación: Evaluar la funcionalidad del cultivo de Olea europaea (Olivo) en relación con la presencia/ausencia de vegetación nativa o planeada adyacente; a partir del estudio de la abundancia y riqueza de insectos bioindicadores. - Breve descripción de la metodología: En la primera fase de la investigación se llevó a cabo un e...
Article
The effects of the management regime, mostly differentiated for using or not insecticides, on biodiversity have frequently been difficult to analyze and understand because of the rapid re-colonization by good-dispersers, the quick recuperation of generalists and the continuity of insecticide-resistant arthropod species. The presence of these differ...
Article
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The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders a...
Article
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A 3-year experiment compared in an olive orchard the effect of different cover crops’ composition on runoff, water erosion, diversity of annual plants, and arthropod communities which could provide an alternative to conventional management based on tillage (CT). The cover crops evaluated were a seeded homogeneous grass (GC), a seeded mix of ten dif...
Article
Community of bees associated to ground covers in olive orchards. Biodiversity in agroecosystems provides different ecosystem services such as biological control or pollination. In olive orchards the role played by plant covers in conserving pollinators is poorly known, and therefore the aim of the present work was to determine the families and gene...
Article
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Below-ground soil microorganisms can modulate above-ground plant-insect interactions. It still needs to be determined whether this is a direct effect of single species or an indirect effect of shifts in soil microbial community assemblages. Evaluation of the soil microbiome as a whole is critical for understanding multi-trophic interactions, includ...
Article
Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a host-specific parasitoid of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard), that can cause parasitism rates of up to 80% in Mediterranean olive groves. A laboratory study was carried out to assess the potential of sugars provided by wild plant species in olive grove agroecosystem to enhance the f...
Article
The diversity of native non-crop (weed) vegetation in agricultural landscapes can provide arthropod natural enemies with food sources and shelter, thus improving natural pest control and reducing dependence on chemical pesticides. Moreover, native plants to a region are uniquely positioned to provide cultural ecosystem services such as wild food an...
Article
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Prays oleae, is one of the most important pests of olive trees throughout the Mediterranean region, the Black Sea, Middle East and the Canary Islands. Thus, it is particularly important to develop alternative strategies to control this pest. The outcomes of this study show that a rich complex of parasitoids naturally occurs and parasitizes P. oleae...
Chapter
World population is exponentially growing and with it, the need for quality food that supports this expansion. Current agricultural techniques rely on a massive use of chemical inputs that at the end jeopardise the sustainability of crops. New approaches are oriented towards the promotion of natural control mechanisms that guarantee biodiversity th...
Article
Biological control is the use of natural enemies, such as predators, of crop pests. For instance Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is a major predator of olive grove pests. To favor the abundance of C. carnea, flowering plants should provide them with carbohydrates. However there is a lack of knowledge on the biology of flowering plants that grow in ol...
Article
Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), a...
Article
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The cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has great importance in the entire Mediterranean basin, so that the implementation of organic practices in their management directly affects the sustainability of the agricultural system. Bioindication with arthropods can help to detect the different agricultural practices. In this work, we analy...
Article
The longevity and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) when fed on ten naturally occurring sugars and on an artificial diet composed by honey and pollen (1:1) were evaluated. The effect of these diets differed between sexes. However insects of both sexes lived longer when fed on fructose than on sucrose, melezitos...
Conference Paper
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Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above-and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However , in t...
Article
Olives, Olea europaea L., are one of the most important crops in Spain. They are currently produced under three management systems that involve different aspects of soil and pest management, productivity, and crop economy: organic, (integrated pest management-IPM), and conventional. Here, we studied how these systems affect the spiders, the natural...
Presentation
Por su situación territorial y climatológica, Almería es probablemente la capital con mayor concentración de invernaderos del mundo. Este tipo de agricultura superintensiva formada por una matriz de monocultivos, ha resultado ser una importante actividad socio-económica en esta área, pero este éxito ha supuesto una pérdida de los hábitats naturales...
Article
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Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation bio-logical control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e...
Article
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Las políticas actuales de uso de productos fitosanitarios abogan por la reducción de los mismos y la conversión hacia alternativas más sostenibles. En este sentido, estrategias como el control biológico por conservación se presentan como la más idónea. Este tipo de control de plagas se apoya en la utilización de diferentes infraestructuras de veget...
Article
Bioindication has proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the state of conservation of an ecosystem based on the living organisms it contains, and thus many studies have used arthropods as bioindicators. In the cultivation of olive (Olea europaea L.), several management methods are employed, from organic production to conventional intensive farming....
Article
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L os sistemas de producción integrada se definen como aquéllos que mani-pulan, transforman o elaboran pro-ductos agrarios utilizando al máximo los recursos y los mecanismos de producción naturales, de forma que se garantice una agri-cultura sostenible. Introduce métodos biológi-cos y químicos de control, y otras técnicas que compatibilicen las exig...
Poster
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El cultivo del olivo (Olea europea, L.) es de gran importancia en la región mediterránea, por lo que su sostenibilidad es un aspecto prioritario. Ante la necesidad de evaluar el efecto de diferentes manejos agronómicos, se plantea la utilización de la artropodofauna edáfica para desarrollar un método sencillo de discriminación. Se seleccionaron 15...
Article
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Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very li...
Article
The use of pesticides in conventional agriculture poses several risks to humans and to the environment, and may turn out to be inefficient in the long-term as pests can develop resistance to pesticides. Non-chemical control methods can be preferable to prevent pest damage. One way to achieve this involves the establishment of ground cover or the re...
Article
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El control biológico por conservación se está posicionando como una alternativa al uso de pesticidas químicos de síntesis para controlar las poblaciones de artrópodos plaga. La utilización de esta estrategia está orientada hacia un aumento de la abundancia y la diversidad de la comunidad de fauna auxiliar mediante diferentes técnicas. No obstante,...
Article
Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) é um parasitóide específico da traça-da-oliveira, Prays oleae (Bernard), que, em Portugal, pode originar taxas de parasitismo próximas de 80%. Com este estudo, pretendeu-se contribuir para conhecer as possibilidades oferecidas por 18 espécies de plantas da flora espontânea do olival, na melho...
Article
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The use of cover crops is the most effective method to combat soil degradation due to erosion in olive cropping in Spain. Within the framework of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a compelling question is how cover crops would affect elements of the olive-agroecosystem such as natural enemies. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to examine...
Article
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Abstract This study shows that disturbance caused by cover-crop removal (CCR) in an organic olive orchard affects ground-spider populations. The effect of CCR on various organic olive-orchard plots was assessed by monitoring the abundance and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. Covered plots in the organic olive orchard were compared with uncover...
Article
1 A previous study suggested the use of certain insects groups as indicators for detecting organic olive farming in Southern Spain. To validate the use of these groups, insects were collected from olive orchards in Cordoba and Granada, comprising two Andalusian provinces with different surrounding landscapes. 2 Canopies were sampled using the branc...
Article
Ants are the most abundant group of soil arthropods in olive groves where they are involved in various trophic relationships of great importance for crops. The system of soil management is one agricultural practice that has a great effect on ants, so the objective of this study was to compare ant populations in organic olive orchards with a ground...
Article
Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae...
Article
The intensification of olive production methods in southern Spain, has involved a widespread use of chemicals and the progressive loss of many Mediterranean forest patches, natural landscapes and semi-natural vegetation. Species level inventories require an enormous amount of time and financial resources, mainly due to the necessity of employing ta...
Conference Paper
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La importancia del cultivo del olivo en España y la enorme riqueza de artrópodos registrada en los olivares hacen necesaria la evaluación y puesta a punto de técnicas que permitan la caracterización de la entomofauna del olivar como bioindicador de la calidad del mismo. Para facilitar estos estudios resulta de gran interés el conocimiento del númer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The importance of the olive growing in Spain, the enormous richness of arthropods registered in the olive groves and the need to develop agronomic practices which are respectful with the environment make necessary the evaluation and the adjustment of skills that allow the characterization of the entomological fauna of the olive grove as a bioindica...
Article
Morphospecies, also known as morphotypes, recognizable taxonomic units (RTUs) and parataxonomic units (PUs) have been used for rapid biodiversity assessment (RBA) in invertebrate diversity studies worldwide. Their utilization might lighten taxonomists’ workload when rapidly evaluating the richness and diversity of arthropods for conservation or bio...
Article
Verticillium wilt (VW) is caused by the soilborne pathogen, Verticillium dahliae. The fact that available control measures are not completely effective, together with an increasing spread of the highly virulent defoliating pathotype (D) in the last two decades, makes VW one of the most threatening olive tree disease. For better management, epidemio...
Article
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Resumo: A drástica supressão das infestantes associadas ao olival, praticada em muitas regiões, é apontada como afectando adversamente as populações de antagonistas dos inimigos da cultura, e consequentemente a sua eficaz actuação sobre estes. Entre estes inimigos, destaca-se pela sua importância económica, a traça-da-oliveira, Prays oleae (Bernard...
Article
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The study was conducted in an experimental organically managed olive orchard to test the short-term effects exerted on epigeal coleopteran populations by the removal of the plant cover (RPC) when compared to non-managed natural plant cover (NPC). The changes in abundance and diversity of beetles were analysed in three experimental blocks in which t...
Article
In the province of Granada (southern Spain) spiders were studied in olive-tree canopies, in olive orchards under similar environmental conditions but different management systems: organic, integrated and conventional. Monthly samplings (March to October) was performed in the canopy by the beating method. Spider abundance proved significantly higher...
Article
This work undertakes the biochemical characterization of olive-orchard soils cultivated under three different management systems: conventional, integrated, and organic. The orchards are located in two districts of Andalusia (S Spain): Pedroches Valley (Cordoba province) and Montes Orientales (Granada province). In each soil, the activities of vario...
Article
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We have studied the impact on arthropod populations of conventional tillage and no-tillage systems in maize. Two different corn–weed control programs were assayed: NT, direct drilling of seed genetically modified to tolerate herbicide plus a combination of two pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides; CT, conventional drilling with an isogenic c...
Article
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Euzophera pingüis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a secondary olive pest, which has increased in importance during recent years. In this study, more than 1300 predatory arthropods were collected from a Spanish olive orchard over two years and assayed using a pest-specific ELISA. Abundance and the percentage of positive responses to E. pingüis obtained...
Article
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El estudio se realizó en tres olivares con diferente manejo agronómico, a 20 km de la ciudad de Granada. En cada olivar se observó el área correspondiente a 60 árboles (seis hileras contiguas de 10 árboles) y cinco transectos de 100 m de longitud por un metro de ancho en las calles, entre las hileras de árboles. En el suelo bajo la copa de cada árb...
Article
The influence that different styles of olive-orchard management (conventional, integrated, and organic) exert on the predator Chrysoperla carnea has been studied to strengthen this insect's role in the integrated management against pests. For this, the adult chrysopid populations were determined by McPhail traps, and laboratory examinations were ma...
Article
1 The presence and abundance of arthropods were compared in three olive orchards under organic, integrated and conventional management regimes. In each olive orchard, trees were sampled in the canopy by beating branches and soil arthropods by placing pitfall traps. Contrary to expectations, the highest abundance of arthropods occurred in the integr...
Article
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Se han estudiado los nidos de hormigas presentes en tres olivares con diferente manejo agronómico, ubicados a 20 km de la ciudad de Granada (España). En cada olivar se observó el área correspondiente a 60 árboles (seis hileras contiguas de 10 árboles) y los cinco transectos de 100 m de longitud por un metro de ancho en las calles, entre las hileras...
Article
Entre las plagas que afectan al cultivo del olivo se encuentra el "barrenilo" (Phloeotibus scarabaeoides) cuyos daños provocan una reducción de la cosecha y, en árboles jóvenes, puede incluso afectar a su supervivencia. Para el control químico de esta especie se aconseja el uso de organofosforados y, estudios recientes, han mostrado la eficacia de...
Article
Field tests were made for the control of an olive insect pest, the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Col: Scolytidae), using the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin (D) and this insecticide combined with ethylene (D+E), an attractant of the olive bark beetle. The tests were run in olive orchards in the provinces of Granada and Jaén (An...
Article
Different insecticides have been tested for the control of the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bern. This scolytid can be managed at two points in its biological cycle: in pruned logs, where it excavates reproduction galleries, or in living trees, after emergence from the logs, where it digs feeding galleries. In mortality laboratory...
Article
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The braconid Dendrosoter protuberans and the pteromalid Cheiropachus quadrum are two parasitoids of the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides. Several chemicals such as -pinene, -pinene, 2-decanone, 2-nonanone, decanal, undecanal, and n-butyl acetate have been identified as attractants in the laboratory for this scolytid. Under red light at...

Citations

... The selected groves are conducted under Organic Production or Integrated Pest Management, in which the vegetation cover is maintained between the rows of the plantation and the soil is not tilled. Álvarez et al. [40] found that a spontaneous vegetation cover is a source of food and ecological niches for different arthropods. In the case of ground beetles, this may explain the higher abundance of Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeidae in the olive grove areas compared to that in the shrubland areas in both years of study (see [33,41]). ...
... However, only for the third generation of P. oleae was a synergistic effect observed between the olive grove and crop patches, where these patches favour the spread of the pest. Despite having a strong agricultural tillage character, some research has found that in late summer, this pest could find in these patches certain plant species-the so-called weedsthat could serve as a complementary food source (Nave et al., 2021). Furthermore, as observed by Paredes et al. (2013), these land uses are characterised by the presence of bare soils for long periods of time as well as the absence of surrounding natural vegetation, which significantly decreases the biological control exerted by the natural enemies of these pests. ...
... Thus, Thomas and Abbott (2018) found that this type of vegetation can reduce nitrate pollution of water bodies, both groundwater and surface water, due to the excessive use of fertilisers. In the case of soil, the installation of vegetation around farms can improve the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as soil microbial activity (Benítez et al., 2019;Sun et al., 2020). The presence of hedgerows on farms can positively impact nutrient cycling by capturing nutrients that are lost from the root zone of crop plants (Tully and Ryals, 2017). ...
... El olivar es un cultivo con gran potencial ecológico y de mayor importancia en la región mediterránea. Recientemente, se han evidenciado los efectos positivos que tiene la presencia de las cubiertas vegetales y la vegetación adyacente sobre la abundancia de enemigos naturales en los olivares, como pudieran ser arácnidos, parasitoides y/o insectos depredadores (Ruano et al., 2004;Álvarez et al., 2018;2019a;2019b;2021a;2021b). La sinergia entre vegetación adyacente y cubierta vegetal, así como su madurez, juegan un papel importante en el olivar (Álvarez et al., 2019a) estableciendo qué tipo de enemigos naturales pueden encontrarse sobre la copa de los olivos (Álvarez et al., 2019b;Morente et al., 2018) y su papel en la depredación de plagas del olivo. ...