Melissa M. Reynolds's research while affiliated with Colorado State University and other places

Publications (128)

Article
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The metal–organic framework (MOF) CuBTTri, H3[(Cu4Cl)3(BTTri)8] (where H3BTTri = 1,3,5-tris(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)benzene), is a promising catalyst for the development of antithrombotic medical device materials via localized nitric oxide (NO) generation from endogenous S-nitrosothiols. This work evaluates the effects of three key parameters of CuBT...
Article
Full-text available
Despite enormous advances in the detection and treatment of breast cancer, it still remains the leading cancer diagnosis and has the second highest mortality rate. Thus, breast cancer research is a high priority for academics and clinicians alike. Based on previous research indicating the potential of nitric oxide (NO) and SMYD-3 inhibition, this w...
Article
PurposePresent blood-contacting materials have not yet demonstrated to be effective in reducing blood coagulation without causing additional side effects clinically. We have developed an endothelial glycocalyx-inspired biomimetic surface that combines nanotopography, heparin presentation, and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing features. The resulting modi...
Article
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Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) was mixed with gentamicin sulfate via a double emulsion method, resulting in gentamicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles that exhibited excellent antibacterial properties and great potential in fabricating smart wound dressings integrated with a drug delivery system. The nanoparticle morphologies, particle degradation r...
Article
In article number 2001748 by Matt J. Kipper and co‐workers, nanostructured surfaces that mimic features of the blood vessel wall and that deliver nitric oxide can be tuned to favorably influence cell‐surface interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and bacteria. These surfaces could be used to develop advanced blood‐compatible materials.
Article
The most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, paediatric neuroblastoma, is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages and identified as high risk. High risk neuroblastoma is aggressive and unpredictable, resulting in poor prognosis and only ∼40% five-year survival rates. Herein, nitric oxide (NO) delivered via the S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglu...
Article
Full-text available
Several species of fungus from the genus Aspergillus are implicated in pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients. Broad screening methods for fungal infections are desirable, as cultures require a considerable amount of time to provide results. Herein, we developed degradation and detection methods to produce and detect D-glucosamine (GlcN...
Article
When flowing whole blood contacts medical device surfaces, the most common blood–material interactions result in coagulation, inflammation, and infection. Many new blood‐contacting biomaterials have been proposed based on strategies that address just one of these common modes of failure. This study proposes to mitigate unfavorable biological reacti...
Article
The metal–organic framework (MOF) H3[(Cu4Cl)3–(BTTri)8, H3BTTri = 1,3,5–tris(¹H–1,2,3–triazol–5–yl)benzene] (CuBTTri) is a precatalyst for biomedically relevant nitric oxide (NO) release from S–Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). The questions of the number and nature of the catalytically most active, kinetically dominant sites are addressed. Also addressed...
Article
Bacterial infections occurring on medical devices are incredible difficult to treat, highlighting the urgency for progress in developing antibiotics and antibacterial materials. This work describes the preparation of an antibacterial prodrug polymer composite material for use as an antibacterial coating for medical devices to prevent infections. Po...
Article
The beneficial effects provided by chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) make them of interest in medical research. The monomers that constitute COS confer distinct properties, so controlling COS composition during their production is significant. In this work, we degraded chitin and chitosan polymers and identified low molecular weight products such as...
Article
Medical device-associated bacterial infections remain a significant complication for patients on extracorporeal organ support. Device-specific bacterial infections occur when bacteria enter the host tissue and attach to the devices, enabling bacteria to colonize and multiply rapidly. Preventing bacterial attachment would efficiently inhibit coloniz...
Article
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), have high porosity and surface area, making them ideal candidates for adsorption-mediated applications. One high value application is the removal of uremic toxins from solution for dialysis. Previous studies have reported adsorptive removal of the uremic toxin p-cresyl sulfate from solution via zirconium-based MOFs,...
Article
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Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Pharmaceutical applications of S-Nitrosylation, which, under normal conditions is involved with a host of epigenetic and embryological development pathways, have exhibited great potential for use as adjuvant therapeutics in the clin...
Article
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are significant issues associated with microbial infections in biomedical applications. It has been a challenge to prepare durable coatings with antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities. We show that a condensed tannin derivative (amino-functionalized) can be assembled with polysaccharides (pectin and iota-...
Article
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is a technique which can probe chemisorption of substrates onto metal organic frameworks. A TGA method was developed to examine the catalytic oxidation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) by the MOF H3[(Cu4Cl)3(BTTri)8] (abbr. Cu-BTTri; H3BTTri = 1,3,5-tris(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)benzene), yielding glutathione disulfide (...
Article
Toxic metal contamination of Earth’s scarce fresh water sources creates a persistent necessity for the development of new materials and techniques to detect metal ions in water. Cadmium in particular is released into the environment by ubiquitous phosphate fertilizers, and chronic cadmium exposure can lead to internal organ damage and bone weakenin...
Article
It has been a challenge to develop durable and cytocompatible antibacterial coatings with antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities. To overcome the problems caused by bacteria contamination on biomedical devices, we are proposing layer-by-layer films based on iota-carrageenan/chitosan, and pectin/chitosan polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) assembl...
Article
The developing antibiotic resistance crisis creates a serious need for new antimicrobial agents. In this work, novel nitroaromatic-protected piperazine diazeniumdiolate (nitric oxide donor) prodrugs are synthesized to release nitric oxide upon enzyme activation to kill bacteria. Antibacterial prodrugs could help reduce side effects due to antibioti...
Article
Selective separation of enantiomers is a substantial challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Chromatography on chiral stationary phases is the standard method, but at a very high cost for industrial-scale purification owing to the high cost of the chiral stationary phases. Typically, these materials are poorly robust, expensive to manufacture an...
Article
S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) are susceptible to decomposition by stimuli including heat, light, and trace metal ions. Using stepwise isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), we observed that NO-forming homolytic cleavage of the S-N bond occurs at 134.7 ± 0.8 °C in GSNO an...
Article
In the process of developing new biomedical devices, in addition to meeting the required criteria for their intended applications, it is imperative to also identify the degradation products over the lifetime of their intended use. Determining the major degradation products from a device is an important consideration when completing the biological e...
Article
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are powerful chemosensors when designed to undergo a detectable change in optical properties upon interacting with target analytes. This work contributes to the overall understanding of metal-ion interactions with MOFs to elicit changes in fluorescence emission, a necessary step en route to developing more sensitive...
Article
Full-text available
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a naturally available S-nitrosothiol that can be incorporated into non-toxic formulations intended for topical use. The value of nitric oxide (NO) delivered topically relates to its well-studied physiological functions such as vasodilation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Pr...
Article
Copper containing compounds catalyze decomposition of S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) yielding glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and nitric oxide (NO). Extended NO generation from an endogenous source is medically desirable to achieve vasodilation, reduction in biofilms on medical devices, and antibacterial activity. Hom...
Article
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10,12‐Pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomers were mixed with polyurethane (PU) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and the mixtures were electrospun to obtain composite nanofibers that were then photopolymerized via ultraviolet radiation, resulting polydiacetylene (PDA) in the nanofibers. The PDA demonstrated color‐changing properties in the presence of E...
Article
S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) are known to produce nitric oxide (NO) through thermal, photolytic, and metal ion-promoted pathways, which has led to their increasing use as exogenous sources of therapeutic NO. Despite the burgeoning NO release applications for RSNOs, their susceptibility to metal-promoted decomposition...
Article
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Effective use of medical device implants is often hindered by infection, which may cause the device to be rejected from the body and seriously endanger health. Such infections are often a result of biofilm formation or microbial colonies collecting on a surface. Therefore, a challenge in the medical field is to mitigate the impact of biofilm format...
Article
The epidemic of multidrug-resistant bacteria calls for the improvement of both detection methods for bacterial infections and methods of treatment. Nitric oxide is a known potent antibacterial agent, but due to its gaseous and highly reactive nature, it is difficult to incorporate into a stable antibacterial compound. In this paper, we synthesize a...
Article
Thrombosis is one of the most critical challenges faced by successful clinical use of blood-contacting medical devices. The formation of blood clots on medical device surfaces is a multistep process that includes protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and activation, and platelet aggregation, resulting in platelet consumption and blockage of blood f...
Article
Full-text available
Determination of therapeutic efficacy is a major challenge in developing treatment options for cancer. Prior to in vivo studies, candidate therapeutics are evaluated using cell-based in vitro methods to assess their anti-cancer potential. This review describes the utility and limitations of evaluating therapeutic efficacy using human tumor-derived...
Article
Chitosan has received substantial attention as a biomaterial due to its unique properties. It has become increasingly common to derivatize chitosan to produce nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials that exert various therapeutic effects through the action of NO. It is generally the case that these NO-releasing polymers are prepared by exposure to hi...
Article
Blood-contacting materials are critical in many applications where long-term performance is desired. However, there are currently no engineered materials used in cardiovascular implants and devices that completely prevent clotting when in long-term contact with whole blood. The most common approach to developing next-generation blood-compatible mat...
Article
Crosslinked polyesters with Young’s moduli similar to that of certain soft biological tissues were prepared via bulk polycondensation of thiomalic acid and 1,8-octanediol alone, and with citric or maleic acid. The copolymers were converted to nitric oxide (NO)-releasing S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) analogues by reaction with tert-butyl nitrite. Additional...
Article
In vitro assays (such as resazurin and MTT) provide an opportunity to determine cytotoxicity of novel therapeutics before moving forward with expensive and resource-intensive in vivo studies. A concern with using these assays, however, is the production of false responses in the presence of particular chemical functionalities. To better understand...
Article
Background: Management of hemostasis is a key challenge during extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Metal organic frameworks are being investigated for use as nitric oxide (NO) catalysts for incorporation into ECLS circuitry to prevent thrombosis at the blood-biomaterial interface. A specific metal organic framework, CuBTTri, has been shown to acce...
Article
In the present study, a new copper MOF-cotton material was strategically fabricated to be exploited for its antibacterial properties and postsynthetic modification (PSM) to introduce a free amine to tune the physicochemical properties of the material. A modified methodology for carboxymethylation of natural cotton was utilized to enhance the number...
Article
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Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) are conjugative polymers that demonstrate color changes as a response to an external stimulus. In this study, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) was mixed with a supporting polymer including poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyurethane (PU), and the mixture solution was electrospun to construct fiber composites. The electrosp...
Article
Cu-BTTri (H3BTTri = 1,3,5-tris[1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl]benzene) is a water-stable, copper-based metal–organic framework (MOF) that exhibits the ability to generate therapeutic nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) available within the bloodstream. Immobilization of Cu-BTTri within a polymeric membrane may allow for localized NO generation at...
Article
This image represents the impediment of bacterial attachment onto the materials described by Melissa M. Reynolds and co-workers in article number 1702255. While a chitosan material on its own allows attachment of bacteria strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, embedding the chitosan matrix with copper-based, metal–organic framework crystals inhibits...
Article
An 85% reduction in the bacterial attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is achieved using a water-stable metal–organic framework (MOF) blended with chitosan. These materials demonstrate this reduction in bacterial adhesion in the first 6 h and maintain it over the full 24 h exposure period, a remarkable impediment of biofilm formation to achieve, gi...
Article
We present the use of a simple, one-pot derivatization to allow the polysaccharide dextran to carry multiple positive charges, shifting its molecular weight distribution to a lower m/z range. We performed this derivatization because molecular weight measurements of polysaccharides by mass spectrometry are challenging because of their lack of readil...
Article
The development of extracorporeal devices for organ support has been a part of medical history and progression since the late 1900s. These types of technology are primarily used and developed in the field of critical care medicine. Unfractionated heparin, discovered in 1916, has really been the only consistent form of thromboprophylaxis for attenua...
Article
It has been previously demonstrated that copper-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) accelerate formation of the therapeutically active molecule nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs). Because RSNOs are naturally present in blood, this function is hypothesized to permit the controlled production of NO through use of MOF-based blood-contact...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) occurs naturally in mammalian biochemistry as a critical signaling molecule and exhibits antithrombotic, antibacterial, and wound-healing properties. NOforming biodegradable polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and...
Chapter
Nitric oxide (NO) can be a potential tool for nerve regeneration because of its important role in brain and nervous system functioning. Various studies have shown, however, that NO signaling provides a switching mechanism between the degenerative and regenerative states of neuronal remodeling, and each NO donor exhibits unique physical and chemical...
Article
Bacterial colonies that reside on a surface, known as biofilms, are intrinsically impenetrable to traditional antibiotics, ultimately driving research toward an alternative therapeutic approach. Nitric oxide (NO) has gained attention for its biologically beneficial properties, particularly centered around its antibacterial capabilities. NO donors t...
Article
Tygon® and other poly(vinyl chloride)-derived polymers are frequently used for tubing in blood transfusions, hemodialysis, and other extracorporeal circuit applications. These materials, however, tend to promote bacterial proliferation which contributes to the high risk of infection associated with device use. Antibacterial agents, such as nitric o...
Article
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have demonstrated promise in biomedical applications as vehicles for drug delivery, as well as for the ability of copper-based MOFs to generate nitric oxide (NO) from endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs). Because NO is a participant in biological processes where it exhibits anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antipla...
Conference Paper
Metal org. frameworks (MOFs) have become powerful porous materials for various catalytic and mol. adsorption applications. Many of these frameworks are however limited in application due to poor water stability. In order to address this issue, we have examd. the opportunity to post synthetically modify Cu3(NH2btc) 2 ultimately expanding the scope o...
Article
Full-text available
Polydiacetylene (PDA) is an attractive conjugated material for use in biosensors due to its unique characteristic of undergoing a blue-to-red color change in response to external stimuli. 10,12-Pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) were used in this study to develop fiber composites via an electrospinning method at various ma...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique bioactive molecule that performs multiple physiological functions and has been found to exhibit antithrombotic, antimicrobial, and wound-healing effects as an exogenous therapeutic agent. NO release from polymeric materials intended for use in biomedical applications has been established to reduce their thrombogenicity...
Article
Immobilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) onto flexible polymeric substrates as secondary supports expands the versatility of MOFs for surface coatings for the development of functional materials. In this work, we demonstrate the deposition of copper(II) benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (CuBTC) crystals directly onto the surface of carboxyl-fun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of advanced medical textiles for wound healing, drug delivery, tissue regeneration, sensing, and diagnostics is changing the face of the medical industry and providing doctors with tools and technology to improve patient care in dramatic ways. The intersection of smart textiles and medicine presents a range of intriguing opportuniti...
Article
Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of mult...
Article
Full-text available
A high-density amperometric electrode array containing 8192 individually addressable platinum working electrodes with an integrated potentiostat fabricated using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) processes is reported. The array was designed to enable electrochemical imaging of chemical gradients with high spatiotemporal resolution. El...
Patent
Full-text available
A polymeric composition capable of releasing nitric oxide and modulating biological responses comprises a biocompatible polymer and S-nitrosated thiol bonded to the biocompatible polymer. The polymeric composition can have a thiol conversion of at least 40%. The polymeric composition can also have a nitric oxide recovery of at least 40% when under...
Patent
Full-text available
A polymeric composition capable of releasing nitric oxide and modulating biological responses comprises a biocompatible polymer and S-nitrosated thiol bonded to the biocompatible polymer. The polymeric composition can have a thiol conversion of at least 40%. The polymeric composition can also have a nitric oxide recovery of at least 40% when under...
Article
Electrochemical detection of NO generated from chemical donors is reported. Because NO is an important biological messenger, many donor sources and detection methods have been developed. Few reports have characterized NO donors using electrochemistry despite electrochemical techniques being sensitive and selective. Here, a CMOS platinum microelectr...
Article
Full-text available
Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivatives of chitin and chitosan were prepared through incorporation of the symmetrical dithiols 1,2-ethanedithiol, 1,3-propanedithiol, and 1,6-hexanedithiol, followed by S-nitrosation with tert-butyl nitrite. The NO loading of the materials and their real-time NO release profiles under physiological conditions (pH 7.4...
Article
The versatile chemical and physical properties of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have made them unique platforms for the design of biomimetic catalysts, but with only limited success to date due to instability of the MOFs employed in physiological environments. Herein, the use of Cu(II)1,3,5-Benzene-tris-triazole (CuBTTri) is demonstrated for the...
Article
Endothelial cell derived nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the activation and aggregation of platelets. NO inhibition occurs through the intracellular receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-dependent pathways, but there is also evidence of sGC-independent pathways at high NO concentrations. In this study, we integrated a NO-releasing polymer into a micro...
Article
This study marks the first parallel measurements where S-nitrosothiol behaviour is directly correlated to nitric oxide (NO) release for an established polymer system under exposure conditions that are specific to S-nitrosothiol decomposition (i.e. heat, light, pH). These methods are intended to be applied to confirm the NO source in any biomaterial...
Chapter
Since the discovery of the biological significance of nitric oxide (NO), researchers are exploring the therapeutic applicability of this diatomic free radicle in a variety of forms. NO-releasing materials with the requisite release capabilities are evaluated for a number of biomedical applications, ranging from medical implants to pro-drugs.In this...
Chapter
Zwitterionic materials are an emerging class of biomaterials, characterized with their versatile structural features and excellent hemocompatibility. Consequently, this class of biomaterials is gaining significant importance in various biomedical applications including medical diagnostics, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. In this entry, the a...
Article
Herein, we describe the surface modification of an S-nitrosated polymer derivative via H2O plasma treatment. Overall, the H2O plasma treatments resulted in polymer coatings that maintained their nitric oxide (NO) releasing capabilities, but exhibited dramatic changes in surface wettability. The hydrophobic polymer, based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic...