Maximilian Ledochowski's research while affiliated with Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) and other places

Publications (71)

Article
Es wurde öfters spekuliert, dass Christus durch die Kreuzigung nicht gestorben ist. Aus der Schilderung “einer der Soldaten stieß mit dem Speer in seine Seite, und sogleich floß Blut und Wasser heraus”, geht ziemlich eindeutig hervor, dass Jesus einen Pleuraerguss gehabt haben muss, als er gekreuzigt wurde. Es ist heute allgemein anerkannt, dass ei...
Article
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Inflammation is crucially involved in a variety of diseases like autoimmune syndromes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, sepsis and allograft rejection. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are used as a screening assay for anti-inflammatory properties of compounds. Determinations of neopterin prod...
Article
Neopterin production is induced in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with Th1-type cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In parallel, IFN-gamma induces the tryptophan-(trp)-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Translocation of the signa...
Article
Fruktosemalabsorption ist durch einen unzureichenden Resorptionsprozess von Fruktose im Dünndarm gekennzeichnet. Dadurch gelangt Fruktose vermehrt in den Dickdarm und wird von den dort ansässigen Darmbakterien zu Wasserstoff, Kohlendioxid und kurzkettigen Fettsäuren verstoffwechselt. Bei etwa der Hälfte der Patienten führt dies zu Reizdarmsymptomen...
Chapter
Die essenzielle Aminosure Tryptophan ist für den Aufbau von Proteinen von zentraler Bedeutung. Daneben ist Tryptophan aber auch Substrat für zwei wichtige biochemische Stoffwechselwege: (1) die Bildung des Neurotransmitters Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamin) durch das Enzym Tryptophan-5-Hydroxylase und (2) die Biosynthese von Kynureninderivaten und Nic...
Chapter
Der menschliche Gastrointestinaltrakt (GI) ist nicht nur Ort der Verdauung und Resorption von Nährstoffen, sondern vielmehr ein komplexes Organ, welches einer nervalen und hormonalen Steuerung unterliegt. Als Antwort auf Reize wie Magendehnung, pH-Wert-Änderung oder das Erscheinen von Nährstoffen werden Botenstoffe sezerniert. Durch diese Sekretion...
Article
Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen auf Nahrungsmittel können prinzipiell immunologisch oder nicht immunologisch bedingt sein (siehe Abb. 1). Zu den nicht immunologischen Reaktionen zählen toxische Ereignisse (z. B. Nahrungsmittelvergiftung), Enzymdefekte wie bei Laktoseintoleranz, Transportdefekte wie bei der Fruktosemalabsorption, psychische Aversionen,...
Chapter
Patients suffering from autoimmune disease, cancer or chronic inflammatory diseases mostly suffer from severe “complications” of their underlying illness, like weight loss, physical inefficiency, immunodeficiency, anemia, chronic fatigue, mood disorders or even depression. All these symptoms can severely impair the quality of life of patients. The...
Chapter
Essen und Trinken sind nicht nur lebensnotwendig, sondern stellen für alle Menschen einen besonderen Genuss bzw. einen Aspekt der Lebensfreude dar. Störungen der Nahrungsaufnahme empfinden viele Patienten deshalb als deutliche Einschränkung ihrer Lebensqualität, zudem sind Schluckstörungen immer potentiell lebensbedrohlich. Die Schluckdiagnostik is...
Article
The fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) have been used as food and a remedy for more than 4000 years. Today, about 100 therapeutic applications of cacao are described involving the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan degrad...
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Fruktose wird vor allem in Form von Obst, Obstsäften und Honig, als Bestandteil von Haushaltszucker und zunehmend auch als Bestandteil industriell verwendeter Süßungsmittel aufgenommen. Fruktosemalabsorption ist durch einen unzureichenden Resorptionsprozess von Fruktose im Dünndarm gekennzeichnet. Dadurch gelangt Fruktose vermehrt in den Dickdarm u...
Article
Laktose (Milchzucker) ist vor allem in Milch und Milchprodukten enthalten. Die Laktoseintoleranz basiert auf einer verminderten Aufnahmefähigkeit von Laktose im Dünndarm (Laktosemaldigestion) aufgrund eines Mangels an dem Enzym Laktase (Laktasemangel). Bei den meisten Patienten kommt es dadurch zu Symptomen wie Darmkrämpfen, Blähungen oder Durchfal...
Article
In most of the diseases which are considered to benefit from propolis, cellular immune reaction is activated, neopterin levels in body fluids are increased and enhanced tryptophan degradation is observed. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of six Turkish propolis samples were evaluated by using the in vitro model of peripheral blood mononu...
Article
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Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin seed, belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae. The active antioxidant components of Nigella sativa display a remarkable array of biochemical, immunological and pharmacological actions, including bronchodilatory, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, antitumoural and immunopotentiatin...
Article
Circulating immune complexes (CICs) in blood are associated with autoimmune-diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, immune complex glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis. However, slightly increased serum concentrations of such CICs are sometimes also found in healthy individuals. The objective of the current study was to as...
Article
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Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with th...
Article
Increased blood concentrations of essential amino acid phenylalanine are common in patients with HIV infection, in trauma and sepsis and in patients with cancer. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. However, all these clinical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation and immune activation. Oxidative stress resulting from chro...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen breath tests are non-invasive and safe diagnostic tools used to investigate functional intestinal disorders. For the diagnosis of fructose or lactose malabsorption as well as for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome, hydrogen breath tests are even regarded as gold standard. However, standardization of the testing...
Article
Adult-type hypolactasia is a genetically determined inability to digest lactose after weaning. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (C-13910T, G-22018A) located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) within the gene MCM6 are associated with the lactase persistence/non-persistence trait in patients of European descent. Therefore, the genotyping of these...
Article
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (-13910 C/T and -22018 G/A) upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) have been found to be associated with lactose tolerance in Europeans. In one hundred and twenty Austrian outpatients, who visited the physician's office for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), hydrogen breath testing (HBT) and LCT genotyping b...
Article
BackgroundDetermination of the diagnostic usefulness of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for detecting primary lung cancer through analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled human breath was demonstrated in this investigation. Unlike, for example, gas-chromatographic analyses, PTR-MS can be used without time-consumi...
Article
This study examined the direct interaction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) with Aspergillus species. Accumulation of 5-HT in aspergilli was investigated by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy. The influence of 5-HT on fungal ergosterol content, cell membrane integrity, fungal growth and hyphal elongation was...
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Inflammation and immune system activation seem to play an important role in the development and progression of dementia. Also concentrations of immune activation marker neopterin are increased in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some patients with dementia, and a significant relationship is found between concentrations of neopterin and homocysteine...
Article
Der menschliche Dickdarm ist mit vielen Bakterien versehen, die aufgrund ihrer großen Anzahl eine nicht zu vernachlässigende Stoffwechselaktivität aufweisen. So stellt der menschliche Stuhl ein eigenes Ökosystem dar, das vor allem von den nicht resorbierten Nahrungsbestandteilen, aber auch von der Resorptionsleistung des Darmes, der Abschilferung d...
Article
In addition to genetic predisposition, a lack of triggers for Th1 immune response like exposure to infections, endotoxins and dirt in childhood are supposed to be responsible for the higher incidence of allergic rhinitis and asthma (hygiene hypothesis). In vitro, beverages rich in antioxidants like green tea and wine were found to suppress formatio...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects’ physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis b...
Article
Moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia related to folate deficiency has been described in patients with cardiovascular risk and also in patients with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 33 patients with RA, serum concentrations of homocysteine and cysteine, of B-vitamins folate and vitamin B(12), and of immune activation markers neo...
Article
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Activation of the enzyme indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO) by interferon (IFN)-g leads to enhanced tryptophan conversion to kynurenine. In consequence of chronic immune activation, tryptophan availability is reduced, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation as protein synthesis is affected. Tryptophan deprivation due to IDO activation could th...
Article
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Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore, therapeutic lowering of cholesterol is an important preventive measure of cardiac morbidity and death. As one side effect, cholesterol-lowering drugs appear to increase the mortality due to suicides or violence, and low lipid concentr...
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In this study the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5 HT, serotonin) against clinical isolates of Candida albicans (n = 11), Candida glabrata (n = 9), Candida tropicalis (n = 10) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) using a broth microdilution test were investigated. In additi...
Article
This study investigated whether the interaction between isolates of Candida albicans (n=7), Candida parapsilosis (n=3), Candida krusei (n=2), Candida dubliniensis (n=1) and sertraline, a typical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, alters candidal virulence. Sertraline treatment of Candida spp. significantly (P<0.05) affected hyphal elongation,...
Article
Lactose intolerance is characterized by the inability to absorb lactose efficiently. As a consequence lactose reaches the colon were it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, lactic acid, CO2 and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 90 % of lacto...
Article
The cytokine interferon-gamma stimulates human monocytes/macrophages to release large amounts of neopterin. Increased neopterin concentrations in body fluids of patients are observed during diseases with activated cellular (=TH1-type) immune response such as allograft rejection, virus infections, autoimmune disorders, or malignant tumors but also i...
Article
This study shows that 5-hydroxytrypatmine (5-HT, serotonin) is fungicidal towards conidia and hyphae of clinical isolates of Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus. The minimal fungicidal concentrations for Aspergillus conidia and hyphae ranged between 14.68 to 117.5 mM and 29.37 to 235 mM during 24 and 48 h of incubation. Several ser...
Article
This study shows that 5-hydroxytrypatmine (5-HT, serotonin) is fungicidal towards conidia and hyphae of clinical isolates of Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus. The minimal fungicidal concentrations for Aspergillus conidia and hyphae ranged between 14.68 to 117.5 mM and 29.37 to 235 mM during 24 and 48 h of incubation. Several ser...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the fungicidal activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 11), Aspergillus flavus (n = 9), Aspergillus terreus (n = 10) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019). The common drugs fluoxetine, seroxate, sertraline, paroxetine and reboxetine were applied in a...
Article
Three patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) underwent sertraline therapy (Tresleen, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor; Pfizer) for PMDD. During sertraline intervention, patients had no recurrent episodes of acute VVC. Antifungal activity was observed for sertraline against various i...
Article
The age-related decline in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) production is currently attracting attention because of its possible relevance to the etiology and management of a number of age-related clinical disorders. Various abnormalities of immune system function have been described in the elderly. Among them, increased concentrations of neopterin ha...
Article
Full-text available
In order to find out whether chronic immune stimulation is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection we studied 425 healthy individuals (aged 57.6 ± 9.22 years, s.d.) who were performing a health check up without having any specific health problems. Blood was drawn for H.pylori antibody testing, determination of routine lab-oratory parameters,...
Article
Fructose malabsorption is frequently seen in the general population and is characterised by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. Due to fructose malabsorption, fructose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO(2) and H(2). Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrom...
Article
Full-text available
Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2, H2, CH4 and lactic acid. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50...
Article
Polarized human T helper (Th) cells play a key role in the network of the specific immune system compartments. Cell-mediated immune response depends on activation of Th1-type cells, typically producing and releasing interferon-γ and interleukin-2, whereas activation of Th2-type cells and production of cytokines such as interleukin-4, -5, and -10 ar...
Article
Full-text available
Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2 and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequences and can be seen in about 50% of fructose mal...
Article
Tryptophan is a constituent of proteins and in parallel it represents a source for mainly two pivotal biochemical pathways: the generation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), and the formation of kynurenine by the enzymes tryptophan pyrrolase (TP) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO is induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in a broad varie...
Article
Mood disturbances and depression are supposed to have a negative impact on patients' outcome in malignant tumour disease. On the other hand, poor prognosis in cancer patients is associated with chronic immune challenge which is paralleled by enhanced degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan and thus decreased plasma tryptophan concentrati...
Article
Full-text available
Fructose and lactose malabsorption are characterized by impaired duodenal fructose transport or by the deficiency of mucosal lactase, respectively. As a consequence, the nonabsorbed saccharides reach the colon, where they are broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2, and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms of irritab...
Article
Obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance. Recently an important role of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in mediating insulin resistance of obesity through its overexpression in fat tissue has been reported. In order to examine the relation of insulin resistance to obesity and to serum neopterin, as a parameter of immune activat...
Article
Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. Consequently fructose reaches the colon and is broken down by bacteria to short-fatty-acids, CO2 and H2. Recently we found that fructose malabsorption was associated with signs of depression. It was therefore of interest to find out whether fructose malabsorpti...
Article
Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon were it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2 and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of fructose malab...
Article
Full-text available
Lactose malabsorption is characterized by a deficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, CO2, and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of lactose malabsorber...
Article
Full-text available
Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon were it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2 and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of fructose malab...

Citations

... We recently found that fructose malabsorption is associated with early signs of mental depression (6 ), folic acid deficiency (7 ), and lower plasma tryptophan concentrations (8 ). We have examined whether serum zinc and iron are changed in fructose malabsorbers compared with lactose maldigestors. ...
... When the concentration of fructose in a certain food is present in excess of glucose concentration, condition very frequently observed in various juice fruits, mainly in apple, pear and grape juices, some individuals may develop fructose malabsorption (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)20) . ...
... Ongoing IDO activation also appears to contribute significantly to the development of several symptoms known to deteriorate a patient's quality of life (QoL). These include the neuropsychiatric symptoms of fatigue, anemia and weight loss experienced by HIV and cancer patients [30,31]. ...
... Herschbach, Henrich, and von Rad (1999) found that among patients with IBS, the best predictors of frequency of Addolorato et al. (1998), psychological factors have always been considered as a major cause of IBS, and they have recently shown an association via anxiety and depression between IBS and food allergy. Finally there is evidence for an association between fructose or lactose malabsorption and mental depression (Ledochowski, Sperner-Unterweger, & Fuchs, 1998;Ledochowski, Widner, Sperner-Unterweger, & Fuchs, 1999). ...
... MCI patients sample sizes ranged from 16 51 to 279. 52 Seven primary studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as diagnostic criteria for inclusion, [17][18][19]32,53,54 and one study did not report the diagnostic criteria, but was included since mean, minimum and maximum MMSE was reported and fit the MCI criteria 35 (Table S3). ...
... PTR-MS is now an established tool for the rapid determination of exhaled breath profiles of volatile gases either in real time or using breath samples collected into bags or onto traps [12,[45][46][47][48][49][50]. The results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometric (GC/MS) study of the profiles of exhaled breath in a healthy population have been reported [51] and several selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) studies of the distributions of the common breath metabolites have been carried out [40][41][42][43], including a study of acetonitrile in the exhaled breath and urine headspace of smokers [52]. ...
... DPPH free radical scavenging ability (%) was calculated by using the formula. [10] % of inhibition = absorbance of control -absorbance of sample / absorbance of control ×100 ...
... Pro-inflammatory stimuli like interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) have been shown to induce iron storage in macrophages [26]. As H. pylori infection has been observed to cause a long-lasting effect on immune regulatory pathways, which leads to significantly higher concentrations of neopterin [27,28], data about a potential relationship between iron metabolism In the last decade, ID development in H. pylori patients has been linked to the human iron homeostasis protein hepcidin-25 [29]. The peptide hormone hepcidin-25 lowers the circulating iron level by binding to and downregulating the iron export channel protein ferroportin, which is located in the basolateral membrane of duodenal enterocytes and also in reticuloendothelial macrophages [15]. ...
... Similarly, serotonin and conjugates may be involved also in lignification and hence cell-wall fortification (Kanjanaphachoat et al., 2012;Hayashi et al., 2016;Ishihara et al., 2017). Furthermore, serotonin and its dimerized form have been shown to inhibit different Candida and Aspergillus species in vitro, indicating a potential direct antifungal function (Lass-Florl et al., 2002;Lass-Florl et al., 2003). ...
... Recently it was shown that an increased serum neopterin concentration may be a marker of coronary disease activity [19]. Elevated neopterin levels in correspondence with increased degradation of tryptophan were shown to have a correlation to mental depression and neurodegenerative diseases [20,21]. The measurement of neopterin is possible in various body fluids such as serum, plasma or urine. ...