Matthew J. Gerber's research while affiliated with University of California and other places

Publications (20)

Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review In this review, we provide a brief history of intraocular robotic surgical systems and review the latest technological advancements. The goals are to (a) provide readers with a clear understanding of the important work that has been done in this field; (b) illuminate existing challenges towards full clinical adoption; and (c) spec...
Article
Full-text available
Overactuated multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) usually consist of multiple tiltable thrust actuators. The controllers are mostly designed by regarding the thrust forces and actuator tilting angles as inputs of outer-loop position and attitude controllers, while formulating an inner-loop controller for each actuator to track the thrust and...
Conference Paper
We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography system utilizing a 1-um Kerr frequency comb. We take images with comparable image quality to that of an SLD with a resolution of 10um.
Preprint
Full-text available
Overactuated multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) usually consist of multiple tiltable thrust actuators. The controllers are mostly designed by regarding the thrust forces and actuator tilting angles as inputs of outer-loop position and attitude controllers, while formulating an inner-loop controller for each actuator to track the thrust and...
Article
Objective: The objective of this work was to develop and experimentally validate a bioimpedance-based framework to identify tissues in contact with the surgical instrument during cataract surgery. Methods: This work introduces an integrated hardware and software solution based on the unique bioimpedance of different intraocular tissues. The deve...
Article
Full-text available
Multirotor copters with full six Degree of Free-dom(DoF) maneuvering are often overactuated. The control allocation of overactuated UAV platforms can have an infinite number of solutions due to their redundancy. The most common allocation framework is based on Force Decomposition(FD), which provides a robust least-square solution and is easy to imp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multirotor copters with full six Degree of Freedom (DoF) maneuvering are often overactuated. The control allocation of overactuated UAV platforms can have an infinite number of solutions due to their redundancy. The most common allocation framework is based on Force Decomposition (FD), which provides a robust least-square solution and is easy to im...
Article
Full-text available
Fully-actuated multi-rotor aerial platforms are receiving increasing research interests for the capability of six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motions such as hovering at non-horizontal attitude angles. Existing real world hardware and experiments have demonstrated such capability for a limited range of angles. This paper presents an aerial platform tha...
Article
The overarching goal of this letter is to demonstrate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to guide a robotic system to extract lens fragments from ex vivo pig eyes. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed to semantically segment four intraocular structures (lens material, capsule, cornea, and iris) from OCT imag...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the progress made toward the goal of robotic-assisted vitreoretinal surgery for clinical patient care. A brief history of early robotic systems specifically designed for intraocular surgical procedures is presented followed by a more detailed account of robotic systems over the past decade. Only vitreoretinal surgical robots...
Article
Background: In cataract surgery, polishing of the posterior capsule (PC) can lead to improved surgical outcomes but is currently avoided due to its high-risk nature. This work developed a robotic system capable of performing PC polishing on ex vivo pig eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance. Methods: The lenses of five ex vivo pi...
Article
Retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common causes of vision loss, occurring when a blood clot or other obstruction occludes a retinal vein. A potential remedy for retinal vein occlusion is retinal vein cannulation, a surgical procedure that involves infusing the occluded vein with a fibrinolytic drug to restore blood flow through the vascular...
Article
In this paper, an overview of advanced robotic surgical systems in ophthalmology is provided. The systems are introduced as representative examples of the degree of human vs. robotic control during surgical procedures. The details are presented on each system and the latest advancements of each are described. Future potential applications for surgi...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate semiautomated surgical lens extraction procedures using the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-integrated Intraocular Robotic Interventional Surgical System. Setting: Stein Eye Institute and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Design: Experimental study. Methods:...
Article
A laparoscopic surgical training system, the LapaRobot, is introduced. The system is composed of an expert station and a trainee station connected through the Internet. Embedded actuators allow the trainee station to be driven by an expert surgeon so that a trainee learns proper technique through physical feedback. The surgical‐tool trajectory and...
Article
A mechanism consisting of twisting and tilting joints is introduced to provide omnidirectional thrust-vectoring capabilities to a quadrotor system. This mechanism eliminates mechanical constraints and kinematic singularities to provide full directional authority to all four individual thrust vectors. The presented system fully decouples position an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With the development of laser-assisted platforms, the outcomes of cataract surgery have been improved by automating several procedures. The cataract-extraction step continues to be manually performed, but due to deficiencies in sensing capabilities, surgical complications such as posterior capsule rupture and incomplete cataract remova...
Article
Purpose: To investigate the tractional alterations of the central bouquet (CB) in idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Design: Retrospective, consecutive, observational case series. Methods: ERMs were classified according to a 4-stage grading system. The CB was defined as a circular area of approximately 100 μm composed of densely packed co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since the advent of robotic-assisted surgery, the value of using robotic systems to assist in surgical procedures has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, existing technologies are unable to perform complete, multi-step procedures from start to finish. Many intraocular surgical steps continue to be manually performed. Methods: An i...
Article
Low Reynolds number flow of liquids over micron-sized structures and the control of subsequently induced shear stress are critical for the performance and functionality of many different microfluidic platforms that are extensively used in present day lab-on-a-chip (LOC) domains. However, the role of geometric form in systematically altering surface...

Citations

... This is called the fast auxiliary input as it has much faster dynamics (zero's order for any given , feedthrough) compared with the in (5) (second order dynamics as need to be controlled by (8) to generate desired ). This property has been found of great significance in our following works for the tracking of highlydynamic reference signals [33] and flight recovery under certain actuator failures [34,35]. On the other hand, C1 does not have auxiliary inputs according to (9) and (10). ...
... However, the limited range of the tensioned cables or spherical joints used to connect quadcopters and the tool frame significantly constrains the achievable attitudes. Our group has proposed modular vectored thrust units made of quadcopters and passive mechanisms without angle range limits or constraints for two realizations, one DoF hinge [28,29] or two DoF gimbal [30,31,32]. These modular vectored thrust units overcome the constraints of the limited orientations between the quadcopters and the main frame in [25,26,27], and enable creating new multirotor aerial platforms for unique capabilities and performance. ...
... However, the limited range of the tensioned cables or spherical joints used to connect quadcopters and the tool frame significantly constrains the achievable attitudes. Our group has proposed modular vectored thrust units made of quadcopters and passive mechanisms without angle range limits or constraints for two realizations, one DoF hinge [28,29] or two DoF gimbal [30,31,32]. These modular vectored thrust units overcome the constraints of the limited orientations between the quadcopters and the main frame in [25,26,27], and enable creating new multirotor aerial platforms for unique capabilities and performance. ...
... Furthermore, intraoperative OCT scans tracked the tip of the surgical instrument during the lens-extraction procedure, allowing for real-time feedback of surgical progress. The UCLA team continues to pursue a wide array of research including an immersive, augmented-reality surgical "cockpit"; a next-generation, high-precision robotic system (Fig. 2); and intraocular-specific real-time image segmentation techniques based on artificial intelligence for use in autonomous robotic guidance [19]. ...
... Four patients received this technology in a phase I clinical trial, which proved the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted 100-micron intravenous cannula and 10 min anticoagulant injection to dissolve blood clots. Besides, researchers from UCLA (Chen et al., 2018;Gerber et al., 2020a), IACAS (Zhang et al., 2021b,a), and BHU (Chang-Yan et al., 2018;Han and Yang, 2019;, among others (Liu et al., 2018;Sumimoto et al., 2019;Huda et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020;Suzuki and Wood, 2020) conducted a series of trials on the precise perception and accurate manipulation of microscopic surgery. ...
... These limitations make humans insufficient and thus come to light the robots with integrated imaging modalities such as digital microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Procedures such as maintaining cannulation and inserting a retinal vein cannula with successful infusion are technically beyond the scope of the majority of surgeons [6]. In addition, the challenges faced by surgeons in determining the optimal timing of a procedure, and the optimal drug for administration, collectively limit the feasibility of the procedure. ...
... With the development of robotic surgery for cataracts, iOCT integrated with an intraocular robotic surgical system can help improve the safety and efficacy of automated robotic cataract surgery. [18,59] e images obtained with iOCT can enable real-time intraoperative monitoring and intervention of robotic surgery by ophthalmic surgeons. [18] With further technological development, iOCT integrated with the robotic surgical system is expected to contribute to the enhanced precision and safety of fully automated robotic cataract surgery. ...
... When discussing the prospects of IoT applications within surgical theaters, there are two key concepts in existence to keep in mind: telesurgery, and telementoring. While telesurgery describes the performance of a surgical operation by a remotely located surgeon, utilizing a network of devices with the aim of transferring the surgeon's haptic commands to a robotic surgery system, telementoring is the performance of live surgery on-site, with the live assistance of a more experienced surgeon, located off-site [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. In order to achieve the latter, a network of connected cameras, microphones, screens and computers is necessary [25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
... The second class actively controls the attitude of each propeller [20,21,22,23,24], referred to as the tiltable-rotor aerial platforms in the rest of this paper. This concept was ORCID(s): 1 The first two authors contributed equally to this work. ...
... Four patients received this technology in a phase I clinical trial, which proved the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted 100-micron intravenous cannula and 10 min anticoagulant injection to dissolve blood clots. Besides, researchers from UCLA (Chen et al., 2018;Gerber et al., 2020a), IACAS (Zhang et al., 2021b,a), and BHU (Chang-Yan et al., 2018;Han and Yang, 2019;, among others (Liu et al., 2018;Sumimoto et al., 2019;Huda et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020;Suzuki and Wood, 2020) conducted a series of trials on the precise perception and accurate manipulation of microscopic surgery. ...