Matthew Hodes's research while affiliated with Imperial College London and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Objective Very limited evidence is available on the psychological impact of war on adolescents in Ukraine. This study compared war experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in adolescents living in war-torn and peaceful region of Ukraine, more than two years after Russia first invaded in 2014. Method The cross-se...
Article
The Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24th February 2022 has prompted this article to summarise some of the salient mental health issues experienced by young asylum seekers and refugees focussing on resettlement countries, drawing on the substantial literature, for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Practitioners. Firstly, the various UNHCR categories...
Article
Background Few studies have investigated the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aims to investigate whether the pandemic is associated with increased referral of young people with OCD, any changes in their symptom severity and treatment offered.Methods Service data were used t...
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The COVID-19 pandemic starting in 2020 has had massive mental health consequences worldwide. It has caused generalised fear and anxiety about catching, spreading and suffering from the virus. This article describes a fictionalised patient's presentation of life-threatening obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with fears of catching COVID-...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the world since the first cases were reported in China in January 2020. The secondary mental health impacts of the pandemic are thought to be significant. Obsessive–compulsive disorder is a condition defined by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. It has been hypothesised that the focus on hygiene and...
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Aims Few studies have investigated the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), who are thought to be particularly vulnerable. This study aims to investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with increased referral of young people with OCD in one area of London and determine if COVI...
Chapter
This chapter outlines some of the main stress and protective factors for the mental health of young refugees in resettlement countries. On arrival in resettlement countries the reception for asylum seekers and refugees varies. Some, especially those in sponsored programmes, many receive high support, but many experience hostility, financial hardshi...
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Cambridge Core - Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology - Working with Refugee Families - edited by Lucia De Haene
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There is a limited amount of empirical data available regarding the cultural and religious variation in perceptions about the age when young people should be regarded as competent to make decisions in health settings. A public survey of 400 adults from diverse religious and ethnic backgrounds was conducted in the UK and Spain. Attitudes were assess...
Article
Child food allergy is increasingly prevalent, and caring for such children is associated with elevated parental anxiety. We previously carried out a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for parental anxiety associated with child food allergy which found that treatment to be effective. This study describes t...
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This study reviews the current evidence in pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) in asylum-seeking children. Refugees can experience a variety of traumas throughout the process of migration. Children can be exposed to multiple traumas such as experienced or witnessed physical or sexual violence, loss and bereavement, parental separation and the threat o...
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The increase in refugees globally since 2010 and the arrival of many into Europe since 2015, around 50% of whom are under 18 years, have been the stimulus to greater investigation and publications regarding their mental health. This clinical review summarises selected themes in the field as described in the published literature since 2016. The them...
Article
As increasing numbers of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) are arriving in Europe, there is a need to investigate which factors promote psychological resilience and improve their mental health. This review aims to identify preventive post settlement influences, including living arrangements, access to mental health services and effective treatment...
Article
Background Since 2010, the numbers of refugees have increased and around half are under 18 years of age. It is known that experience of organised violence, displacement and resettlement increases the risk for psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment. This review integrates recent research into the risk and protective factors for psychopath...
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Little is known about cultural variation in perceptions about the age when youngsters should be regarded as competent to make decisions. This is of particular importance as research has shown the significant effect of parental influence on their children’s decision-making. A public survey of 400 adults from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds in the...
Article
Many European countries are becoming multicultural at a previously unseen rate. The number of immigrants including refugees has considerably increased since 2008, and especially after the beginning of the war in Syria. In 2015, 88,300 unaccompanied minors sought asylum in the Member States of the European Union (EU) and most came from Syria, Afghan...
Article
The number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) is increasing, and unlike those who arrive with their parents, UASC are subject to interview to determine refugee status. The limited amount of objective evidence available in most asylum claims means that the UASC's account of their experiences often becomes key in deciding whether or not...
Article
Background: Mothers of children with food allergy have increased anxiety, which may be influenced by healthcare professionals' communication of risk. Objective: To evaluate a brief psychological intervention for reducing anxiety in mothers of children with food allergy. Methods: Two hundred mothers of children with food allergy were recruited...
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In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children’s physical health, little is known about child labour’s effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and ide...
Article
Unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC) are separated from caregivers, have often been exposed to significant additional past and ongoing adversities, and seek protection from war, organized violence, or persecution in a new country. Obtaining a more secure legal position by achieving recognition of the asylum claim and legal rights may involv...
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Previous work has shown patients commonly misuse adrenaline auto-injectors (AAI). It is unclear whether this is due to inadequate training, or poor device design. We undertook a prospective randomised controlled trial to evaluate ability to administer adrenaline using different AAI devices. We allocated mothers of food-allergic children prescribed...
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Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children,...
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Food allergy is a common cause of anaphylaxis, but the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis is not known. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis for people with food allergy, and relate this to other mortality risks in the general population. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, using the generic...
Article
Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is an important measure associated with outcome of psychosis. This first study in the UK compared DUP between adolescent and adult-onset individuals and explored whether the adolescent-onset group showed variations in DUP that could be accounted for by sociodemographic and selected risk factors. This naturalist...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of severely psychiatrically impaired adolescents requiring day hospital management and the effectiveness of the service using standardised outcome measures. Design/methodology/approach The data was collected on adolescents aged 13‐17 years in two London boroughs, attending the da...
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Little is known about the characteristics of young psychologically-distressed refugees in mental health services, and how they vary according to the duration of settlement. This study of 102 young refugees referred to a community-based mental health service describes past adversities and current circumstances, referral problems, service utilization...
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Evidence is emerging that psychological problems, particularly symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, are more prevalent in unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) than their accompanied peers. However, little is known about help seeking and mental health service (MHS) utilization in this group, and how this relates to thei...
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Susto (fright), nervios (nerves) and ataque de nervios (attack of nerves) are idioms of distress widely experienced amongst Hispanic Americans, often associated with psychiatric disorders. This study explores understanding of these idioms of distress and attitudes to help seeking amongst indigenous Spanish and Hispanic American residents in Spain....
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An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income countries. A systematic revi...
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European Union policy is to restrict the entry into the EU of asylum seekers. This has resulted in the detention of many thousands of asylum seekers including children and adolescents in prison-like environments. The available evidence suggests this practice is associated with high levels of psychological distress, anxiety, affective and posttrauma...
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Raising a child with intellectual disability (ID) has significant consequences for parents and family. The impact of the disability has been found to be influenced by the sociocultural context. This paper aims to show how for some parents the experience of an offspring with ID is not interpreted as a loss but as a gain because of the parents' attri...
Article
This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified. Ethnic categories were de...
Article
To investigate the level of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and background risk and protective factors that might increase or ameliorate this distress amongst unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and adolescents (UASC). Cross-sectional survey carried out in London. Participants were 78 UASC aged 13-18 years, predominantly from the Ba...
Article
In the past two decades, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a variety of traumatic or particularly threatening experiences has gained recognition as a significant contributor to morbidity in children. The basic features involve the development of impairing stress symptoms, including re-experiencing of the event in the form of “...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the effective treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) which are used with young people, particularly young refugees. Comprehensive accounts of treatments and treatment efficacy for PTSD in young people have been provided elsewhere (Dwivedi 2000; Perrin et al. 2000; Cohen and Mannarino 2004; National Collaboratin...
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Investigation of frequency and characteristics of violent deliberate self-harm (DSH) amongst adolescents. Study was retrospective, over 3-year period, based on records of attendees at child and adolescent mental health clinics in North West London. Nine adolescents showed violent self-harm out of 982 DSH cases (frequency 0.92%). The nine cases incl...
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This article is concerned with the small numbers of refugee children and adolescents who, for psychiatric reasons, have significant social impairment, with difficulties in functioning within their families and in school. Data from recent studies carried out in London are presented regarding the characteristics of this group. The studies show that t...
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The current study investigated the clinical features of British South Asian adolescent females presenting with low weight in the absence of organic disease. The authors performed a retrospective case note study of South Asian British female adolescents presenting with weight loss/anorexia nervosa to psychiatric clinics and matched White English pee...
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There is strong evidence that the rates of psychiatric admission for psychosis in the UK are elevated for the Black adult population compared with the White population. Black adults also have a higher rate of involuntary psychiatric admissions. There have been no studies in this country investigating links between ethnic background and psychiatric...
Article
Over the past century war and organised violence have led to the displacement of large populations and threatened or resulted in genocide of many ethnic or cultural groups. Although many people are internally displaced within their own country, some flee and seek asylum in other countries. The United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) defi...
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This article follows recent publications regarding the conceptualization of refugees’ trauma (Transcultural Psychiatry, 2000, Vol. 37, No. 3), and describes the neglected and misunderstood perspective of child and adolescent psychiatry. The first issues concern the validity, social impairment and multiaxial understanding of psychiatric disorders su...
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Britain is ambivalent towards refugees. Despite periodic xenophobic outcries in the popular press, frequently exacerbated by the actions of leading politicians (Dodd & Scott, The Guardian , p. 10, 11 August 2001), only about a third of asylum seekers are able to remain in the UK. Even those who
Article
There are at least 50000 refugee children and adolescents in the UK, mostly living in London. These young people and their families will have been exposed to high levels of violence, disruption of social life and losses, all of which will increase their risk for psychiatric disorders. Up to 40% may have psychiatric disorders, mostly depression,...
Article
To investigate the psychopathology, social impairment, adversities, and service utilization of refugee families and their children seeking help at a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in London. A retrospective case-control study of 30 refugee children and families individually matched with nonrefugee immigrant families and white British famili...
Article
This article describes a school-based mental health service established to help psychologically distressed refugee pupils. The primary school involved was situated in an inner London borough and had a high proportion of refugee and immigrant children. Teachers identified refugee pupils with psychological difficulties and referred them to an outreac...

Citations

... It caused a large number of deaths, destruction and displacement as well as social, political, and financial instability worldwide. Mental health illness is one of the major problems in wartime Ukraine, particularly for perinatal women (Sacchi 2022) and adolescents (Osokina et al. 2022). The PubMed search by the words of "Ukraine", "war" and "mental health" reveals 60 papers with these keywords as of December 12, 2022. ...
... Emotional reactions include: shock, disbelief, grief, anger, irritability, anxiety, fear, detachment, and insecurity. Women may be more likely to have internalizing symptoms (Hodes, 2022). Already existing mental health and social issues might amplify when exposed to trauma as well (World Health Organization, 2015). ...
... This finding is consistent with previous studies conducted by Cunning and Hodes [51] and Guzick et al. [52]. Cunning and Hodes [51] found that OC symptoms were exacberated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Guzick et al. [52] found that OC symptoms worsened during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
... This finding is particularly important and encouraging in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the marked increased use of remotely-delivered interventions in order to prevent exposure to unnecessary human contact (Moazzami et al., 2020) while maintaining patient access to treatment (Panchal et al., 2021). In fact, the proportion of referrals to child and adolescent mental health services for OCD symptoms increased during the pandemic despite the overall number of referrals falling (Henein et al., 2021). Furthermore, recent data suggest that for many patients with OCD, symptoms worsened during the pandemic period (Davide et al., 2020;Wheaton et al., 2021). ...
... Further, network dialogues emphasize an exploration of how refugee family relationships are a key locus for meaning-making in the aftermath of traumatization. Here, exploring the meaning of the child's school trajectory in parental orientations on restoring future perspectives in exile generates an open dialogue on post-trauma reconstruction of meaning, where parents may address their understanding of the child's school-related development as a vehicle of restoring hope and justice (Cissé et al., 2020). Equally, the network dialogue may address how family members mobilize cultural belonging in shaping a meaningful engagement with traumatic suffering (e.g., Kevers and Rober, 2020), generating a shared understanding within the network on how, for example, behavioral patterns of religious practices operate as a vehicle of establishing continuity in the face of loss or how the child's host country language acquisition is lived as both a reiteration of cultural loss and bridge toward a meaningful future. ...
... Most research on refugee youth mental health to date has focused on unaccompanied youth, who face a particularly high risk of experiencing adverse events and trauma during flight and must face post-migration stressors without their primary caregivers (7-9). This often results in higher rates of mental health problems (10,11). However, refugee youth living with their families also show elevated levels of mental health problems (9, 12) and share several risk factors with unaccompanied youth such as traumatic exposure in their home country and during their flight, and/or being separated from relatives (13,14). ...
... Az ételallergiával élő családokban jelentős szerepet tulajdonítanak az anyai szorongásnak, amely megjósolhatja a gyermek által megélt distressz mértékét [26,28]. Mindezen okokból több kutatás is lényegesnek találta az anyák mentális állapotának vizsgálatát [20,23,[28][29][30]. Az ételallergia súlyossága, az anyai pszichés distressz és túlvédés együtt jár a gyermek csökkent funkcionalitásával, illetve az egészséghez kötött alacsonyabb életminőségével [20,29]. ...
... "A premorbid high-achieving, perfectionist, conscientious personality seems to play an important role in the etiology of PRS generally, as can a psychiatric history of parents or child." 12 Family is the cornerstone "for emotional and social support for resettled refugee youth." The structure allows them to develop resilience and adapt in the face of the adversity associated with "war and displacement." ...
... En consecuencia, los niños y adolescentes son especialmente susceptibles a sufrir los efectos psicológicos adversos derivados de la exposición a numerosos factores de riesgo personales, sociales y ambientales durante su viaje migratorio, que pueden afectar negativamente el desarrollo psicológico y emocional de estos menores (Bronstein y Montgomery, 2011;Díaz Rodríguez, 2017;Loinaz y de Sousa, 2020). En esta línea, se han encontrado elevadas tasas de psicopatología en estos menores (Norredam et al., 2018;Oppedal y Idsoe, 2015), siendo los trastornos más frecuentes el trastorno de estrés postraumático, la ansiedad y la depresión, con una mayor prevalencia en menores refugiados que en población local de la misma edad (Brockie et al., 2015;Fazel et al., 2012;Hodes, 2019;Reed et al., 2012;Scoglio y Salhi, 2021). La pobre salud mental y el déficit en regulación emocional derivados de la exposición repetida a la violencia en etapas evolutivas tempranas constituyen un factor de riesgo para la futura victimización del niño o adolescente (Cooley et al., 2020), debido a la baja autoestima, la desesperanza aprendida y los esquemas cognitivos disfuncionales adquiridos (Finkelhor et al., 2011;Scoglio y Salhi, 2021), además de provocar reacciones emocionales desproporcionadamente intensas ante ciertos estímulos (McLaughlin et al., 2014). ...
... Several longitudinal studies have examined change in mental health of UASC reaching adulthood according to right-to-stay in the host country and the asylum process [19][20][21][22][23]. Evidence from these studies conducted in Norway [20,21], Holland [19], Belgium [23] and Germany [22], with UASC originating mainly from Asia [20][21][22][23] suggests that overall the high level of psychological distress on arrival stays relatively unchanged over the short-term (2 years). However, a higher age at arrival [24], low social support and poor living arrangements [20,25], and above all rejection of asylum status [20,22] have been found to negatively affect their mental health trajectory. In addition, an increase in daily stressors is reported over time, especially new stressors such as discrimination, missing family, impact of age assessment and homelessness which are concentrated around the pivotal age of 18 [23]. ...