Matthew Goldrick's research while affiliated with Northwestern University and other places

Publications (94)

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Diadochokinetic speech tasks (DDK), in which participants repeatedly produce syllables, are commonly used as part of the assessment of speech motor impairments. These studies rely on manual analyses that are time-intensive, subjective, and provide only a coarse-grained picture of speech. This paper presents two deep neural network models that autom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Diadochokinetic speech tasks (DDK), in which participants repeatedly produce syllables, are commonly used as part of the assessment of speech motor impairments. These studies rely on manual analyses that are time-intensive, subjective, and provide only a coarse-grained picture of speech. This paper presents two deep neural network models that autom...
Preprint
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What explains the dramatic progress from 20th-century to 21st-century AI, and how can the remaining limitations of current AI be overcome? The widely accepted narrative attributes this progress to massive increases in the quantity of computational and data resources available to support statistical learning in deep artificial neural networks. We sh...
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Speaking involves both retrieving the sounds of a word (phonological planning) and realizing these selected sounds in fluid speech (articulation). Recent phonetic research on speech errors has argued that multiple candidate sounds in phonological planning can influence articulation because the pronunciation of mis-selected error sounds is slightly...
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In two speech production experiments, we investigated the link between phonetic variation and the scope of advance planning at the word form encoding stage. We examined cases where a word has, in addition to the pronunciation of the word in isolation, a context-specific pronunciation variant that appears only when the following word includes specif...
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Successfully grappling with widespread linguistic variation requires listeners to adapt to systematic variation in the environment while discarding incidental variation, based on listeners’ prior experience. We examine the role of prior experience in phonotactic learning. Talkers who differ in their language background are more likely to vary in th...
Preprint
Full-text available
In two speech production experiments, we investigated the link between phonetic variation and the scope of advance planning at the word form encoding stage. We examined cases where a word has, in addition to the pronunciation of the word in isolation, a context-specific pronunciation variant that appears only when the following word includes specif...
Article
The language and speech of individuals with psychosis reflect their impairments in cognition and motor processes. These language disturbances can be used to identify individuals with and at high risk for psychosis, as well as help track and predict symptom progression, allowing for early intervention and improved outcomes. However, current methods...
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No PDF available ABSTRACT What is the relationship between lexical retrieval and phonetic production in bilingual language processing? Various factors related to bilingual language processing affect bilingual's selection of context-appropriate words and speech sounds. One factor is whether bilinguals are using one (single context) or both (mixed co...
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No PDF available ABSTRACT What level of phonetic detail do learners use during early stages of word learning? At 14 months, infants taught the name “bih” for a novel object will later accept the mispronunciation “dih” as correct, even though other tasks show infants can reliably hear the difference between these syllables and can successfully compl...
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No PDF available ABSTRACT Northwestern University has a vibrant and highly interdisciplinary community of acousticians. Of the 13 ASA technical areas, 3 have strong representation at Northwestern: Speech Communication, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, and Musical Acoustics. Sound-related work is conducted across a wide range of department...
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No PDF available ABSTRACT Past work has shown that individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis have difficulty with motor coordination (e.g., Mittal etal., 2013). Here we ask whether these motor disruptions also affect their ability to produce speech, resulting in more variable speech productions. CHR participants and matched c...
Conference Paper
No PDF available ABSTRACT We examine how constraints on advance planning in speech production impact word form variation. A /t/ can be produced as a flap only when it's followed by a vowel (e.g., in “atom” and “great exam”). Planning can influence this process by restricting the availability of the following vowel during planning of the /t/. We tes...
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Speakers learning a second language show systematic differences from native speakers in the retrieval, planning, and articulation of speech. A key challenge in examining the interrelationship between these differences at various stages of production is the need for manual annotation of fine-grained properties of speech. We introduce a new method fo...
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In certain French words, an orthgraphically-final consonant is unpronounced except, in certain environments, when it precedes a vowel. This phenomenon, liaison, shows significant interactions with several other patterns in French (including h-aspiré, schwa deletion, and the presence of other morphemes in the liaison context). We present a learning...
Preprint
In many cognitive domains, comprehenders construct structured, discrete representations of the environment. Because information is distributed over time, and partial information may not unambiguously identify a single representation, multiple possible structures must be maintained during incremental comprehension. How can the continuous-time, conti...
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Voice Onset Time (VOT), a key measurement of speech for basic research and applied medical studies, is the time between the onset of a stop burst and the onset of voicing. When the voicing onset precedes burst onset the VOT is negative; if voicing onset follows the burst, it is positive. In this work, we present a deep-learning model for accurate a...
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Previous studies of speech abnormalities in schizophrenia reflect a consensus that atypical turn-taking behavior during conversation is a prominent feature of speech patterns in psychosis. However, the literature focuses on the population with formal psychosis and lacks studies that involve individuals who are at clinical high-risk (CHR) for develo...
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The current study investigated how aging affects production and self-correction of errors in connected speech elicited via a read aloud task. Thirty-five cognitively healthy older and 56 younger participants read aloud 6 paragraphs in each of three conditions increasing in difficulty: (a) normal, (b) nouns-swapped (in which nouns were shuffled acro...
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Interactive models of language production predict that it should be possible to observe long-distance interactions; effects that arise at one level of processing influence multiple subsequent stages of representation and processing. We examine the hypothesis that disruptions arising in nonform-based levels of planning—specifically, lexical selectio...
Chapter
The study of how a speaker produces meaningful utterances is a vital research topic in psychology and cognitive neuroscience, offering a window into not only language itself but also cognition more broadly. We review neurocognitive and behavioral evidence that supports a common set of principles for theories of the processes underlying speech produ...
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This study investigates the interaction of lexical access and articulation in spoken word production, examining two dimensions along which theories vary. First, does articulatory variation reflect a fixed plan, or do lexical access-articulatory interactions continue after response initiation? Second, to what extent are interactive mechanisms hard-w...
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Romani, Galuzzi, Guariglia, and Goslin (Comparing phoneme frequency, age of acquisition and loss in aphasia: Implications for phonological universals. Cognitive Neuropsychology) used speech error data from individuals with acquired impairments to argue that independent from articulatory complexity, within-language distributional regularities influe...
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Phonotactics-constraints on the position and combination of speech sounds within syllables-are subject to statistical differences that gradiently affect speaker and listener behavior (e.g., Vitevitch & Luce, 1999). What statistical properties drive the acquisition of such constraints? Because they are naturally highly correlated, previous work has...
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Speakers track the probability that a word will occur in a particular context and utilise this information during phonetic processing. For example, content words that have high probability within a discourse tend to be realised with reduced acoustic/articulatory properties. Such probabilistic information may influence L1 and L2 speech processing in...
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The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. Single-word switches, in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete whole-language switches, in which bilinguals completed a ful...
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Any incremental parser must solve two computational problems: (1) maintaining all interpretations consistent with the words that have been processed so far and (2) excluding all globally-incoherent interpretations. While these problems are well understood, it is not clear how the dynamic, continuous mechanisms that underlie human language processin...
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Schizophrenia is known to impact prosody, often described as “flat affect.” Individuals with schizophrenia show reduced F0 variability relative to neurotypical individuals (Rapcan et al. 2010). However, the speech of adolescents at high risk for psychosis in the prodromal (pre-diagnosis) stage has not been investigated, leaving open the question of...
Article
Northwestern University has a vibrant and highly interdisciplinary community of acousticians. Of the 13 ASA technical areas, 3 have strong representation at Northwestern: Speech Communication, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, and Musical Acoustics. Sound-related work is conducted across a wide range of departments including Linguistics (i...
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The current work uses memory errors to examine the mental representation of verb-particle constructions (VPCs; e.g., make up the story, cut up the meat). Some evidence suggests that VPCs are represented by a cline in which the relationship between the VPC and its component elements ranges from highly transparent (cut up) to highly idiosyncratic (ma...
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Though bilinguals know many more words than monolinguals, within each language bilinguals exhibit some processing disadvantages, extending to sublexical processes specifying the sound structure of words (Gollan & Goldrick, Cognition, 125(3), 491–497, 2012). This study investigated the source of this bilingual disadvantage. Spanish–English bilingual...
Article
A key barrier to making phonetic studies scalable and replicable is the need to rely on subjective, manual annotation. To help meet this challenge, a machine learning algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of a widely used phonetic measure: vowel duration. Manually-annotated data were used to train a model that takes as input an arbitrar...
Conference Paper
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We describe and analyze a simple and effective algorithm for sequence segmentation applied to speech processing tasks. We propose a neural architecture that is composed of two modules trained jointly: a recurrent neural network (RNN) module and a structured prediction model. The RNN outputs are considered as feature functions to the structured mode...
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The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish–English bil...
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Traces of the cognitive mechanisms underlying speaking can be found within subtle variations in how we pronounce sounds. While speech errors have traditionally been seen as categorical substitutions of one sound for another, acoustic/articulatory analyses show they partially reflect the intended sound. When "pig" is mispronounced as "big," the resu...
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Our keynote article “Coactivation in bilingual grammars: A computational account of code mixing” (Goldrick, Putnam & Schwarz) aimed to provide a framework that would begin to unify psycholinguistic and formal grammatical approaches to code mixing. We situated our account within a large body of psycholinguistic and phonetic evidence suggesting that,...
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During language production planning, multiple candidate representations are implicitly activated prior to articulation. Lexical representations that are phonologically related to the target (phonological neighbours) are known to influence phonetic properties of the target word. However, the question of which dimensions of phonological similarity co...
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A large body of research into bilingualism has revealed that language processing is fundamentally non-selective; there is simultaneous, graded co-activation of mental representations from both of the speakers’ languages. An equally deep tradition of research into code switching/mixing has revealed the important role that grammatical principles play...
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Walker and Hickok (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0903-7, 2015) used simulations to compare a novel proposal, the semantic-lexical-auditory-motor model (SLAM), to an existing account of speech production, the two-step interactive account (TSIA; Foygel & Dell, Journal of Memory and Language, 43:182-216, doi:10.1006/jmla.2000.27...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vowel durations are most often utilized in studies addressing specific issues in phonetics. Thus far this has been hampered by a reliance on subjective, labor-intensive manual annotation. Our goal is to build an algorithm for automatic accurate measurement of vowel duration, where the input to the algorithm is a speech segment contains one vowel pr...
Article
Full-text available
Vowel durations are most often utilized in studies addressing specific issues in phonetics. Thus far this has been hampered by a reliance on subjective, labor-intensive manual annotation. Our goal is to build an algorithm for automatic accurate measurement of vowel duration, where the input to the algorithm is a speech segment contains one vowel pr...
Conference Paper
Brain-machine interfaces that directly translate attempted speech from the speech motor areas could change the lives of people with complete paralysis. However, it remains uncertain exactly how speech production is encoded in cortex. Improving this understanding could greatly improve brain-machine interface design. Specifically, it is not clear to...
Article
Over the past several decades, an increasing number of empirical studies have documented the interaction of information across the traditional linguistic modules of phonetics, phonology, and lexicon. For example, the frequency with which a word occurs influences its phonetic properties of its sounds; high frequency words tend to be reduced relative...
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When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals,...
Article
Many theories of bilingual language production assume that when bilinguals process words in their first language, representations from their second language are coactivated. Verhoef, Roelofs, and Chwilla (2009) proposed an alternative account, assuming that the activation of second language representations is highly limited during first language pr...
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Brain-computer interfaces that directly decode speech could restore communication to locked-in individuals. However, decoding speech from brain signals still faces many challenges. We investigated decoding of phonemes - the smallest separable parts of speech - from ECoG signals during word production. We expanded on previous efforts to identify spe...
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To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target-e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compar...
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It is well known that multilingual speakers' nonnative productions are accented. Do these deviations from monolingual productions simply reflect the mislearning of nonnative sound categories, or can difficulties in processing speech sounds also contribute to a speaker's accent? Such difficulties are predicted by interactive theories of production,...
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Research with speakers with acquired production difficulties has suggested phonetic processing is more difficult in tasks that require semantic processing. The current research examined whether similar effects are found in bilingual phonetic processing. English–French bilinguals' productions in picture naming (which requires semantic processin...
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Lexical neighbors (words sharing phonological structure with a target word) have been shown to influence the expression of phonetic contrasts for vowels and initial voiceless consonants. Focusing on minimal pair neighbors (e.g., bud-but), this research extends this work by examining the production of voiced as well as voiceless stops in both initia...
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Mental representations have continuous as well as discrete, combinatorial properties. For example, while predominantly discrete, phonological representations also vary continuously; this is reflected by gradient effects in instrumental studies of speech production. Can an integrated theoretical framework address both aspects of structure? The frame...
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Currently, many experimental studies of speech production use fully counterbalanced designs to examine variation in categorical (e.g., correct/incorrect) or relatively continuous measures (e.g., reaction times, voice onset times). These data present several challenges to ANOVA analyses. Some of these issues are well known to be the speech community...
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Recent studies show that speech errors involve the co-production of the phonetic properties of both targets and error outcomes. Based on the spatial and temporal properties of these co-productions, Pouplier and Goldstein argued that they are influenced by speech production mechanisms that detect and suppress errorful articulations. In this commenta...
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The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical inf...
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In psycholinguistics, speech production refers broadly to the processes mapping a message the speaker intends to communicate onto its form. If a speaker wishes to tell someone "The picture I'm looking at is an animal-a feline pet", these processes allow the speaker to generate the spoken form "cat". Psycholinguistic theories have focused on "formul...
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Using empirical data to develop theories requires not only evaluating how well a theory accounts for data; it requires using the data to select the best theory from among a set of alternatives. Current case series research is examined in light of these two issues. Theory selection requires that theories make contrasting predictions. In the first se...
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We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated b...
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Speech errors are a critical source of data on the tacit knowledge that underlies our creative use of language. Studies of errors in spontaneous speech, in experimental paradigms such as tongue twisters, and those produced by aphasic individuals reveal the influence of linguistic principles on the production of speech. Linguistic representations fr...
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The current study examined the neural systems underlying lexically conditioned phonetic variation in spoken word production. Participants were asked to read aloud singly presented words, which either had a voiced minimal pair (MP) neighbor (e.g., cape) or lacked a minimal pair (NMP) neighbor (e.g., cake). The voiced neighbor never appeared in the s...
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Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of...
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Phonological grammars characterize distinctions between relatively well-formed (unmarked) and relatively ill-formed (marked) phonological structures. We review evidence that markedness influences speech error probabilities. Specifically, although errors result in both unmarked as well as marked structures, there is a markedness asymmetry: errors ar...
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Many theories predict the presence of interactive effects involving information represented by distinct cognitive processes in speech production. There is considerably less agreement regarding the precise cognitive mechanisms that underlie these interactive effects. For example, are they driven by purely production-internal mechanisms (e.g., Dell,...
Article
In a variety of experimental paradigms speakers do not treat all sub-syllabic sequences equally. In languages like English, participants tend to group vowels and codas together to the exclusion of onsets (i.e., /bet/=/b/-/et/). Three possible accounts of these patterns are examined. A hierarchical account attributes these results to the presence of...
Article
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Speakers are faster and more accurate at processing certain sound sequences within their language. Does this reflect the fact that these sequences are frequent or that they are phonetically less complex (e.g., easier to articulate)? It has been difficult to contrast these two factors given their high correlation in natural languages. In this study,...
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Many cognitive psychological studies assume that error probabilities reflect the structure of cognitive representations (e.g., if the representations of two lexical items overlap, they are more likely to interact in a word exchange error than are two lexical items with nonoverlapping representations). However, since errors directly reflect the prop...
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Theories of spoken word production generally assume a distinction between at least two types of phonological processes and representations: lexical phonological processes that recover relatively arbitrary aspects of word forms from long-term memory and post-lexical phonological processes that specify the predictable aspects of phonological represen...
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Previous work has revealed general characteristics of language change at both the level of linguistic communities as well as individual speakers. What are the properties of language users such that we can account for these characteristics? To address this question, we built a computational model of a social network of language users. By holding the...
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Results from chronometric and speech errors studies provide convergent evidence for both lower and upper bounds on interaction within the speech production system. Some degree of cascading activation is required to account for patterns of speech errors in neurologically intact and impaired speakers as well as the results of recent chronometric stud...
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Research into spoken word production has often focused on the interaction of lexical selection processes and phonological planning. Less attention has been given to the relationship between phonological planning and articulatory processes. The current study considers evidence from the tongue-twister paradigm to investigate such potential interactio...
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We review the significant cognitive neuropsychological contributions to our understanding of spoken word production that were made during the period of 1984 to 2004-since the founding of the journal Cognitive Neuropsychology. We then go on to identify and discuss a set of outstanding questions and challenges that face future cognitive neuropsycholo...
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Languages are subject to phonotactic constraints—restrictions on sound sequences. An implicit learning paradigm examined whether participants could acquire constraints at two levels of representation through exposure to a set of syllables. Participants were exposed to categorical segment-level constraints (e.g., /f/ only in onset, /s/ only in coda)...
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Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of...
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In his comment, A. Roelofs claimed that a feedforward-only theory of spoken word production (WEAVER + +) can account for certain basic facts of spoken word production that B. Rapp and M. Goldrick (2000) argued could not be accounted for by feedforward-only theories. Rapp and Goldrick argued that to account for these facts, mechanisms such as feedba...
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Most theories of spelling propose two major processes for translating between orthography and phonology: a lexical process for retrieving the spellings of familiar words and a sublexical process for assembling the spellings of unfamiliar letter strings based on knowledge of the systematic correspondences between phonemes and graphemes. We investiga...
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Theories of spoken word production generally assume that mapping from conceptual representations (e. g., [furry, feline, domestic]) to phonemes (e. g., /k/, /ae/, /t/) involves both a meaning-based process and a sound-based process. A central question in this framework is how these two processes interact with one another. Two theories that occupy e...
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Five theories of spoken word production that differ along the discreteness-interactivity dimension are evaluated. Specifically examined is the role that cascading activation, feedback, seriality, and interaction domains play in accounting for a set of fundamental observations derived from patterns of speech errors produced by normal and brain-damag...
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Typological work has demonstrated that there are constraints on word order vari- ation. For example, auxiliary verbs tend to precede content verbs in VO languages (Dryer 1992). Further, typologically recurrent structural preferences are reflected in language change. In this paper, we present agent-based modeling work that suggests that Filtered Lea...
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Psycholinguistic and stochastic grammatical theories of sound structure are typically stated in quite different formal vocabular-ies (i.e., connectionist networks vs. stochastic extensions of Op-timality Theory). This commentary argues that this difference ob-scures a common set of core principles: in each framework, the generation of behavior can...
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Individual languages exhibit variation in phonological structures both within and across words. This chapter examines the constraints placed on the acquisition of these stochastic phonological patterns. Theoretical perspectives on phonological acquisition are reviewed, revealing the importance of both formal and substantive constraints in a wide va...