Mason Klein's research while affiliated with University of Miami and other places

Publications (37)

Article
Thermotaxis behaviors in C. elegans exhibit experience-dependent plasticity of thermal preference memory. This behavior can be assayed either at population level, on linear temperature gradients, or at the individual animal level, by radial isothermal or microfluidic tracking of orientation. These behaviors are low-throughput as well as variable, d...
Article
Full-text available
Body temperature homeostasis is essential and reliant upon the integration of outputs from multiple classes of cooling- and warming-responsive cells. The computations that integrate these outputs are not understood. Here, we discover a set of warming cells (WCs) and show that the outputs of these WCs combine with previously described cooling cells...
Article
Full-text available
Glia in the central nervous system engulf neuron fragments to remodel synapses and recycle photoreceptor outer-segments. Whether glia passively clear shed neuronal debris, or actively prune neuron fragments is unknown. How pruning of single-neuron endings impacts animal behavior is also unclear. Here we report our discovery of glia-directed neuron...
Article
Full-text available
Fluctuating environmental pressures can challenge organisms by repeatedly shifting the optimum phenotype. Two contrasting evolutionary strategies to cope with these fluctuations are 1) evolution of the mean phenotype to follow the optimum (adaptive tracking) or 2) diversifying phenotypes so that at least some individuals have high fitness in the cu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fluctuating environmental pressures can challenge organisms by repeatedly shifting the optimum phenotype. Two contrasting evolutionary strategies to cope with these fluctuations are 1) evolution of the mean phenotype to follow the optimum (adaptive tracking) or 2) diversifying phenotypes so that at least some individuals have high fitness in the cu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Body temperature homeostasis is an essential function that relies upon the integration of the outputs from multiple classes of cooling- and warming-responsive cells. The computations that integrate these diverse outputs to control body temperature are not understood. Here we discover a new set of Warming Cells (WCs), and show that the outputs of th...
Article
Thermosensation is critical for avoiding thermal extremes and regulating body temperature. While thermosensors activated by noxious temperatures respond to hot or cold, many innocuous thermosensors exhibit robust baseline activity and lack discrete temperature thresholds, suggesting they are not simply warm and cool detectors. Here, we investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how systems with many semi-autonomous parts reach a desired target is a key question in biology (e.g., Drosophila larvae seeking food), engineering (e.g., driverless navigation), medicine (e.g., reliable movement for brain-damaged individuals), and socioeconomics (e.g., bottom-up goal-driven human organizations). Centralized systems p...
Article
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One of the biggest challenges in unravelling the complexity of living systems, is to fully understand the neural logic that translates sensory input into the highly nonlinear motor outputs that are observed when simple organisms crawl. Recent work has shown that organisms such as larvae that exhibit klinotaxis (i.e. orientation through lateral move...
Data
Scripts used in conjunction with MAGAT Analyzer software
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Values and s.e.m. for diffusion coefficient vs. time plots
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Values and s.e.m. for diffusion coefficient vs. time plots
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Values and s.e.m. for diffusion coefficient vs. time plots
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Values and s.e.m. for diffusion coefficient vs. time plots
Article
Full-text available
Many organisms—from bacteria to nematodes to insect larvae—navigate their environments by biasing random movements. In these organisms, navigation in isotropic environments can be characterized as an essentially diffusive and undirected process. In stimulus gradients, movement decisions are biased to drive directed navigation toward favorable envir...
Preprint
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Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) are a large subfamily of variant ionotropic glutamate receptors present across Protostomia. While these receptors are most extensively studied for their roles in chemosensory detection in insects, recent work has implicated two family members, IR21a and IR25a, in thermosensation in Drosophila . Here we characterize one of...
Article
Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated...
Article
Full-text available
Significance A full understanding of sensorimotor transformation during complex behaviors requires quantifying brainwide dynamics of behaving animals. Here, we characterize brainwide dynamics of individual nematodes exposed to a defined thermosensory input. We show that it is possible to uncover representations of sensory input and motor output in...
Data
Figure S1. Persistence of individual behavioral phenotypes. Figure S2. Flowchart of the stochastic agent‐based implementation of the fly life‐history model. Figure S3. End‐of‐season population size, as a function of phenotypic variance. Figure S4. Relative performance of bet‐hedging versus adaptive tracking, as a function of the strength of a co...
Preprint
Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated b...
Article
Full-text available
Organisms use various strategies to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions. In diversified bet-hedging, a single genotype exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity with the expectation that some individuals will survive transient selective pressures. To date, empirical evidence for bet-hedging is scarce. Here, we observe that individual Drosophila...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neural circuits for behavior transform sensory inputs into motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. Determining how neurons along a sensorimotor circuit contribute to this transformation is central to understanding behavior. To do this, a quantitative framework to describe behavioral dynamics is needed. Here, we built a high-throughput optog...
Article
Full-text available
Significance A previously unidentified set of thermosensory neurons embedded in the olfactory organ of the Drosophila larva is shown to be required to drive the animal up temperature gradients toward preferred environments. Optogenetics and optical neurophysiology reveal efficient sensory encoding of both favorable (warming) and unfavorable (coolin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Organisms use various strategies to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions. In diversified bet-hedging, a single genotype exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity with the expectation that some individuals will survive transient selective pressures. To date, empirical evidence for bet-hedging is scarce. Here, we observe that individual Drosophila...
Article
Full-text available
Brain circuits endow behavioral flexibility. Here, we study circuits encoding flexible chemotaxis in C. elegans, where the animal navigates up or down NaCl gradients (positive or negative chemotaxis) to reach the salt concentration of previous growth (the set point). The ASER sensory neuron mediates positive and negative chemotaxis by regulating th...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter describes four different protocols used to assay thermotaxis navigation behavior of single, or populations of, C. elegans hermaphrodites on spatial thermal gradients within the physiological temperature range (15-25°C). A method to assay avoidance of noxious temperatures is also described.
Article
Full-text available
Significance The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers the opportunity to map complex behaviors to the specific roles of each neuron in a 302-neuron nervous system. Thermotaxis is a complex behavior where the worm inverts the behavioral mode—positive thermotaxis up gradients or negative thermotaxis down gradients—to move toward a remembered temper...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Small animals such as Drosophila provide an opportunity to understand the neural circuitry for complex behaviors from sensory input to motor output without gaps. Here, we define the algorithms for Drosophila larva phototaxis (i.e., the maps between sensory input and motor output) by quantifying the movements of individual animals respo...
Article
Full-text available
The chemotrophic factor Netrin can simultaneously instruct different neurodevelopmental programs in individual neurons in vivo. How neurons correctly interpret the Netrin signal and undergo the appropriate neurodevelopmental response is not understood. Here we identify MIG-10 isoforms as critical determinants of individual cellular responses to Net...
Data
Right panel shows video of freely crawling larva corresponding to the video frames shown in Fig. 3A. Left panel shows kymograph of fractional changes in fluorescence intensity during the video as shown in lower panel of Fig. 3B. (MOV)
Data
Right panel shows video of larva exhibiting a small leftward head sweep corresponding to the video frames shown in Fig. 6A. Upper left panel shows kymograph of fractional changes in fluorescence intensity as shown in upper panel of Fig. 6B. Lower left panel shows kymograph of the logarithm of the ratio between right and left boundary lengths of eac...
Data
Right panel shows video of larva exhibiting a leftward then rightward head sweep corresponding to the video frames shown in Fig. 8A. Upper left panels shows kymograph of fractional changes in fluorescence intensity as shown in upper panel of Fig. 8B. Lower left panels shows kymograph of the ratio between right and left boundary lengths of each segm...
Article
Full-text available
When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva...
Data
Right panel shows video of larva exhibiting a large rightward head sweep corresponding to the video frames shown in Fig. 7A. Upper left panel shows kymograph of fractional changes in fluorescence intensity as shown in upper panel of Fig. 7B. Lower left panel shows kymograph of the ratio between right and left boundary lengths of each segment as sho...
Data
Right panel shows video of larva exhibiting a small leftward head sweep corresponding to the video frames shown in Fig. 5A. Upper left panel shows kymograph of fractional changes in fluorescence intensity as shown in upper panel of Fig. 5B. Lower left panel shows kymograph of the logarithm of the ratio between right and left boundary lengths of eac...

Citations

... Acidity components are sensed through olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae, and they express a sophisticated receptor family called the ionotropic receptors (Irs), which, further divide into the antennal Irs that exist broadly among insects and species specific Irs (Abuin et al., 2011;Ai et al., 2010;Benton et al., 2009). Irs were reported in variant sensory pathways of Drosophila including olfaction ( Ai et al., 2013;Prieto-Godino et al., 2017), gustation ( Ahn et al., 2017;Ganguly et al., 2017;Hussain et al., 2016;Koh et al., 2014;Lee et al., 2018;Rimal et al., 2019;Sánchez- Alcañiz et al., 2018), thermosensation ( Ni et al., 2016), and hygrosensation ( Enjin et al., 2016;Knecht et al., 2016 of acetic acid involves a number of IRs, indicating that the acid sensing process is somewhat complicated in insects. In antennae of D. melanogaster, the sensilla coeloconica on the third chamber of the sacculus express one dedicated Ir64a, which mediates repellency toward high acidity stimuli ( Ai et al., 2010). ...
... We classified input neurons based on their known sensory modalities. Olfactory (45), gustatory (47,66,101), thermosensory (48,102), visual (46), gut (47,103,104) and respiratory state SNs (105) project directly to the brain. Somatosensory ANs from the nerve cord received direct or indirect input from mechanosensory (29,38,106), nociceptive (38,(107)(108)(109) and proprioceptive SNs (110,111) (Fig. S2, Table S1) and projected to the brain. ...
... We published that the ClC Clchannel CLH-1 is expressed in the Amphid sheath glial cells (AMsh glia) of the C. elegans amphid apparatus (Grant et al., 2015). These glial cells enwrap the sensory dendrites of 12 pairs of sensory neurons and are important for the structure and the function of these neurons (Bacaj et al., 2008, Raiders et al., 2021, Wang et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2012, Fernandez-Abascal et al., 2021, Wallace et al., 2016, Oikonomou et al., 2011, Razzauti and Laurent, 2021. Using the genetically encoded pH indicator Superecliptic pHlourin, we showed that CLH-1 is needed for influx of HCO 3 into the AMsh glia at baseline pH, following removal of HCO 3 from the extracellular space (Grant et al., 2015). ...
... They are expressed in the sensory neurons that respond to many distinct odors, such as acids, amines, and other chemicals that cannot be recognized by ORs (Benton et al., 2006). Aside from olfaction, IRs serve various functions, such as cool sensation (Ni et al., 2015), hygrosensation (Knecht et al., 2016), circadian clock (Chen et al., 2015), and detection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (Breugel et al., 2018). ...
... For univoltine insects with obligatory diapause, the expression of diversified bet-hedging strategies in response to unpredictable temperature regimes during diapause seems to be of great importance for population persistence under in situ environmental disturbance (e.g., insufficient chilling due to climate change) Moraiti and Papadopoulos, 2017). Bet-hedging seems to be particularly advantageous in natural populations that experience high seasonal variance in temperatures combined with a short breeding period (Akhund-Zade et al., 2020). Understanding the ecological conditions that drive the expression of long life cycles in insect populations in relation to the fitness consequences within and among populations is an extremely challenging subject in evolutionary biology. ...
... In addition, our data show that wild-type swarms contain A-motile cells, and that swarms of A-motility mutants display perturbed speeds and directionality. Thus, A-motile cells within swarms potentially contribute to the directionality of swarms to provide the ability to navigate without a centralized system 29 which is known to increase the robustness and efficiency of reaching a target in biological 30 and in autonomous driving systems 29 . Future research, however, will be required to elucidate if and how A-motile cells may guide collective groups 31 . ...
... Recent studies show that IR21a prompts heat-driven blood feeding in An. gambiae (Greppi et al., 2020). Interestingly, the conserved IR21a detects cooling in D. melanogaster (Budelli et al., 2019), which suggests that heat-seeking behaviour seen in mosquitoes likely relies on cooling-mediated repulsion during evolution. This indicates that blood feeding in mosquitoes uses a conserved thermoreceptor present in non-haematophagous Diptera that has been repurposed for the processes of heat sensing (Greppi et al., 2020). ...
... Sensitive dependence on initial conditions applies to a broad range of dynamical systems (Glasner and Weiss, 1993), which possess a high degree of adaptability to their ever-changing environment. Such complex adaptive systems are often modeled as networks of independent interacting agents that "evolve in time to produce a complicated interplay between deterministic and stochastic outputs" (Manrique et al., 2018) that generate feedback loops directing the whole system toward a specific final state. These systems can be centralized-with all agents sharing information through a central node-or decentralized-with control agents having "nonidentical information on the system structures, states, parameters, and so on" (Aoki, 1971). ...
... IRs are involved in not only olfaction but also gustation, hygrosensation, and thermosensation, and are also a new subfamily of ORs (Ni et al., 2016;Knecht et al., 2017;Koh et al., 2014). IRs are more highly conserved in insects than ORs and GRs (Croset et al., 2010). ...
... Knowing the concentration experienced by the animal is not only useful for measuring navigational strategies more precisely than in classical assays, like the droplet chemotaxis assays. It will also be crucial for studying changes in navigational strategy, such as those in the context of associative learning (Cho et al., 2016;Torayama et al., 2007), sensory adaptation (Levy and Bargmann, 2020;Itskovits et al., 2018), and long time scale behavioral states (Calhoun et al., 2014;Gomez-Marin et al., 2011;Klein et al., 2017). In all those cases, it will be critical to disambiguate slight changes to the odor landscape from gradual changes in the navigational strategies. ...