Martin J. Blaser's research while affiliated with Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and other places

Publications (834)

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At-home COVID-19 testing offers convenience and safety advantages. We evaluated at-home testing in Black and Latino communities through an intervention comparing community-based organization (CBO) and health care organization (HCO) outreach. From May through December 2021, 1100 participants were recruited, 94% through CBOs. The odds of COVID-19 tes...
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Antibiotic use is increasing worldwide. However, the use of antibiotics is clearly associated with changes in gut microbiome composition and function, and perturbations have been identified as potential environmental risk factors for chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In this Review, we examine the association between the...
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The mechanistic role of the airway microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains largely unexplored. We present a landscape of airway microbe–host interactions in COPD through an in-depth profiling of the sputum metagenome, metabolome, host transcriptome and proteome from 99 patients with COPD and 36 healthy individuals in Chin...
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Antibiotics, among the most used medications in children, affect gut microbiome communities and metabolic functions. These changes in microbiota structure can impact host immunity. We hypothesized that early-life microbiome alterations would lead to increased susceptibility to allergy and asthma. To test this, mouse pups between postnatal days 5–9...
Preprint
We developed SAHMI, a computational resource to identify truly present microbial nucleic acids and filter contaminants and spurious false-positive taxonomic assignments from standard transcriptomic sequencing of mammalian tissues. In benchmark studies, SAHMI correctly identifies known microbial infections present in diverse tissues. The application...
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Early-life antibiotic exposure perturbs the microbiome, dysregulates intestinal immune gene expression, and accelerates and amplifies type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in NOD mice. We have previously shown that cecal microbiota transfer (CMT) from healthy donors rescues antibiotic-induced T1D development via restoration of intestinal microbiota and...
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Purpose The functional composition and diversity of the gut microbiome (estrobolome) may affect breast cancer risk by modulation of systemic sex hormones. Gut bacteria with β-glucuronidase enzymatic activity may deconjugate estrogens, leading to increased estrogen reabsorption into the circulation thereby increasing breast cancer risk. We investiga...
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Dynamic changes of microbiome communities may play important roles in human health and diseases. The recent rise in longitudinal microbiome studies calls for statistical methods that can model the temporal dynamic patterns and simultaneously quantify the microbial interactions and community stability. Here, we propose a novel autoregressive zero-in...
Preprint
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Dynamic changes of microbiome communities may play important roles in human health and diseases. The recent rise in longitudinal microbiome studies calls for statistical methods that can model the temporal dynamic patterns and simultaneously quantify the microbial interactions and community stability. Here, we propose a novel autoregressive zero-in...
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Black and Latinx individuals, and in particular women, comprise an essential health care workforce often serving in support roles such as nursing assistants and dietary service staff. Compared to physicians and nurses, they are underpaid and potentially undervalued, yet play a critical role in health systems. This study examined the impact of the c...
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Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) may be associated with gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether discrete gluten exposure in subjects with well-controlled disease on a gluten-free diet impacts the gut microbiome is unknown and may have implications for understanding disease activity and symptoms. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the impact of...
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For more than a century, the prenatal environment was considered sterile. Over the last few years, findings obtained with next-generation sequencing approaches from samples of the placenta, the amniotic fluid, meconium, and even fetal tissues have challenged the dogma of a sterile womb, and additional reports have emerged that used culture, microsc...
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The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Sa...
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Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric cancer (GC) initiation. However, epidemiologic studies on the specific role of other bacteria in the development of GC are lacking. We conducted a case-control study of 89 cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 89 matched controls who underwent upper gastrointestinal endo...
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Monitoring the burden and spread of infection with the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, whether within small communities or in large geographical settings, is of paramount importance for public health purposes. Serology, which detects the host antibody response to the infection, is the most appropriate tool for this task, since virus-derived markers are...
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Full-text available
Measuring molecular evolution in bacteria typically requires estimation of the rate at which nucleotide changes accumulate in strains sampled at different times that share a common ancestor. This approach has been useful for dating ecological and evolutionary events that coincide with the emergence of important lineages, such as outbreak strains an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microorganisms are detected in multiple cancer types, including in putatively sterile organs, but it is unclear whether this relates to specific tissue contexts and influences oncogenesis or anti-tumor responses in humans. We developed SAHMI, a framework to analyze host-microbiome interactions using single-cell sequencing data. Interrogating pancre...
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Background The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related ph...
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Background We studied risk factors, antibody responses, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a diverse, ambulatory population. Methods A prospective cohort (n=831, including 548 hospital-based healthcare workers) previously undiagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection was followed for six months with serial testing (SARS-CoV-2 PCR, specific IgG) and s...
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The incidence of kidney stones is increasing in the US population. Oxalate, a major factor for stone formation, is degraded by gut bacteria reducing its intestinal absorption. Intestinal O. formigenes colonization has been associated with a lower risk for recurrent kidney stones in humans. In the current study, we used a clinical trial of the eradi...
Article
Early-life antibiotic exposure perturbs the intestinal microbiota and accelerates type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in the NOD mouse model. Here, we found that maternal cecal microbiota transfer (CMT) to NOD mice after early-life antibiotic perturbation largely rescued the induced T1D enhancement. Restoration of the intestinal microbiome was signif...
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Full-text available
Importance Black and Latinx communities have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, yet little work has sought to understand their perspectives. Objective To explore the experiences of Black and Latinx communities during the pandemic to better understand their perspectives on COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (eg, mask wearing), te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monitoring the burden and spread of infection with the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, whether within small communities or in large geographical settings, is of paramount importance for public health purposes. Serology, which detects the host antibody response to the infection, is the most appropriate tool for this task, since virus-derived markers are...
Article
Recent studies have suggested that the temporal dynamics of the human microbiome may have associations with human health and disease. An increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, which record time to disease onset, aim to identify candidate microbes as biomarkers for prognosis. Owing to the ultra-skewness and sparsity of microbiome prop...
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Full-text available
We have established experimental systems to assess the effects of early-life exposures to antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota and gene expression in the brain. This model system is highly relevant to human exposure and may be developed into a preclinical model of neurodevelopmental disorders in which the gut–brain axis is perturbed, leading to...
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Infection with SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 induces hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states, resulting in arterial and venous thromboembolic events. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been well reported in COVID-19 patients. While most DVTs occur in a lower extremity, involvement of the upper extremity is uncommon. In this report, we describe th...
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Since alterations in the intestinal microbiota may induce systemic inflammation and polarization of macrophages to the M1 state, the microbiome role in atherosclerosis, an M1-driven disease, requires evaluation. We aimed to determine if antibiotic (Abx) induced alterations to the intestinal microbiota interferes with atherosclerotic plaque inflamma...
Preprint
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Given the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the recent implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, we have much to learn about the duration of immune protection and the interface between the immune responses to infection and to vaccination. To address these questions, we monitored immune respon...
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Full-text available
Over-accumulation of oxalate in humans may lead to nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Humans lack endogenous oxalate degradation pathways (ODP), but intestinal microbes can degrade oxalate using multiple ODPs and protect against its absorption. The exact oxalate-degrading taxa in the human microbiota and their ODP have not been described. We lev...
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Full-text available
Antibiotic exposure early in life and other practices impacting the vertical transmission and ordered assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota are associated with a higher risk of immunological and metabolic disorders such as asthma and allergy, autoimmunity, obesity, and susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In this study, we used a...
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Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to affect the human microbiome in infected and uninfected individuals, having a substantial impact on human health over the long term. This pandemic intersects with a decades-long decline in microbial diversity and ancestral microbes due to hygiene, antibiotics, and urban living (the hygiene hypothesis). High...
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Full-text available
Worldwide, antibiotic use is increasing, but many infections against which antibiotics are applied are not even caused by bacteria. Over-the-counter and internet sales preclude physician oversight. Regional differences, between and within countries highlight many potential factors influencing antibiotic use. Taking a systems perspective that consid...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The incidence of kidney stones is increasing in the US population. Oxalate, a major factor for stone formation, is degraded by gut bacteria reducing its intestinal absorption. Intestinal O. formigenes colonization has been associated with a lower risk for recurrent kidney stones in humans. In the current study, we used a clinical trial...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent studies have suggested that the temporal dynamics of the human microbiome may have associations with human health and disease. An increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, which record time to disease onset, aim to identify candidate microbes as biomarkers for prognosis. Owing to the ultra-skewness and sparsity of microbiome prop...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measuring molecular evolution in bacteria typically requires estimation of the rate at which nucleotide changes accumulate in strains sampled at different times that share a common ancestor. This approach has been useful for dating ecological and evolutionary events that coincide with the emergence of important lineages, such as outbreak strains an...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to trigger Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS). While uncommon, recurrent GBS (rGBS) episodes, triggered by antecedent viral infections, have been reported in a small proportion of GBS patients, here we describe a patient with a recurrent case of GBS, occurring secondary to COVID-19 infection. Before this pat...
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Background Healthcare workers (HCW) are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to occupational exposure to infected patients. However, there has been little epidemiological research to assess these risks. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of HCW (n = 546) and non...
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There have been reports of associations between cesarean section delivery and the risk of childhood asthma, potentially mediated through changes in the gut microbiota. We followed 700 children in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC 2010 ) cohort prospectively from birth. We examined the effects of cesarean section...
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Objective To investigate the extent to which antibiotic exposure in the first 2 years of life is associated with the risk of immunological, metabolic, and neurobehavioral health conditions with childhood onset. Patients and Methods In this population-based cohort study, we identified all children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January...
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Background SARS-CoV-2 infection is a critical concern among health care workers (HCW). Other studies have assessed SARS-CoV-2 virus and antibodies in HCW, with disparate findings regarding risk based on role and demographics. Methods We screened 3,904 employees and clinicians for SARS-CoV-2 virus positivity and serum IgG at a major New Jersey hosp...
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Helicobacter pylori is a common component of the human stomach microbiota, possibly dating back to the speciation of Homo sapiens. A history of pathogen evolution in allopatry has led to the development of genetically distinct H. pylori subpopulations, associated with different human populations, and more recent admixture among H. pylori subpopulat...
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Background: There is increasing evidence that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the maturation of the immune system and the prevention of diseases during childhood. Early-life short-course antibiotic use may affect the progression of subsequent disease conditions by changing both host microbiota and immunologic development. Epidemi...
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Introduction: Workers' exposure to metalworking fluid (MWF) has been associated with respiratory disease. As part of a public health investigation of a manufacturing facility, we performed paired environmental and human sampling to evaluate cross-pollination of microbes between environment and host and possible effects on lung pathology present am...
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Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common cutaneous disease, associated with imbalances in the skin microbiota. Objective: To explore the characteristics of the cutaneous microbiota and its dynamic changes during clinical treatment. Methods: Cutaneous swab samples were collected from 51 AD patients before treatment, and 40 AD patients remained...
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The mother’s vaginal microbiota represents the first microbes to which a child is exposed when delivered vaginally. However, little is known about the composition and development of the vaginal microbiota during pregnancy and birth. Here, we analyzed the vaginal microbiota of 57 women in pregnancy week 24, 36 and at birth after rupture of membranes...
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are the two most common autoimmune endocrine diseases that have rising global incidence. These diseases are caused by the immune-mediated destruction of hormone-producing endocrine cells, pancreatic beta cells and thyroid follicular cells, respectively. Both genetic predisposition and environme...
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As the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps across the world, the availability of viral transport media (VTM) has become severely limited, contributing to delays in diagnosis and rationing of diagnostic testing. Given that SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA has demonstrated stability, we posited that phosphate buffered saline (PBS) may be a viable transport medium, as an al...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: Healthcare workers are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to occupational exposure to infected patients. However, no epidemiological study has examined the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of healthcare workers during the early phase of community t...
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Objectives Four machine manufacturing facility workers had a novel occupational lung disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by lymphocytic bronchiolitis, alveolar ductitis and emphysema (BADE). We aimed to evaluate current workers’ respiratory health in relation to job category and relative exposure to endotoxin, which is aerosolised from in-...
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Prior studies have shown that high-fat diet (HFD) can have profound effects on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiome and also demonstrate that bacteria in the GI tract can affect metabolism and lean/obese phenotypes. We investigated whether the composition of viral communities that also inhabit the GI tract are affected by shifts from normal t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motivation The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related ph...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over-accumulation of oxalate in humans may lead to nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Humans lack endogenous oxalate degradation pathways (ODP), but intestinal microbiota can degrade oxalate and protect against its absorption. However, the particular microbes that actively degrade oxalate in vivo are ill-defined, which restricts our ability to d...
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Full-text available
As microbiome science expands, academic centres scramble to fill many needs, from service provider to industry liaison. A newly created network aims to share strategies and accelerate knowledge transfer, and invites others to join the efforts.
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Urbanization represents a profound shift in human behaviour, and has considerable cultural and health-associated consequences1,2. Here, we investigate chemical and microbial characteristics of houses and their human occupants across an urbanization gradient in the Amazon rainforest, from a remote Peruvian Amerindian village to the Brazilian city of...
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Early-life antibiotic exposure may provoke long-lasting microbiota perturbation. Since a healthy gut microbiota confers resistance to enteric pathogens, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic exposure would worsen the effects of a bacterial infection encountered as an adult. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice received a 5-day course of tylos...
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Asthma and allergy incidence continue to increase globally. We have made significant strides in treating disease, but it is becoming more apparent that we need to advance our knowledge into the origins of asthmatic disease. Much recent work has indicated that microbiome composition influences immune regulation and that multiple health care factors...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects an estimated 5.8 million Americans, and advanced age is the greatest risk factor. AD patients have altered intestinal microbiota. Accordingly, depleting intestinal microbiota in AD animal models reduces amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque deposition. Age-related changes in the microbiota contribute to immunologic and physiolog...