Martin Čertner's research while affiliated with Charles University in Prague and other places

Publications (34)

Article
Across eukaryotic organisms there is a great diversity of life cycles. This particularly applies to unicellular eukaryotes (protists), where the life cycles are still largely unexplored, although this knowledge is key to understanding their biology. To detect the often inconspicuous transitions among life cycle stages, we focused at shifts in ploid...
Preprint
Full-text available
Parallel evolution is common in nature and provides one of the most compelling examples of rapid environmental adaptation. In contrast to the recent burst of studies addressing genomic basis of parallel evolution, integrative studies linking genomic and phenotypic parallelism are scarce. Edaphic islands of toxic serpentine soils provide ideal syste...
Article
Polyploidisation is an important evolutionary force in land plants. Due to its recurrent incidence, many plant species retain individuals of two or more different ploidy levels. However, particular ecological and evolutionary mechanisms facilitating intraspecific cytotype coexistence have been identified for just a handful of species and cannot yet...
Article
In theory, any plant tissue providing intact nuclei in sufficient quantity is suitable for nuclear DNA content estimation using flow cytometry (FCM). While this certainly opens a wide variety of possible applications of FCM, especially when compared to classical karyological techniques restricted to tissues with active cell division, tissue selecti...
Article
Although the evolutionary drivers of genome size change are known, the general patterns and mechanisms of plant genome size evolution are yet to be established. Here we aim to assess the relative importance of proliferation of repetitive DNA, chromosomal variation (incl. polyploidy) and the type of endoreplication for genome size evolution of the P...
Article
Hybrid seed inviability (HSI) is an important mechanism of reproductive isolation and speciation. HSI varies in strength among populations of diploid species but it remains to be tested whether similar processes affect natural variation in HSI within ploidy‐variable species (triploid block). Here we used extensive endosperm, seed and F1‐hybrid phen...
Article
Pollen grains are the male gametophytes in a seed‐plant life cycle. Their small, particulate nature and crucial role in the plant reproduction have made them an attractive object of study using flow cytometry (FCM), with a wide range of applications existing in the literature. While methodological considerations for many of these overlap with those...
Article
This article comments on: Mariana Castro1, João Loureiro, Brian C. Husband and Sílvia Castro, The role of multiple reproductive barriers: strong post-pollination interactions govern cytotype isolation in a tetraploid–octoploid contact zone, Annals of Botany, Volume 126, Issue 6, 2 November 2020, Pages 991–1003, https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa084
Article
Full-text available
PREMISE: Whole genome duplication is a major evolutionary event, but its role in ecological divergence remains equivocal. When populations of different ploidy (cytotypes) overlap in space, “contact zones” are formed, allowing the study of evolutionary mechanisms contributing toward ploidy divergence. Multiple contact zones per species’ range are of...
Article
Polyploidy is a significant driver of plant diversity and is, along with homoploid hybridisation, widely accepted as a common and important evolutionary force in plants. Here, we employed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, ploidy level and genome size determination via flow cytometry and morphometry in order to disentangl...
Article
Aim While environmental conditions are reported as important determinants of cytotype distribution patterns in some mixed‐ploidy plant species, in others they seem to play no role. One reason for such inconsistency might be how and at what spatial scale the ecology of different cytotypes is compared. To address this issue, we adopted several comple...
Article
• In angiosperms, genome size and nucleobase composition (GC content) exhibit pronounced variation with possible adaptive consequences. The hyperdiverse orchid family possessing the unique phenomenon of partial endoreplication (PE) provides a great opportunity to search for interactions of both genomic traits with the evolutionary history of the fa...
Article
Background and Aims: Polyploidy has played an important role in the evolution of ferns. However, the dearth of data on cytotype diversity, cytotype distribution patterns and ecology in ferns is striking in comparison with angiosperms and prevents an assessment of whether cytotype coexistence and its mechanisms show similar patterns in both plant gr...
Article
Whole genome duplication is a key process in plant evolution and has direct phenotypic consequences. However, it remains unclear whether ploidy‐related phenotypic changes can significantly alter the fitness of polyploids in nature and thus contribute to establishment of new polyploid mutants in diploid populations. We addressed this question using...
Article
Mixed-ploidy species harbor a unique form of genomic and phenotypic variation that influences ecological interactions, facilitates genetic divergence, and offers insights into the mechanisms of polyploid evolution. However, there have been few attempts to synthesize this literature. We review here research on the cytotype distribution, diversity, a...
Article
Background and aims: Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive plo...
Article
Full-text available
Interspecific hybridization, especially when regularly followed by backcrossing (i.e., introgressive hybridization), conveys a substantial risk for many endangered organisms. This is particularly true for narrow endemics occurring within distributional ranges of widespread congeners. An excellent example is provided by the plant genus Knautia (Capr...

Citations

... Nevertheless, since FCM is an indirect method for ploidy estimation, it has to be supported by chromosome counting (see below and reference 21 for example). Advantages of FCM over other methods of ploidy estimation include (i) no need for special preparation of plant material (most tissues of the growing plant can be used), 22 (ii) rapid sample preparation, allowing daily processing of dozens or even hundreds of samples, (iii) an ability to measure DNA content/ploidy in mitotically inactive cells (as compared to chromosome counting, which requires mitotic cells), (iv) nondestructive sampling (a very small sample, about 5-10 mg fresh weight, is sufficient to provide thousands of nuclei for ploidy determination), which enables investigation of rare and endangered species with minimal damage, and allows the same individual to be used for further analyses, (v) the possibility of analysis of bulked samples of pooled individuals at one time, thereby providing large-scale screening, and (vi) very modest operating costs. It must be realized, however, that it is only possible to estimate ploidy levels from FCM measurements within a certain taxonomical rank (mostly within closely related species). ...
... The fact that the gametes are haploid also suggests the presence of molecular mechanisms that enable the isolation of the holoploid genome. This type of endoreplication, which appears to be specific to the Orchidaceae lineage in plants, has been successively termed ''progressively PE Q8 '' (Bory et al., 2008;Trá vní cek et al., 2015;H ribová et al., 2016), strict PE (Brown et al., 2017), and more recently, PE (Chumová et al., 2021;Q9 Trá vní cek et al., 2021). To be in line with the latest works and to harmonize the terminology for this phenomenon, the term PE will be used in this work. ...
... Plant pollen morphology is species specific and can help to analyze honey, pollinator-plant interactions, as well as allergic wind- ). An overview of recent developments of using flow cytometry in pollen analyses is provided by Kron et al., [125]. Automation of pollen analyses has been a research focus since the 1990s [126,127] mainly for its multiple facets in different research areas [128] for example as application in fossil pollen analyses (1. ...
... The study highlighted the importance of combining traditional culture-based analytical methods with fast and high-throughput ones for monitoring the microbiological safety of fruit juice. The comparison (solely on an economic basis) between the classic microbiological technique and flow cytometry for food applications clearly works in favor of the classic technique, but FCM is a tool which extends microbiological analyses capabilities and has a huge number of applications in several fields [65][66][67], and diminishing costs and user-friendly software are increasingly promoting its use. Flow cytometry proved to be capable of providing information on a large number of cells during the different phases of their growth, exceeding the limitation of the traditional culture-based methods, which underestimated bacterial growth. ...
... Firstly, assortative (within-ploidy) mating may occur if the patterns of pollen transfer are non-random due to e.g. spatial clumping of cytotypes (Morgan et al., 2020), flowering-time shifts (Pegoraro et al., 2019) and pollinator preferences (Laport et al., 2021;Roccaforte et al., 2015), or as a result of gametic selection . Different ecological preferences of related diploid and polyploid lineages are not uncommon (e.g. ...
... This DNA-fingerprinting technique has been successfully applied to the study of plant adaptation to metal tolerance in Arabidopsis halleri [93], serpentine adaptation in O. serpyllifolia [33], and genetic structure in rare serpentine endemics of the Balkans [27]. Moreover, it proved its effectiveness also in the detection of recent introgression events in morphologically divergent taxa and in polyploid groups [94][95][96]. ...
... Interestingly, we also found that the Ornstein Uhlenbeck evolutionary model best fitted GC content in our grassland species (Supplementary data Table S1), suggesting that GC content has been under an evolutionary pull towards an optimum value during its evolution. The same evolutionary pattern has been observed in 149 orchid species (Trávníček et al., 2019), which could be the result of physiological and environmental factors (Šmarda et al., 2014) or life-history traits, such as growth form (Trávníček et al., 2019). ...
... formed by genome duplication 83 after hybridization of two different parental genomes more or less divergent) than autopolyploids (i.e. This incongruence between studies has been explained by methodological issues as an inappropriate 93 resolution of environmental variables (Kirchheimer et al., 2016), because niche differentiation might be 94 occurring at a different spatial scale (Čertner, Kúr, Kolář, & Suda, 2019) and/or simply by different 95 evolutionary histories of polyploid cytotype between studied species -an aspect that has been, however, 96 often neglected in purely ecological studies. The presence or absence of niche evolution in polyploids 97 strongly depends on species' history: e.g. ...
... Taking into account morphological characters and molecular data, it was proposed to distinguish synuralean algae into a separate class, Synurophyceae [9,10]; however, recent molecular studies of the chrysophytes phylogeny clearly showed their position among Chrysophyceae [1]. The species concept for this group is based on the morphology of siliceous structures (scales and bristles), studied by transmission or scanning electron microscopy (TEM or SEM) [3], and is considered one of the best among the protists and generally confirmed by molecular methods [11,12]. Electron microscopy studies of synuralean algae began in the 1950s [13][14][15][16][17]. Since then, documenting the findings of this group of algae has become mandatory, making this group the model protists for studying biogeographic issues [18][19][20][21]. ...