Martin Belusko's research while affiliated with University of South Australia and other places

Publications (129)

Article
In the context of the Montreal Protocol, CO2 is considered as an appropriate natural refrigerant with an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of zero and a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of one. A CO2 heat pump water heater (HPWH) can provide hot water with a relatively high COP and consume significantly less energy than all electric or gas water heater...
Article
Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can regulate the intermittency of electricity generation in a grid powered by renewable energy sources. Such systems could be used in conjunction with Brayton power generation cycles operating at high temperatures (520 °C–750 °C) delivering higher efficiency. However, a trade-off of higher thermal efficien...
Article
Full-text available
Geopolymer refers to a large group of nanoporous, nanoparticulate materials that are synthesized by dissolution and polycondensation of aluminosilicates in basic solutions and can be made from a variety of starting materials, such as industrial waste ash, volcanic rock, or calcined clay. Geopolymers are X‐ray amorphous, corrosion resistant, refract...
Article
Supercritical CO2 has been proposed as a heat transfer fluid for Brayton cycles to achieve a high effectiveness in power generation from concentrated solar power plants. A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been considered as an alternative design for a sodium to supercritical CO2 heat exchanger operating at high pressure and temperature (22...
Article
This paper presents the parametric studies conducted on a packed-bed phase change material (PCM) encapsulated in spheres using the effectiveness-number of transfer units (ɛ-NTU) method for optimisation purposes. In order to maximise the energy storage effectiveness within a packed-bed PCM system, the numerical study on the impact of different param...
Article
The study reveals the effect of interstage pressure with the consideration of gas cooler outlet temperature on the cooling performance of an operating CO 2 heat pump system currently in use at a dairy plant. Based on the numerical model and CO 2 properties, it was found that the maximum mass fraction of liquid allocated for cooling can be achieved...
Article
The configuration of a recently installed CO2 heat pump system with a cooling capacity of 33.5 kW and heating capacity of 35.8 kW used on a dairy farm is presented. This system has been studied in order to determine the optimal performance when used for combined water heating and refrigeration. Furthermore, the effect of the interstage pressure on...
Article
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural substance and an environmentally benign, safe and economical refrigerant that can be used for cooling and heating systems. Unlike a traditional reversible heat pump system that only works either in heating or cooling, the air-to-air transcritical CO2 heat pump system reported in this paper is capable of providing s...
Article
A pycnometric method was utilised to determine the liquid density of carbonate and/or chloride salts at high temperatures. When compared to alternative methods, the measurements were quick and repeatable using common laboratory equipment. The methodology was validated using sodium chloride as a reference material with an error of ±0.6% when compare...
Technical Report
Report is accessible on https://www.racefor2030.com.au/publications/ This report has been prepared by the authors at the request of the Reliable Affordable Clean Energy for 2030 Cooperative Research Centre (RACE for 2030 CRC). In Australia, industry consumes nearly half of the total end use energy, out of which, 37% is used in process heat, repres...
Article
The structural integrity of a lab-scale shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage under transient conditions was investigated. The system was designed to use sodium at 750 °C as a heat transfer fluid with a high temperature phase change material, melting at 705.8 °C, as the heat storage medium. Stainless steel 347H (SS347H) was used as the...
Article
Analysis of stainless steel 316 as a containment material in the presence of a phase change material (PCM) cycled at high temperature was carried out through a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. In this work, stainless steel tokens were half-immersed in a chloride carbonate-based PCM, which were then ther...
Article
The formation and mechanism that drive corrosion in stainless steel as a containment material in the presence of phase change materials is of importance in solar thermal energy storage systems. In our work, half-immersed stainless steel 316 tokens in a carbonate-based phase change material (PCM 638) have been investigated. The samples were thermall...
Article
One feasible solution to reduce the cost of concentrated solar power is to employ a higher temperature and efficiency supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle. An alternative heat transfer medium and thermal energy storage (TES) system therefore needs to be explored. This work considered a variety of phase change materials (PCMs) and graphi...
Article
Unlike burning fossil fuels, energy generated through wind and solar cannot be synchronised to demand. To capture surplus energy generated by renewable sources, comprehensive energy storage that can be dispatched during generation shortages is required. There is substantial research on identifying the relevant qualities for energy storage technolog...
Chapter
This chapter presents the principles of solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs). The classifications of PCMs are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. PCMs can have problems in regards to incongruent melting, phase separation, subcooling, and low thermal conductivity. Literature in relation to overcoming these issues has been...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Latent heat thermal energy storage systems working at higher temperatures around 800 °C are considered as a promising alternative in conjunction with the sCO2 Brayton cycle for the next generation of concentrating solar power plants. At higher temperatures, a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis of the system is crucial, particularly during a meltin...
Conference Paper
The next generation of concentrated solar power plants will need to operate at higher temperatures (> 700°C) so that better efficiencies and lower costs can be achieved. One such design that may be able to achieve this is with sodium as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase change materials (PCMs) as the storage medium. To ensure safe design it i...
Conference Paper
A ternary molten chloride has been suggested as a high temperature (550-720 °C) sensible heat storage medium for a two-tank system. An effective thermal insulation is proposed to provide an opportunity for the fabrication of both the hot and cold storage tanks from lower cost metals, e.g. A240-347H, by maintaining the tank wall below 500 °C. To ach...
Conference Paper
This study established a methodology for designing a cascade latent heat thermal energy storage system. The latent heat thermal energy storage has been investigated by numerous researchers as an energy-dense and lower cost alternative to the two-tank molten salt sensible heat thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants. However, in o...
Article
Alternative cascade systems comprising of three, four, and five PCMs, PCM-graphite-PCM and a graphite system were compared with two-tank sensible heat storage systems. Numerical methods including an in-house code and Fluent were used to predict the transient heat transfer during the charging and discharging processes up to 6 h and 10 h, respectivel...
Article
For future concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, a levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of $0.06/kWhe is targeted, with their greatest value being their low-cost storage. However, low-cost storage is not the only factor that should be considered when selecting storage systems as this choice can significantly impact other parts of the CSP plant, p...
Article
Decarbonisation of all sectors of the economy is required if humanity will meet the Paris Agreement. Emissions from the electricity sector have fallen considerably in the past 10 years, however, other sectors of the economy have not been able to keep pace due to their reliance on natural gas. Wastewater treatment plants are in a unique position to...
Article
A shell-and-tube design with different thermal energy storage (TES) media was investigated as a promising TES system for a next generation concentrated solar power (CSP) plant. Sensible TES using graphite, latent TES using phase change materials (PCMs) and a hybrid of both were investigated. A two-dimensional transient heat transfer model was appli...
Article
In the current study two phase change materials have been initially characterised as potential high temperature phase change materials (PCM) for thermal energy storage. Thermophysical properties such as melting/freezing point, latent heat, and specific heat capacity were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from the unc...
Article
Full-text available
An increased awareness of the impacts of synthetic refrigerants on the environment has prompted the refrigeration industry and researchers worldwide to seek better alternatives in terms of technical, economic and environmental performance. CO2 refrigerant, also known as R744, has re-emerged as a potential alternative to existing refrigerants with i...
Article
Full-text available
Dew point cooling (DPC) is a novel indirect evaporative cooling concept capable of delivering air temperatures approaching the dew point. Coupling this technology with CO2 refrigeration is well suited to minimising transcritical operation when the coefficient of performance (COP) is dramatically reduced in hot climates. A substantial experimental p...
Article
Different options of sensible and latent heat storage systems comprising different types of heat transfer fluids, heat storage media or phase change materials (PCMs) have been compared considering the upstream and downstream requirements of a concentrated solar power cycle. For an optimal system, analysis of both the energy efficiency and exergy re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current regulatory pathways to compliance in energy efficiency for Australian housing are via provisions in the National Construction Code (NCC). This paper first identifies performance evaluation criteria set out in the code presented as a comparative analysis across the different methods of achieving compliance. Jurisdictional and concessional va...
Conference Paper
In the current study the feasibility of using concentrated solar power (CSP) coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) to displace gas for heating was explored. To assess the feasibility, a numerical model of an air-based encapsulated phase change storage system was developed, validated, optimised, and economically costed. The optimised air-based E...
Article
Thermally activated building systems (TABS) can work as thermal energy storage (TES) systems, which are useful in shifting the energy use of space cooling and heating in buildings. The present study analyses and optimizes simple deterministic control concepts for radiant wall supplied by a heat pump for cooling purposes. First, the “solar” concept...
Article
This paper presents a numerical investigation of a thermal energy storage tank consisting of phase change material (PCM) encapsulated in a sphere, using the effectiveness-number of transfer unit (ε-NTU) method. An experimental validated simulation model was used to validate the ε-NTU model. Three configurations of PCM container were investigated; a...
Article
Phase change materials (PCMs) are known to have a critical drawback of low thermal conductivity that resulted to an ineffective thermal storage system. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the heat transfer enhancement in a thermal energy storage (TES) system comprising a PCM encapsulated in sphere. To enhance the performance, the design mo...
Article
In the current study the feasibility of using solar-based renewables coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) to displace gas for heating was explored. To assess the feasibility, a numerical model of an air-based encapsulated phase change (EPCM) storage system was developed, validated, optimised, and economically costed. The optimised air-based EP...
Article
In the current study aluminium has been cycled around its melting temperature (660 °C) in stainless and carbon steel crucibles. The interaction between the crucibles and aluminium have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES), while the phase change behaviour of the aluminium has also been studied....
Article
Cooling in the industry sector contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. New electricity tariff structures include high charges for electricity consumption in peak hours which leads to elevated annual electricity costs for high-demanding consumers. Demand side management (DSM) is a promising solution to incr...
Article
For design and optimization purposes, understanding the performance characteristics of different configurations of PCM systems during charging and discharging processes is crucial, particularly for thermal storage in CSP. A numerical study using FLUENT has been performed to explore and compare the characteristics and behavior of PCM in different sh...
Chapter
In this chapter cost comparisons of encapsulated phase change materials (EPCMs), coil-in-tank, and heat pipe thermal energy storage systems are reviewed. Due to the increased interest in this field there are a number of studies on the economics of the aforementioned systems. However, in the absence of any commercial-scale systems confident cost est...
Chapter
This chapter presents information relevant to the design and application of direct contact molten salt based phase change material (PCM) thermal storage for high temperatures. Given the limited research, many of the concepts and processes are examined at low temperatures. The focus of this concept is with gas-based heat transfer fluid, although con...
Chapter
The University of South Australia has been conducting research on phase change materials (PCMs) for more than 20. years. Research was first conducted on static thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as encapsulated sphere systems, encapsulated slab systems, and tube-in-tank systems. In static systems the PCM in the system is not moved. From the...
Chapter
This chapter discusses a new heat transfer enhancement concept known as dynamic melting. This concept makes use of recirculation of the melted phase change material during the melting process to enhance heat transfer. This technique was first investigated for low-temperature applications using water. The experimental work was conducted on a tube-in...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of passive features during the design/construction of sustainable buildings requires thorough modelling at the design stage as some features may have unintended consequences resulting in occupant dissatisfaction, and resulting in the building using more energy to maintain comfort. This paper reports the outcome of an investigation i...
Article
The effectiveness of thermal mass and night ventilation in reducing cooling demand in commercial buildings has long been established. However, the appropriate configuration of facades has been determined for only a few locations without any clear design framework across different climate zones. Research on Australian climate zones is particularly l...
Article
Photovoltaic panels (PV) coupled to a heat pump supplying heat to a radiant wall is a system with potential to reduce the imported energy from the grid for heating and cooling of buildings. The radiant wall works as a thermal storage system (TES) allowing storage of the PV output and, thus, peak load shifting. However, the management of these techn...
Article
The use of paraffin, salts and salt hydrates as phase change materials (PCMs) have been researched extensively and used in a number of commercial applications. However, metals and metal alloys, which possess a high storage density on a volume basis as well as a substantially higher thermal conductivity, has received much less attention. This paper...
Article
In Australia, heatwaves are the deadliest natural hazard and a major driver of peak electricity demand. The disproportionately high peak demand increases electricity prices, causes occasional blackouts and exacerbates energy poverty, all of which limit one’s ability to use air conditioning. Meanwhile, increased energy efficiency of dwellings may de...
Article
The performance of parallel and counter flow configurations of a shell and tube heat exchanger used as a latent heat thermal storage system was investigated. The comparative analysis of the melting and solidification processes (charging and discharging) in the vertical and horizontal orientations of counter and parallel flow was included in this st...
Article
We have developed a method for generating synthetic five-minute pairs of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI), interpolated from hourly mean values. Our method develops a model based on five-minute pairs of GHI and DNI from a location where real five-minute data is available. Five-minute GHI and DNI clear sky index...
Article
A numerical study has been conducted on a shell and tube latent heat storage system whereby the inlet heat transfer fluid direction is periodically reversed during charging and discharging. The impact of varying the boundary condition at the interface of the tubes carrying the heat transfer fluid and phase change material (PCM) on the evolution of...
Article
In the present paper, an experimental study is carried out to evaluate the effect of the dynamic melting concept in a cylindrical shell-and-tube heat exchanger using water as the phase change material (PCM) and a potassium formate/water solution as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The dynamic melting concept is a new heat transfer enhancement techniq...
Article
Full-text available
The frequency and intensity of urban heatwaves (UHWs) have been growing worldwide due to climate change and the exacerbating effects of urban heat islands (UHIEs). UHWs have many negative impacts, including excess negative health outcomes (e.g. morbidity), energy (consumption and peak demand) and water consumption. Most studies have evaluated these...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Heatwaves are Australia's most deadly natural hazard and the principle driver of peak electricity demand in South Australia. The disproportionately high peak demand increases electricity prices, causes occasional blackouts and exacerbates energy poverty, all of which limit the use of air-conditioning. Meanwhile, the desire for more energy efficient...
Article
Thermal energy storage systems provide a means to store energy for use in heating and cooling applications at a later time. The storage of thermal energy allows renewable sources of energy to be stored if the time of demand does not coincide with the time of production. It also enables access to off-peak electricity tariffs offered during times of...
Article
The intermittency of renewable energy systems remains one of the major hurdles preventing a large scale uptake of these technologies and concentrated solar power (CSP) systems are no different. However, CSP has the benefit of being able to store excess heat using thermal energy storage (TES). For the uptake of CSP with TES it must be demonstrated t...
Chapter
By its very nature, servitization is an innovative process that mixes service content in a system to complement the functions and add value to a product (Lee and Abuali in Int J Adv Manuf Technol 52: 161–1173, 2011). For the customer, servitization introduces extra features to make a seemingly commoditized product differentiated from those of compe...
Article
Heatwaves have been subject to significant attention in Australia and globally due to their negative impacts on the ecosystem, infrastructure, human health and social life. Measures to increase resilience to heatwaves, however, are mostly isolated in different disciplines. This paper proposes a framework integrating urban and infrastructure plannin...
Article
Heatwaves are the most dangerous natural hazard to health in Australia. The frequency and intensity of heatwaves will increase due to climate change and urban heat island effects in cities, aggravating the negative impacts of heatwaves. Two approaches exist to develop population heat stress resilience. Firstly, the most vulnerable social groups can...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Heatwaves are Australia’s most deadly natural hazard and the principle driver of peak electricity demand, resulting from the dramatic increase in air-conditioning use. Increased peak demand has been causing occasional blackouts and a substantial increase in electricity prices to the community over the last decade. The escalating prices constrict th...
Presentation
Heat stress resistant residential buildings Gertrud Ms Hatvani-Kovacs1, Martin Dr Belusko2, John Dr Pockett2, John Prof Boland3 1. School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia 2. Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia 3. Centre for...
Presentation
Heat stress resilience Gertrud Ms Hatvani-Kovacs1, Martin Dr Belusko2, John Dr Pockett2, John Prof. Boland3 1. School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia 2. Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia 3. Centre for Industrial and Appl...
Article
Full-text available
The increased penetration of residential air-conditioners (AC); specifically vapor compression types, is regarded as one of the foremost causes of a dramatic rise in critical peak electricity demands requiring corresponding upgrades of electricity infrastructures. These upgrades requires heavy investments, consequently, driving up electricity price...
Article
Full-text available
Deploying standalone solar air-conditioning systems in residential buildings forms a radical demand-side energy management solution for eliminating the peak electricity demand from residential air-conditioning. For existing grids to meet this demand a correspondingly major investment is required to extend the capacity of the infrastructure. For any...
Article
Concentrating solar thermal power plants with thermal energy storage is a potential source of clean electrical power. This work has the same four optimal control modes established in a previous paper where Pontryagin's principle demonstrated that to maximise revenue from a plant with unlimited storage the optimal modes were to: (i) store all collec...
Article
The rating of buildings using thermal models represents a contrasting regulatory approach to prescriptive measures to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper investigates the relationship between measured household energy use for thermal comfort purposes and the modelled thermal energy calculated under the Nationwide House Energy Rat...
Article
A concentrating solar power (CSP) system converts sunlight into a heat source which can be used to drive a conventional power plant. Thermal energy storage (TES) improves the dispatchability of a CSP plant. Heat can be stored in either sensible, latent or thermochemical storage. Commercial deployment of CSP systems have been achieved in recent year...
Chapter
This chapter presents the principles of solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs). The classifications of PCMs are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. PCMs can have problems in regards to incongruent melting, phase separation, subcooling and low thermal conductivity. Literature in relation to overcoming these issues has been r...
Article
Although heatwave-related excess mortality and morbidity have been widely studied, results are not comparable spatially and often longitudinally because of different heatwave definitions applied. The excess heat factor (EHF) quantifies heatwave intensity relative to the local climate, enabling cross-regional comparisons. Previous studies have shown...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Heatwaves have a mounted interest in the last decade due to their negative impacts on infrastructure, the ecosystem and public health. Population exposure to heat stress is substantially influenced by the resilience of the built environment as people spend the majority of their time indoors. Retrofitting the existing building stock could profoundly...
Article
The tube-in-tank is a compact configuration well suited for PCM thermal storage systems. However limited research has investigated the impact of the boundary condition applied to the PCM achieved through differing tube arrangements. In Part 1, using CFD and considering the discharging condition for CSP applications, it was determined that when the...
Article
Effective extraction of latent energy is critical in phase change material (PCM) thermal storage applications, including CSP plants. For tube-in-tank arrangements, research to date has not explicitly investigated the impact of the boundary condition applied to the PCM surrounding the tube on the heat transfer process. In Part 1 of this study, the i...
Article
New electricity generation technologies are often assessed using simple metrics such as average return, break-even energy prices or levelised cost of electricity. These simple metrics do not always capture the full economic value of a technology, particularly those that can react quickly and efficiently to changes in demand. In a wholesale spot mar...
Article
Full-text available
Solar thermal electricity generation is taking up increasing proportions of future power generation worldwide. Recent research indicates that a closed-loop Brayton cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) offers the potential of higher power cycle efficiency versus the conventional superheated steam cycle at temperatures relevant for CSP ap...