Martha E. Francis's research while affiliated with Southern Methodist University and other places

Publications (7)

Article
Previous studies have found that writing about upsetting experiences can improve physical health. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, 72 first-year college students were randomly assigned to write about either their thoughts and feelings about coming to college or about superficial topics for three consecutive days. Measures of language use w...
Article
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The words people use in disclosing a trauma were hypothesized to predict improvements in mental and physical health in 2 studies. The first study reanalyzed data from 6 previous experiments in which language variables served as predictors of health. Results from 177 participants in previous writing studies showed that increased use of words associa...
Article
Inhibiting or holding back one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors is associated with long-term stress and disease. Actively confronting upsetting experiences can reduce the negative effects of inhibition. The present study describes a unique approach to aid individuals in dealing with psychological and emotional issues that they must often face. Fo...

Citations

... The job reviews can also suggest changes the firms could make to create better working environments. Thus, to overcome the difficulty of accessing B2B salespeople, we use job reviews from Glassdoor and conduct content analysis using the automated text analysis software LIWC2015 (Pennebaker, Booth, Boyd, & Francis, 2015). We assume that in the absence of actual measures of job satisfaction, the company ratings that accompany it serve as an excellent proxy for actual measures of job satisfaction. ...
... Example words are "guess", "hope", "maybe", "might", "suppose", "wonder". Insight and Tentat words add nuance to a comment and signal its content is not posed as an objective truth but represents the sender's thoughts or opinions (Pennebaker & Francis, 1996), e.g., "I think that might not be the case" vs. "That is not the case". Our ambiguity indictor was an ordinal variable with the following values: 1 = Clear, 2 = Intermediate, and 3 = Ambiguous. ...
... In the lexicon-based approach, public lexicons, such as SenticNet [10], SentiWordNet [2], and OpinionFinder [63], have been frequently applied by many studies owing to the reliability of public sentiment dictionaries [28]. Lists of sentiment-bearing words and phrases available in opinion lexicon are used for lexicon-based techniques, such as the General Inquirer lexicon [54], WordNet Affect [55] SentiWordNet, the ANEW words [8], and the LIWC dictionary [43]. Beyond these standard resources and to automatically generate and score lexicons, researchers have created new methods. ...
... As shown in [2], there are several indicative symptoms of depression like a loss of interest in everyday activities, feelings of worthlessness, and also a change in the use of language [33,17]. Because the change in language use can be detected, there are several lexicon-based approaches [21,19] to extracting semantic features from text. These approaches suffer from a limited size of vocabulary and require human annotation. ...
... Also, some of the stylistic features were found as successful in many age and/or gender classification studies. several examples are as follows: Pennebaker et al. (2001) observed that the number of determiners and prepositions usage was increased with age, while the number of negations and pronouns usage were decreased with age. Argamon et al. (2007) found that males use more frequently prepositions and articles, while females use more frequently auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, and personal pronouns. ...
... Another study found that, in romantic couples in which one partner was recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the cancer patient had relatively better dyadic adjustment when their partner used more positive and fewer negative emotion words (Karan et al., 2017). Other studies have found that people who use relatively more positive emotion words compared with negative emotion words while writing about a past trauma had more positive health when tracked over time (Pennebaker et al., 1997). Together, this body of research indicates that the use of relatively more positive emotion words than negative emotion words is associated with better psychosocial outcomes. ...
... Typically, participants repeatedly write about the respective topics for around 15-20 minutes per writing session over several consecutive days. Research has shown that expressively writing about negative experiences has many benefits across a range of health and non-health outcomes: It can decrease depression and lowering depressive symptoms [5,6], decrease blood pressure [7] and lead to a reduction in consultations [8] or absenteeism from work [9]. Moreover, the use of the expressive writing in educational fields can improve the physical health of undergraduates [10], increase students' exam performance [11] and reduce test anxiety [12], and improve teachers' physical health [13]. ...