Mark Toncar's research while affiliated with Youngstown State University and other places

Publications (26)

Article
Business programs and colleges of business have responded to calls from both AACSB and industry with many different methods of internationalizing business curricula. One increasingly popular method of exposing business students to international issues is the short study tour. This research investigates student perceptions of and preference for, dif...
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Purpose: This paper aims to investigate visual exaggerations of fragrance advertisements by comparing subjects' expectations resulting from print ads to their subsequent product evaluations. It then considers whether the actual scents fall short, meet or exceed these expectations. Design/methodology/approach: By means of a semiotic analysis the aut...
Article
This paper explores the concept of replication in research and the challenges involved in conducting replication studies. A framework for replication studies is developed to help provide useful guidelines and boundary conditions for researchers who are conducting replications. The framework is then applied to a recent replication study to criticall...
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Purpose – This paper aims to explore the moderating role of materialism in the relationship between country image and product preference with particular reference to emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach – Young consumers from a UK university were surveyed on their intention to buy three categories of products from six countries. Findin...
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The concept of consumer-based brand equity has been discussed extensively in the literature and there are a wide variety of both quantitative and qualitative measures used to assess it. For the most part, previous research has studied the way brand and product attributes are perceived in a consumer's mind and the empirical data used in most studies...
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Chinese and Indian car manufacturers are entering developed markets. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumers from those countries. Using the multi-dimensional brand personality scale, this paper provides an explorative study of the country of origin effect on U.S. consumers’ brand perception of automobiles from China and India....
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate beliefs about and attitudes toward online advertising (ATOA) among Chinese consumers and the relationship between belief factors, ATOA, and consumers' behavioral responses to online advertising. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from students of a large metropolitan university in...
Article
This Viewpoint piece discusses “puffery”, what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) defines as a ‘term frequently used to denote the exaggerations reasonably to be expected of a seller as to the degree of quality of his product, the truth or falsity of which cannot be precisely determined'’. The authors discuss their own use of semiotic analysis to i...
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Many human-service agencies and nonprofit organizations are experiencing increasing difficulties recruiting new volunteers. As a demographic group, young adults are very involved in volunteer activities and may reflect an excellent source of volunteers. The effect of gender on the motivations of young adults to volunteer, however, has received rela...
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Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service radio announcement (PSA) soliciting contributions for victims of Hurricane Katrina. Design/methodology/approach – Subjects were exposed to one of three public service announ...
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The objective of this study is to examine the motivations of college students to engage in volunteering with the purpose of increasing understanding of the choices made by these individuals to volunteer. Specifically, what role does altruism play in the motivations of college students to volunteer? The findings from this study indicate that, of th...
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This research discusses the development, refinement, and evaluation of the SErvice LEarning Benefit (SELEB) scale, a scale that measures student perceptions of service learning experiences. The final scale consists of 12 items representing four underlying dimensions - practical skills, interpersonal skills, citizenship, and personal responsibility....
Article
This research compares the study-abroad perceptions and preferences of business and non-business majors. The results suggest that the two groups have somewhat different motivations for studying abroad. On balance, business students appear more pragmatic than their non-business counterparts, expressing greater concern for financial issues, and the e...
Article
This research compares the study-abroad perceptions and preferences of business and non-business majors. The results suggest that the two groups have somewhat different motivations for studying abroad. On balance, business students appear more pragmatic than their non-business counterparts, expressing greater concern for financial issues, and the e...
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Full-text available
College-aged young adults spend significant amounts of time in voluntary activities and may represent an important pool of future volunteers. Consequently, understanding the motivations for volunteering, of students attending different types of colleges and universities, appears to be worthwhile. Do individuals attending different types of universi...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental factors on international franchising, and to offer a normative model to evaluate the international franchising environment. Using correlation analysis, this study finds that environmental factors including economic, demographic, cultural and political factors are related to...
Article
This research focuses on one type of figure of speech, tropes, and investigates their effects on persuasion and memory. Tropes are phrases in which the combination and ordering of the words causes them to take on unexpected meaning. The results of two experiments suggest that tropes can influence both the persuasiveness of and memory for advertised...
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This research investigates print advertisements in the United States and Germany to assess the degree of standardization of specific advertising elements. The results are compared to prior investigation by Mueller (1990), to learn whether print ads have become more or less standardized in the two countries. The results suggest that although nearly...
Article
This research investigates the effects of a specific type of figure of speech in print advertising. The figures of speech, tropes, are indirect or irregular statements, such as puns or metaphors, that require viewers to make inferences to understand their intended meaning. The results suggest that using tropes can significantly enhance the effectiv...
Article
This paper replicates a portion of the Weinberger and Spotts (1989) study, which compared the use of humour in television advertising in the US and the UK. A careful comparison of the results of the two studies suggests that the overall use of humour has become more similar in the two countries. Unlike the Weinberger and Spotts study, the current s...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental factors on international franchising, and to offer a normative model to evaluate the international franchising environment. Using correlation analysis, this study finds that environmental factors including economic, demographic, cultural and political factors are related to...
Article
This article introduces the Overseas Internship Experience, a program designed expressly for undergraduate business students who wish to have an overseas experience but are either unable or unwilling to participate in traditional study-abroad programs. The program, in operation since 1996, includes a 6-week supervised summer internship in Oxford, E...
Article
We report the results of a study which examined consumers’ thoughts while listening to a salesperson deliver a telemarketing message. Although telemarketing does not involve a face to face sales encounter, our results suggest that the salesperson continues to play a vital role in the telemarketing sales process. Consumers think about the salesperso...
Article
Full-text available
College-aged young adults spend significant amounts of time in voluntary activities and may represent an important pool of future volunteers. Consequently, understanding the motivations for volunteering, of students attending different types of colleges and universities, appears to be worthwhile. Do individuals attending different types of universi...

Citations

... The studies examining source effects focus on the characteristics of message sender. For example, Toncar, Munch, and Hu (1994) were interested in examining how salesperson characteristics affect the product evaluation during a telemarketing presentation. They found that even when the presentation was dominated by product information, subjects' perception of sales person attitude played a larger role in product evaluation. ...
... The inability of scholars to theoretically link humor to an exclusive fundamental motive and to derive types of humor with a universal human appeal has led to the proliferation of literature documenting how consumers from distinct environments differently appreciate distinct types of humor (Hatzithomas, Boutsouki, & Zotos, 2009;Hatzithomas, Zotos, & Boutsouki, 2011;Hoffmann, Schwarz, Dalicho, & Hutter, 2014). There is a broad evidence that humor appreciation varies across cultures (Alden, Hoyer, & Lee, 1993;Toncar, 2001;Unger, 1995). ...
... Moreover, the most persuasive rhetoric is brief (Plato, 380BCE;Thibodeau & Boroditsky, 2011, p. 1). Accordingly, proofs-either subjective or objective truths-can be established in 'tropes', 'memes' or other concise statements easily transmitted, repeated and understood-by an often under-informed or disengaged public (Toncar & Munch, 2003). In an emerging 'post-truth' political milieu (Stone & Kuznick, 2013, p. 532), understanding how political language can be manipulated for policy outcomes has therefore never been more critical. ...
... Past studies suggest there are several trait-based and statebased factors that can influence consumer evaluations of metaphor in advertising (McQuarrie & Mick, 2003). For instance, Toncar and Munch (2001) found that the use of figurative languages in advertising such as metaphors and puns might increase recall only among audiences with low levels of involvement. In addition, a visual metaphor in advertising also leads to favorable evaluations among consumers with high need for cognition (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004) and high processing abilities (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2009). ...
... However, the inquiry on migrants' community participation is still quite limited and not yet systematized compared to the literature on volunteerism in general, which offered more focused research on the rationale behind the voluntary action ( Burns et al., 2005;Liao, Chang, & Tsai, 2012;Marta, Manzi, Pozzi, & Vignoles, 2014;Omoto, Snyder, & Hackett, 2010;Pozzi, Pistoni, & Alfieri, 2017). The theories adopted to describe the rationales that leverage people's motivation in volunteerism are rooted in either the utilitarian or the moral/value-based perspective (Wilson, 2000). ...
... Replication studies exist on a fuzzy continuum with pure replication and new studies at the two ends and extension studies in the middle (Berthon, Pitt, Ewing, & Carr, 2002;Toncar & Munch, 2010). A pure replication study, also known as reproduction, duplicates an original study by keeping all its key parameters (i.e., theory, context, and method) constant. ...
... Second, this study examined only verbal puffery in advertisements that have been investigated in numerous empirical studies (e.g., Cowley, 2006;Gao & Scorpio, 2011;Haan & Berkey, 2002;Hoek & Gendall, 2007). However, puffery may be presented in various forms in the real marketplace, such as visual puffery (Fetscherin & Toncar, 2009;Toncar & Fetscherin, 2012) and visual hyperbole (Callister & Stern, 2007). As holistic thinkers tend to pay more attention to the whole picture than analytic thinkers, and analytic thinkers tend to pay more attention to the details of a picture than holistic thinkers, holistic thinkers and analytic thinkers might understand visually exaggerated advertisements differently. ...
... Students value internships and believe that it supports their careers (Hergert 2009, Green andFarazmand 2012), and increases student satisfaction (Gupta et al. 2010;Helyer and Lee 2014) if planned and well executed. Personal growth also supports internships as reported by Toncar and Cudmore (2000). ...
... It has also been found to build students' selfesteem and self-con dence (Eppler 2011;Muhlestein and Mccann 2019;Johnston 2020). Moving beyond more personal orientation, fostered is a greater sense of multi-cultural awareness (Toncar 2006), and concurrently a heightened capacity to understand other individuals' perspectives ( Jickling 2003;Barth 2007). is is further evidenced in a boosting of students' feelings of social connectedness (Eppler 2011;Muhlestein and Mccann 2019;Johnston 2020), notably with the wider community (Gullion and Ellis 2014; Graizbord 2019; Siza 2019). ...
... Observational research [6][7][8]: the term study tour is sometimes used to refer to tourism. It began earlier in Europe and the United States, as well as Japan and South Korea in Asia, and has progressed more rapidly since then. ...