Mark T. Aubel's research while affiliated with Greenwater Laboratories and other places

Publications (16)

Article
Full-text available
Microcystins (MCs) and nodularins (NODs) exhibit high structural variability, including modifications of the Adda (3S-amino-9S-methoxy-2S,6,8S-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4E,6E-dienoic acid) moiety. Variations include 9-O-desmethylAdda (DMAdda) and 9-O-acetylDMAdda (ADMAdda) which, unless targeted, may go undetected. Therefore, reference standards were...
Article
Full-text available
In the summer of 2018, six dogs exposed to a harmful algal bloom (HAB) of Microcystis in Martin County Florida (USA) developed clinicopathological signs of microcystin (MC) intoxication (i.e., acute vomiting, diarrhea, severe thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, hemorrhage). Successful supportive veterinary care was provided and led...
Article
In the summer of 2012, over 750 dead and dying birds were observed at the Paul S. Sarbanes Ecosystem Restoration Project at Poplar Island, Maryland, USA (Chesapeake Bay). Clinical signs suggested avian botulism, but an ongoing dense Microcystis bloom was present in an impoundment on the island. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of...
Article
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been identified as the potential cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) observed in the Chamorro people of Guam. The principal hypothesis for BMAA exposure and intoxication relies on the biomagnification of BMAA in flying fox specimens ingested by the Chamorro people. Al...
Article
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lowe...
Article
In 2013 and 2015, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a survey of lotic habitats within the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Ohio River basins in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) in algae communities and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Periphyton (68 from 41 sites), juvenile whole f...
Article
Microcystins have been detected in raw and finished drinking water using a variety of techniques, including assays (immunoassay, phosphatase inhibition) and HPLC (UV, MS/(MS)). The principal challenge to microcystin analysis is accounting for the over 150 variants that have been described. A confirmatory individual variant HPLC analysis is prone to...
Article
Full-text available
Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) are highly toxic metabolic by-products of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei produces a unique set of PSTs, including L. wollei toxins (LWT) 1-6. The accurate identification and quantification of PSTs from Lyngbya filaments is challenging, but critical for understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Microcystin poisoning was diagnosed in a dog exposed to a Microcystis aeruginosa-dominated, freshwater, harmful algal bloom at Milford Lake, Kansas, which occurred during the summer of 2011. Lake water microcystin concentrations were determined at intervals during the summer, using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and indicated extre...
Chapter
Full-text available
The eutrophication of water resources, mainly attributed to antrophogenic activities such as sewage and agricultural runoffs, has led to a worldwide increase in the formation of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (Cyano-HABs). Cyano-HABs have the ability to produce and release toxic compounds, commonly known as cyanotoxins, which comprise a potent...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a study of recreational exposure to microcystins among 81 children and adults planning recreational activities on either of three California reservoirs, two with significant, ongoing blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria, including Microcystis aeruginosa (Bloom Lakes), and one without a toxin-producing algal bloom (Control Lake). We...
Article
Algal samples were analyzed from 3 lakes, Crane Prairie Reservoir and Odell Lake in Oregon and an Anonymous North East System, using both standard taxonomic criteria for identification and DNA sequencing techniques. Two toxin-producing Anabaena populations, one with consistent akinete structure and another with variable akinete structure, were inve...
Article
Full-text available
Toxigenic cyanobacteria are common components of Florida's surface waters and may pose a threat to their ecology and a risk to human health. The Lake County Water Authority, the Florida Department of Health, the St. Johns River Water Management District, the South Florida Water Management District, and the Lee County Health Department have all rece...

Citations

... MC monitoring most commonly employs enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which do not allow for congener identification, but rather provide group-specific detection. ELISAs with antibodies raised against the Adda amino acid of MC/NODs allow for the detection of approximately 80% of MCs described to date (Bouaïcha et al., 2019), although cross-reactivities vary from >200% for NOD-R (Foss et al., 2017) to < 0.25% for MCs with modifications to Adda (Foss et al., 2020). Identification of MC and NOD congeners requires more specific techniques (esp. ...
... Careful consideration in determining what investigative chemistry technique to use (e.g., LC-MS/MS, LC with HRMS or TOF, and ELISA) and its limitations must be acknowledged prior to investigation. Toxin and cyanobacterial species can be identified through water samples but also through gut or faecal contents and fur or feathers where the animal has been in contact with bloom material [115]. A diagnosis of poisoning can be made using a multitude of methods, provided that evidence of ingestion or contact with bloom material is present. ...
... Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins Microcystins (MC), are cyclic non-ribosomal heptapeptides of 1 kDa, with more than 250 reported variants (Foss et al., 2018). They are the most ubiquitous group of toxic cyanobacterial metabolites, affecting almost every region of the globe. ...
... Foss and associates (Foss et al., 2018) provide compelling evidence for cautious interpretation of previous BMAA analyses of bacterial, plant, animal and human material performed by HPLC-fluorescence detection of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate(AQC)derivatized samples. Direct assay of the amino acid (by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, HILIC MS-MS) failed to detect underivatized BMAA in archival tissue of the Guam fruit bat. ...
... This species was shown to produce nodularin, a cyclic pentapeptide produced by a few nostocalean cyanobacteria, most notably Nodularia spumigena Mertens ex Bornet et Flahault and some strains of Nostoc (Sivonen et al., 1989;Sandström et al., 1990;Mazur-Marzec et al., 2006;Gehringer et al., 2012;Jokela et al., 2017). Nodularins inhibit protein phosphatases, as do the better known microcystins, and can bioaccumulate via ingestion of cells or uptake of dissolved toxin within aquatic systems (Zimba et al., 2001(Zimba et al., , 2006Karjalainen et al., 2003;Foss et al., 2018). ...
... In LC-ESI/MS, the parent ion [M + H] + m/z 209 is monitored along with its three specific fragments at m/z 91; 131 and 191 [28,49]. However, several studies report better results using the negative ionization mode for MS/MS (207 → 131 transitions) [59,63,64,72,[85][86][87]. Some alternatives to the classical LC-MS/MS methods exist, namely laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) [66,79] and condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP/MIMS) [88]; both methods were applied to aqueous samples with a detection limit of 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. ...
... Concerns related to MC accumulation in animal tissues, in particular in aquatic species potentially exposed to cyanobacteria, have led to the identification of a protein-bound fraction of MCs in these biological matrices [16]. The use of the term "bound" toxin usually remains ambivalent as it can sometimes be applied to matrices such as sediments in which MCs are adsorbed on inorganic or organic particles, but also to MCs covalently bound to proteins, in particular PP1 and PP2, in animal matrices [62,63]. However, these covalently-bound forms are not extractable as easily as free (i.e., not protein-bound) MCs in water, in bloom, or in the tissues of an organism. ...
... Most accounts of studies investigating the localisation of cylindrospermopsins in experimental animals have indicated that unaltered cylindrospermopsins can be excreted in the urine (Norris et al., 2001); hence, methods to detect it in this matrix can be useful where human exposure is suspected. This has been successfully achieved through salt removal and SPE (carbograph or other hydrophobic analyte recovery solid-phase) clean-up and concentration (Foss & Aubel, 2013). Similarly, cylindrospermopsin has been recovered from serum samples although in these samples the focus is on protein precipitation with solvent (methanol) prior to SPE. ...
... toxic cyanobacteria, Microcystis(Williams et al., 2007) have occurred in the upper, oligohaline region of this estuary sometimes resulting in sags in dissolved oxygen when blooms crashedMathews, 2013); thus, nutrient reductions are warranted.Although phytoplankton was not a signi cant factor causing reduced light for shoal grass under high ows, the frequency of observing color > 37 PCU increased by 62% (from 37.1-93.3%) likely due to increased concentrations of CDOM. ...
... Extraction of STXs was performed by combined treatment with 0.5 M acetic acid and sonication. Other acids have been tested for extraction of STXs in cyanobacteria, but acetic acid was recommended due to stability of different STXs (Foss et al., 2012). Reported concentrations of acetic acid have varied from 0.001 to 0.5 M (Calado et al., 2019;Foss et al., 2012). ...