Mark Petticrew's research while affiliated with London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and other places

Publications (437)

Article
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Background The aim of this study was to critically analyse information concerning the relationship between alcohol and food consumption provided via alcohol industry (AI) funded and non-AI-funded health-oriented websites, to determine the role it plays within the alcohol information space, and how this serves the interests of the disseminating orga...
Article
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Background The provision of commercialised gambling products and services has changed radically in recent decades. Gambling is now provided in many places by multi-national corporations, with important implications for public health and policymaking. The United Kingdom is one of the most liberalised gambling markets globally, however there are few...
Article
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Background Restricting the advertisement of products with high fat, salt, and sugar (HFSS) content has been recommended as a policy tool to improve diet and tackle obesity, but the impact on HFSS purchasing is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HFSS advertising restrictions, implemented across the London (UK) transport network in F...
Article
Background: Enhancing health equity is endorsed in the Sustainable Development Goals. The failure of systematic reviews to consider potential differences in effects across equity factors is cited by decision‐makers as a limitation to their ability to inform policy and program decisions. Objectives: To explore what methods systematic reviewers use...
Article
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Background and aim For decades, corporations such as the tobacco and fossil fuel industries have used youth education programmes and schools to disseminate discourses, ideas and values favourable to their positions, and to pre-empt regulation that threatens profits. However, there is no systematic research into alcohol industry-funded youth educati...
Article
Objective The French Evin Law was passed in 1991 to prohibit alcohol advertising in media from targeting young people and to regulate content in authorized media. This research analyzes how lobbying by the alcohol industry has undermined this law over the last 30 years. Method A narrative approach, consisting of the collection and analysis of semi-...
Article
Objectives: To demonstrate, using the example of a new systematic review of rapid diagnostic tests, how Sankey diagrams, alongside the PRISMA guidelines, can (i) facilitate reporting of the quality of the evidence base and (ii) help assess evidence syntheses when studies use heterogeneous outcomes. Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
Article
Background Restricting advertising of products with high fat, salt, and sugar (HFSS) content has been recommended as a tool to tackle obesity, but the impact on purchases is unknown. This study evaluates the impact of outdoor HFSS advertising restrictions, implemented across the London transport network in February, 2019, on HFSS purchases. Method...
Article
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Background There is a growing need for methods that acknowledge and successfully capture the dynamic interaction between context and implementation of complex interventions. Case study research has the potential to provide such understanding, enabling in-depth investigation of the particularities of phenomena. However, there is limited guidance on...
Article
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Introduction Manufacturers, such as producers of cigarettes, drugs or ultra-processed foods, influence health policy, research and practice. This influence is one of the main barriers against the implementation of public health policies around the world. Our goal was to identify existing mechanisms to limit this influence. Methods We conducted a s...
Article
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Public health advocates highlight the role of corporate actors and food marketing in shaping diets and health. This study analyses insider-oriented communications in food industry magazines in the UK to analyse actions and narratives related to health and nutrition, providing insights into relatively overlooked areas of marketing strategy including...
Article
Background Despite their central role in the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and previous infectious disease outbreaks, factors influencing the acceptability and implementation of social distancing measures are poorly understood. This systematic review aims to identify such factors drawing on qualitative literature. Methods A systematic s...
Article
Background The Alcohol Industry (AI), and the Social Aspects/Public Relations Organisations (SAPRO) it funds, has been shown to mis-represent the risk of alcohol with respect to cancer and pregnancy. It is theorized that the AI would position alcohol as ‘heart healthy’ to further undermine public perceptions of risks from drinking. Methods A compa...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the global imperative to address health inequities. Observational studies are a valuable source of evidence for real-world effects and impacts of implementing COVID-19 policies on the redistribution of inequities. We assembled a diverse global multi-disciplinary team to develop interim guidance for improving tr...
Article
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Placing limitations on advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks to children is an effective strategy in addressing childhood obesity. The industry maintains that further restrictions are unnecessary. A total of 117 case studies (1980-2016) published by the advertising industry which evaluate the effects of advertising campaigns were reviewed. T...
Conference Paper
Background As evidenced by research on tobacco industry documents, messages that seed uncertainty about product harms helped create more positive public attitudes attitudes towards industry, reduce support for regulation, and deflect potential litigation. There is mounting evidence that other harmful product industries engage in similar tactics, bu...
Article
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Background The Medical Research Council published the second edition of its framework in 2006 on developing and evaluating complex interventions. Since then, there have been considerable developments in the field of complex intervention research. The objective of this project was to update the framework in the light of these developments. The frame...
Article
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When the Fun Stops , Stop , is a prominent ‘responsible gambling’ campaign in the UK, originally funded and delivered by the industry-initiated and funded Senet Group. Since the Senet Group’s dissolution in 2020, the campaign has been overseen by the Betting and Gambling Council (BGC), the main gambling industry trade body. There has been no prior...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to critically analyse information concerning the relationship between alcohol and food consumption provided via alcohol industry (AI) funded and non-AI-funded health-oriented websites, to determine the role it plays within the alcohol information space, and how this serves the interests of the disseminating org...
Article
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Background Educational interventions engage youth using visual, literary and performing arts to combat stigma associated with mental health problems. However, it remains unknown whether arts interventions are effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma among youth and if so, then which specific art forms, duration and stigma-related componen...
Article
Background: In response to the magnitude of harms caused by alcohol, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol (GAS) was endorsed in 2010. We analysed submissions to the 2019 WHO consultation on the implementation of the GAS to identify how different stakeholders frame alcohol use and control; and to...
Article
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Often portrayed as a harmless leisure activity in the UK, gambling is being increasingly recognised as a public health concern. However, a gambling policy system that explicitly tackles public health concerns and confronts the dependencies and conflicts of interest that undermine the public good is absent in the UK. Although there is a window of op...
Article
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Background Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a method for identifying the configurations of conditions that lead to specific outcomes. Given its potential for providing evidence of causality in complex systems, QCA is increasingly used in evaluative research to examine the uptake or impacts of public health interventions. We map this emergi...
Article
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Background Advertising of less healthy foods and drinks is hypothesised to be associated with obesity in adults and children. In February 2019, Transport for London implemented restrictions on advertisements for foods and beverages high in fat, salt or sugar across its network as part of a city-wide strategy to tackle childhood obesity. The policy...
Article
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Health surveillance systems are considered vital for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR); however, the evidence-base on the effectiveness of these systems in providing information that can be used by healthcare professionals, or the acceptability of these systems by users, has not been reviewed. A systematic review was conducted of a number o...
Article
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Objectives To explore sociodemographic differences in exposure to advertising for foods and drinks high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) and whether exposure is associated with body mass index (BMI). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting UK. Participants 1552 adults recruited to the Kantar Fast Moving Consumer Goods panel for London and the North...
Article
Policy Points • Despite the pandemic's ongoing devastating impacts, it also offers the opportunity and lessons for building a better, fairer, and sustainable world. • Transformational change will require new ways of working, challenging powerful individuals and industries who worsened the crisis, will act to exploit it for personal gain, and will...
Article
Policy Points • The United States finds itself in the middle of an unprecedented combination of crises: a global pandemic, economic crisis, and unprecedented civic responses to structural racism. • While public sector responses to these crises have faced much justified criticism, the commercial determinants of these crises have not been sufficient...
Article
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Objectives: Most non-communicable diseases are preventable and largely driven by the consumption of harmful products, such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling and ultra-processed food and drink products, collectively termed unhealthy commodities. This paper explores the links between unhealthy commodity industries (UCIs), analyses the extent of alignmen...
Article
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The main causes of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), health inequalities and health inequity include consumption of unhealthy commodities such as tobacco, alcohol and/or foods high in fat, salt and/or sugar. These exposures are preventable, but the commodities involved are highly profitable. The economic interests of ‘Unhealthy Commodity Producers’...
Article
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Introduction Applying a complex systems perspective to public health evaluation may increase the relevance and strength of evidence to improve health and reduce health inequalities. In this review of methods, we aimed to: (i) classify and describe different complex systems methods in evaluation applied to public health; and (ii) examine the kinds o...
Article
The influence of harmful commodity industries on health research has heightened concerns around author financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) in public health journals (PHJs), with little discussion of potential editorial, i.e., editor and reviewer, FCOIs. In this analysis of 20 prominent PHJs, detailed disclosure requirements, the inclusion of ti...
Article
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Background The need for better methods for evaluation in health research has been widely recognised. The ‘complexity turn’ has drawn attention to the limitations of relying on causal inference from randomised controlled trials alone for understanding whether, and under which conditions, interventions in complex systems improve health services or th...
Article
Background and Aims A complex systems perspective has been advocated to explore multi‐faceted factors influencing public health issues, including alcohol consumption and associated harms. This scoping review aimed to identify studies that applied a complex systems perspective to alcohol consumption and the prevention of alcohol‐related harms in ord...
Article
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Background Globally, 20% of young people experience mental disorders. In India, only 7.3% of its 365 million youth report such problems. Although public stigma associated with mental health problems particularly affects help-seeking among young people, the extent of stigma among young people in India is unknown. Describing and characterizing public...
Article
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Background Public health evaluation methods have been criticized for being overly reductionist and failing to generate suitable evidence for public health decision-making. A “complex systems approach” has been advocated to account for real world complexity. Qualitative methods may be well suited to understanding change in complex social environment...
Poster
Objective The French Evin Law was voted in 1991 to prohibit advertising for alcohol in media targeting young people and regulate content in authorized media. This research analyzes how lobbying by the alcohol industry has undermined this law over the last 30 years. Method A narrative approach based on individual interviews with 18 French key opinio...
Preprint
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Aim: To systematically review qualitative literature on social distancing in order to identify and describe factors that enable or prevent its implementation. Methods: A rapid systematic qualitative review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA and ENTREQ guidelines. A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO,...
Article
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Policy Points Nudges steer people toward certain options but also allow them to go their own way. "Dark nudges" aim to change consumer behavior against their best interests. "Sludge" uses cognitive biases to make behavior change more difficult. We have identified dark nudges and sludge in alcohol industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) mater...
Article
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Objective We identified mechanisms for addressing and/or managing the influence of corporations on public health policy, research and practice, as well as examples of where these mechanisms have been adopted from across the globe. Design We conducted a scoping review. We conducted searches in five databases on 4 June 2019. Twenty-eight relevant in...
Article
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This is a protocol for a co‐registered Cochrane and Campbell Review (Methodology). The objectives are as follows: To identify, describe and assess methods for: when to replicate a systematic review; how to replicate a systematic review.
Article
Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Governments have implemented combinations of ‘lockdown’ measures of various stringencies, including school and workplace closures, cancellations of public events, and restrictions on internal and external movements. These policy interventions are an attempt to shield high risk i...
Article
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Background: The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the gold standard study design to inform decisions about the effectiveness of interventions. However, a common limitation is inadequate reporting of the applicability of the intervention and trial results for people who are "socially disadvantaged" and this can affect policy-makers' d...
Article
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Background: The term 'commercial determinants of health' (CDOH) is increasingly focussing attention upon the role of tobacco, alcohol and food and beverage companies and others-as important drivers of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the CDOH do not seem to be clearly represented in the most common social determinants of health (SDOH) fr...
Article
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Background: There is an increasing recognition that health intervention research requires methods and approaches that can engage with the complexity of systems, interventions, and the relations between systems and interventions. One approach which shows promise to this end is qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), which examines casual complexity...
Article
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Restricting alcohol advertising and marketing is a cost-effective intervention for reducing alcohol harms. However, the alcohol industry maintains that advertising does not affect consumption, claiming that its purpose is to help consumers choose brands, it is not aimed at young people, it only promotes “responsible consumption”, and any relationsh...
Book
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The revised edition of the Handbook offers the only guide on how to conduct, report and maintain a Cochrane Review. The second edition of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions contains essential guidance for preparing and maintaining Cochrane Reviews of the effects of health interventions. Designed to be an accessible resou...
Article
Aim: To examine factors influencing current and ex-smokers' decisions to use e-cigarettes or behavioural support, including potential impacts of any differences in perspectives between smokers and their local stop smoking services (SSSs). Design: Semi-structured qualitative interviews followed by framework analysis, with the 'capability', 'oppor...
Conference Paper
Background Risk behaviours (e.g. unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity (PA)) are associated with increased risk of chronic disease and mortality. The majority of adults in England engage in two or more risk behaviours, which tend to co-occur in individuals. There are also strong socio-economic gradients in key health behaviours. A systematic re...