Mark Hylkema's scientific contributions

Citations

... Territorial formation is borne out ethnographically, as California was also home to hundreds of politically autonomous "Tribelets" (Kroeber, 1962), each controlling a small, well-defined estate, with rigid systems of territorial defense ( Fig. 1; e.g., Aginsky, 1943;Driver, 1937;Levy, 1978;Riddell, 1978), resulting in a distribution of languages that makes it one of the most linguistically complex places on earth (Golla, 2007(Golla, , 2011Kroeber, 1939;Milliken, 1997;Moratto, 1984). The archaeological record of this region is equally diverse, revealing abrupt changes in burial postures, material types, and artifact styles over short distances (Beardsley, 1954;Bennyhoff and Fredrickson, 1994;Ericson, 1981;Fredrickson, 1974;Gerow and Roland, 1968;Hylkema, 2002Hylkema, , 2007Jackson, 1974;Lillard et al., 1939;McGuire and Hildebrandt, this issue;Moratto, 1984;Rosenthal, 1996Rosenthal, , 2011Rosenthal et al., 2007;Schulz, 1981;Stevens et al., this issue;Whitaker et al., 2009;White, 2003;White et al., 2002), suggesting that socio-political boundaries were operative for much of the late Holocene (post-4200 cal BP). ...
... In his discussion of shellmounds in the San Francisco Bay area, Gifford (1916) stated "It may be taken as axiomatic that the species in a [shell] mound reflect the molluscan fauna of the vicinity, and hence the environment during the period of growth of the mound." Based on the mollusks present at the Dominican University archaeological site (CA-MRN-254), we find this to be an exaggeration and show that the local Federated Coast Miwok people, a hunter-gatherer population (Milliken et al., 2007) characterized by a semi-sedentary mobility adaptation (Cook, 1976), traveled or traded to get much of their desired food items. ...
... The Central Coast Sequence has been applied to the area between San Simeon and Point Conception and is broken into six periods with the following date ranges established in Jones et al. (2007): the Paleo-Indian (pre-8000 BCE), Millingstone (8000-3500 BCE); ...
... Population reconstructions using Spanish mission baptismal recruitment records reveal that at contact, more than 15,000 Native Americans from five distinct language groups were residing in sedentary villages within 45 territorial communities (land-controlling autonomous polities) within 20 km of the bay (9)(10)(11). Extensive investigation of the region's dense archaeology has produced a trans-Holocene record, revealing that intensive sedentary or semisedentary habitation extends back >5,000 y (11)(12)(13)(14). ...