Marjo Saastamoinen's research while affiliated with University of Helsinki and other places

Publications (34)

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Protected areas are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation, and typically support more natural and undisturbed habitats compared to unprotected lands. The effect of protected areas on intra-specific ecological niche has been rarely investigated. Here, we explore potential differences in ecological niche properties of birds and mammals across p...
Article
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Abstract Aposematic animals advertise their toxicity or unpalatability with bright warning coloration. However, acquiring and maintaining chemical defenses can be energetically costly, and consequent associations with other important traits could shape chemical defense evolution. Here, we have tested whether chemical defenses are involved in energe...
Article
Active dispersal is driven by extrinsic and intrinsic factors at the three stages of departure, transfer and settlement. Most empirical studies capture only one stage of this complex process, and knowledge of how much can be generalized from one stage to another remains unknown. Here we use genetic assignment tests to reconstruct dispersal across 5...
Article
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Climate change is a pervasive threat to biodiversity. While range shifts are a known consequence of climate warming contributing to regional community change, less is known about how species’ positions shift within their climatic niches. Furthermore, whether the relative importance of different climatic variables prompting such shifts varies with c...
Preprint
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In variable environments, phenotypic plasticity can increase fitness by providing tight environment-phenotype matching. However, adaptive plasticity is expected to evolve only when the future selective environment can be predicted based on the prevailing conditions. That is, the juvenile environment should be predictive of the adult environment (wi...
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Background The Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) butterfly is a model system for metapopulation dynamics research in fragmented landscapes. Here, we provide a chromosome-level assembly of the butterfly's genome produced from Pacific Biosciences sequencing of a pool of males, combined with a linkage map from population crosses. Results The fin...
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Warming temperatures are greatly impacting wild organisms across the globe. Some of the negative impacts of climate change can be mitigated behaviorally, for example, by changes in habitat and oviposition site choice. Temperatures are reportedly warming faster at night than during the day, yet studies assessing the impacts of increasing night tempe...
Preprint
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Variance partitioning is a common tool for statistical analysis and interpretation in both observational and experimental studies in ecology. Its popularity has led to a proliferation of methods with sometimes confusing or contradicting interpretations. Here, we present variance partitioning as a general tool in a model based Bayesian framework for...
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Predicting how climate change affects biotic interactions poses a challenge. Plant‐insect herbivore interactions are particularly sensitive to climate change, as climate‐induced changes in plant quality cascade into the performance of insect herbivores. Whereas the immediate survival of herbivore individuals depends on plastic responses to climate...
Article
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Species can adapt to climate change by adjusting in situ or by dispersing to new areas, and these strategies may complement or enhance each other. Here, we investigate temporal shifts in phenology and spatial shifts in northern range boundaries for 289 Lepidoptera species by using long‐term data sampled over two decades. While 40% of the species ne...
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Chemical defences against predators underlie the evolution of aposematic coloration and mimicry, which are classic examples of adaptive evolution. Surprisingly little is known about the roles of ecological and evolutionary processes maintaining defence variation, and how they may feedback to shape the evolutionary dynamics of species. Cyanogenic He...
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The spatial arrangement of habitat patches in a metapopulation and the dispersal connections among them influence metapopulation persistence. Metapopulation persistence emerges from a dynamic process, namely the serial extinctions and recolonizations of local habitat patches, while measures of persistence are typically based solely on structural pr...
Preprint
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Predicting how climate change affects biotic interactions and their evolution poses a challenge. Plant-insect herbivore interactions are particularly sensitive to climate change, as climate-induced changes in plant quality cascade into the performance of insect herbivores. Whereas the immediate survival of herbivore individuals depends on plastic r...
Article
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Climate change affects insects in several ways, including phenological shifts that may cause asynchrony between herbivore insects and their host plants. Insect larvae typically have limited movement capacity and are consequently dependent on the microhabitat conditions of their immediate surroundings. Based on intensive field monitoring over two sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species can adapt to climate change by adjusting in situ or by dispersing to new areas, and these strategies may complement or enhance each other. Here, we investigate temporal shifts in phenology and spatial shifts in northern range boundaries for 289 Lepidoptera species by using long-term data sampled over two decades. While 40% of the species ne...
Article
Variation in environmental conditions during development can lead to changes in life-history traits with long-lasting effects. Here, we study how variation in temperature and host plant (i.e. the consequences of potential maternal oviposition choices) affects a suite of life-history traits in pre-diapause larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfl...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in environmental conditions during development can lead to changes in life-history traits with long-lasting effects. Here, we study how variation in temperature and host plant (i.e. the consequences of potential maternal oviposition choices) affects a suite of life-history traits in pre-diapause larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecosystems are under unprecedented and accelerating pressures. Much work on understanding resilience to these pressures has, so far, focussed on the ecosystem. However, understanding a system’s behaviour also requires knowledge of its component parts and their interactions. Here we present a framework for understanding ‘biological resilience’, or t...
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Cold developmental conditions can greatly affect adult life history of ectotherms in seasonal habitats. Such effects are mostly negative, but sometimes adaptive. Here, we tested how cold conditions experienced during pupal development affect adult wing melanization of an insect ectotherm, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. We also...
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Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding but also its termination, and thus the length of the breeding period. We use an ex...
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• Plant tissues often lack essential nutritive elements and may contain a range of secondary toxic compounds. As nutritional imbalance in food intake may affect the performances of herbivores, the latter have evolved a variety of physiological mechanisms to cope with the challenges of digesting their plant‐based diet. Some of these strategies invol...
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Understanding species' habitat preferences are crucial to predict organisms' responses to the current climate crisis. In many insects, maternal habitat selection for oviposition essentially determines offspring performance. Whether future changes in climatic conditions may generate mismatches between oviposition preference and offspring performance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Variation in environmental conditions during development can lead to changes in life-history traits with long-lasting effects. Here, we study environmentally induced variation, i.e. the consequences of potential maternal oviposition choices, in a suite of life-history traits in pre-diapause larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We focus on...
Article
The ecological impacts of extreme climatic events on population dynamics and/or community composition are profound and predominantly negative. Here, using extensive data of an ecological model system, we test whether predictions from ecological models remain robust when environmental conditions are outside the bounds of observation. First, we repor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding species’ habitat preferences are crucial to predict organisms’ responses to the current climate crisis. In many insects, maternal habitat selection for oviposition essentially determines offspring performance. Whether changes in climatic conditions may pose future mismatches in oviposition preference and offspring performance when mot...
Article
Full-text available
When plants establish outside their native range, their ability to adapt to the new environment is influenced by both demography and dispersal. However, the relative importance of these two factors is poorly understood. To quantify the influence of demography and dispersal on patterns of genetic diversity underlying adaptation, we used data from a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Many plant tissues are not resources of optimal nutritious value. They often lack essential nutritive elements and may contain a range of secondary toxic compounds. As nutritional imbalance in food intake may affect the performances of herbivores, the latter have evolved a variety of physiological mechanisms to cope with the challenges o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chemical defences against predators underlie the evolution of aposematic coloration and mimicry, which represent classic examples of adaptive evolution. Yet, unlike color patterns, little is known about the evolutionary potential of chemical defences. Neotropical Heliconius butterflies exhibit incredibly diverse warning color patterns and widesprea...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ecological impacts of extreme climatic events on population dynamics and/or community composition are profound and predominantly negative. Here, using extensive data of an ecological model system, we test whether predictions from ecological models remain robust when environmental conditions are outside the bounds of observation. First, we repor...
Article
Metapopulation dynamics – patch occupancy, colonization, and extinction – are the result of complex processes at both local (e.g., environmental conditions) and regional (e.g., spatial arrangement of habitat patches) scales. A large body of work has focused on habitat patch area and connectivity (area‐isolation paradigm). However, these approaches...
Article
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Species distribution models are the tool of choice for large‐scale population monitoring, environmental association studies and predictions of range shifts under future environmental conditions. Available data and familiarity of the tools rather than the underlying population dynamics often dictate the choice of specific method – especially for the...
Article
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Life history strategies often shape biological interactions by specifying the parameters for possible encounters, such as the timing, frequency, or way of exposure to parasites. Consequentially, alterations in life‐history strategies are closely intertwined with such interaction processes. Understanding the connection between life‐history alteratio...
Article
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Numerous studies over the past decades have shown that species phenologies are shifting. Behind the large-scale patterns of shifting phenologies lies, however, large variability across species and space in terms of both the sign of the shifts (advance or delay) and their magnitude (rate of change). The shifts in the timing of seasonal events are us...
Preprint
Understanding how populations adapt to changing environments is a major goal in evolutionary biology and ecology, and particularly urgent for predicting resilience to climate change. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability to express multiple phenotypes from the same genome, is a widespread adaptation to short-term environmental fluctuations, but whethe...

Citations

... We were able to annotate 23,870 high-quality genes and provide functional information for 20,771 of these. In comparison to another chromosome-scale butterfly genome, we verify that our assembly is not only highly contiguous but accurately assembled as there is high synteny across all of the 31 chromosomes shared between these species (Hill et al. 2019;Smolander et al. 2022). This work provides the foundation upon which detailed study of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of this focal species and its endangered subspecies can now develop. ...
... In contrast to post-diapause larvae, early stages of pre-diapause larvae experience higher temperatures than later stages as the temperature gradually decreases from July to August. Links between temperature and body size is not as straightforward in pre-diapause larvae as larvae can diapause either in the 4 th or 5 th instar and can show large differences in body mass at diapause (Saastamoinen et al. 2013a, Kahilainen et al. 2021). ...
... Understanding how the presence of chemically defended individuals affects the rest of the population is an important question as studies have shown that there can be intraspecific variation in chemical defense, with some individuals lacking chemical defenses entirely [22,23]. Such variation could arise if the defensive chemicals have an associated cost, for example, for acquisition and/or maintenance of the chemical defense [24]. ...
... Climate change leads to poleward shifts in species ranges and changes in phenology, the timing of annual life cycles (Chen et al., 2011;Parmesan, 2006;Parmesan & Yohe, 2003). Changes in distribution and phenology are often simultaneous (Grevstad & Coop, 2015;Hällfors et al., 2021), but the evolutionary outcomes of their interplay are not well known (Macgregor et al., 2019). Although poleward-moving populations may track a warming climate, they may still need to adapt to unfamiliar seasonal rhythms and environmental cues for life cycle timing. ...
... Our analysis of canopy openness further illustrates the funda- Conversely, monarchs in more exposed locations may also have experienced greater direct thermal stress during years with more intense heatwaves (Figure 7b), and higher predator and herbivore densities ( Figure 9). These patterns illustrate the complex pathways by which microclimatic variation can affect monarch development but also suggest that microhabitat variability in heterogeneous habitats could buffer species interactions under changing climatic conditions (e.g., Rytteri et al., 2021). ...
... Ma et al. 2021). Moreover, microclimatic variation in temperature has been shown to have strong effects on key life-history traits in M. cinxia in both field and laboratory settings (Verspagen et al. 2020, Rytteri et al. 2021). Here, we use 48 years (1972-2020) of data on daily temperatures to measure the predictability of temperature fluctuations across and within growing seasons spanning parent and offspring growth periods. ...
... Second, species-removal experiments typically remove one to several species simultaneously (e.g., [32,34,[42][43][44]), whereas in silico approaches often remove species sequentially from the network until extinction cascades occur (Box 1). Perspectives from metapopulation and metacommunity stability research (e.g., [47][48][49][50][51]) may prove useful in solving these crossscale challenges because experimental species removals are often similar to metapopulation studies in that the species is only removed from a small area over a short timescale. Despite these challenges, recent studies have made strides in bridging these gaps between theory and field observations (e.g., [32,33,35,36]). ...
... Mature and immature individuals that have narrow niches often show specificity towards their host plants (Tiple et al., 2011;Salz and Fartmann, 2017;Nallu et al., 2018;Verspagen et al., 2020). ...
... Gene finding was performed following a two-pass approach [35]. Initial gene-models were constructed with MAKER v2.31 [36], using HMMs derived from SNAP [37] and GeneMark-ES v4.3 [38] in conjunction with a recently published B. anynana transcriptome as evidence [39]. MAKER gene-models were then passed to AUGUSTUS v3.0.3 [40] for refinement, resulting in an initial set of 26,722 predicted protein-coding genes. ...
... Coloration often has an important function in thermoregulation, and thermal benefits might maintain variation in warning signal expression as demonstrated in the aposematic wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis (Hegna et al., 2013;Lindstedt et al., 2009). However, we found no evidence of temperature-induced plasticity in the warning signals of wild-caught or laboratory-reared A. nigriceps, which differs from several experiments that have demonstrated that low rearing temperatures increase melanization in other lepidopteran species (e.g., Davis et al., 2005;Karl et al., 2009;Lewis, 1985;Rosa & Saastamoinen, 2020, but see Forsman, 2011 for contrasting results in grasshoppers). It is possible that seasonal differences of eight degrees in our collection site, or temperature differences of four degrees in our rearing experiment, were too small to induce plastic responses in A. nigriceps. ...