Marc-Antoine Fardin's research while affiliated with Institut Jacques Monod and other places

Publications (44)

Preprint
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Life has a special status, it even has its own science: biology. In many ways, the logic of life seems to differ from that of atoms, molecules, planets, or any other `inanimate object'. However, life is increasingly measured using quantities shared by all sciences, like mass, force, energy or power. An analysis of the dimensions of these quantities...
Preprint
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Understanding the kinematics and dynamics of spreading, pinching, and coalescence of drops is critically important for a diverse range of applications involving spraying, printing, coating, dispensing, emulsification, and atomization. Hence experimental studies visualize and characterize the increase in size over time for drops spreading over subst...
Article
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We report on the response of semidilute shear-banding wormlike micelles to time-dependent flow protocols such as step stress and shear startup. We use global rheology coupled with direct optical visualizations in the Taylor–Couette flow to provide a detailed 2D description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the shear banding flow under imposed stres...
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Complex systems often exhibit shear banding—the coexistence of two different states characterized by their internal structuring and local shear rates. For some of them, the heterogeneous flow corresponds to the final steady-state response, while for others, shear banding can only be transient, the banding structure healing back to a homogeneous flo...
Article
A class of biological matter including elongated cells and filaments can be understood in the framework of active nematic liquid crystals. Within these systems, topological defects emerge and give rise to remarkable collective behaviours.
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The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is a major component of the cell cortex. While expressed by all metazoans, its dynamic interactions with the other cortex components, including the plasma membrane or the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, are poorly understood. Here, we investigate how spectrin reorganizes spatially and dynamically under the membrane du...
Article
The physical cues from the extracellular environment mediates cell signaling spatially and temporally. Cells respond to physical cues from their environment in a non-monotonic fashion. Despite our understanding of the role of substrate rigidity on single cell migration, how cells respond collectively to increasing extracellular matrix stiffness is...
Preprint
The spectrin cytoskeleton is a major component of the cell cortex. While ubiquitously expressed, its dynamic interaction with the other cortex components, including the plasma membrane or the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, is poorly understood. Here, we investigated how the spectrin cytoskeleton re-organizes spatially and dynamically under the membrane...
Article
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Biological systems integrate dynamics at many scales, from molecules, protein complexes and genes, to cells, tissues and organisms. At every step of the way, mechanics, biochemistry and genetics offer complementary approaches to understand these dynamics. At the tissue scale, in vitro monolayers of epithelial cells provide a model to capture the in...
Article
We report on the shear banding flow of semidilute and concentrated wormlike micelle systems which have been probed in the recent past using rheology, velocimetry, and small angle neutron scattering techniques. We show that the samples under consideration exhibit unstable shear banding flow due to the development of flow instabilities reminiscent of...
Article
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Morphogenesis requires dynamic coordination between cell–cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton to allow cells to change shape and move without losing tissue integrity. We used genetic tools and superresolution microscopy in a simple model epithelial cell line to define how the molecular architecture of cell–cell zonula adherens (ZA) is modified in res...
Article
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In order to deal with strong inhomogeneities of the polymer stress in shear banding of wormlike micelles, rheological models usually include stress diffusion terms. These terms lift the degeneracy of steady flow solutions by selecting the steady-state positions of interfaces between bands and the values of the total mechanical stress. They are also...
Article
A combined two-dimensional Rheo-NMR velocimetry and two-dimensional Rheo-USV approach is used to further elucidate the flow of a wormlike micellar solution in cylindrical Couette geometries. Recent experimental enhancements for both methods enable a more detailed description of the flow dynamics than available in the past. This enabled us to revisi...
Article
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The rheology of NFC suspensions that exhibited different microstructures and colloidal stability, namely TEMPO and enzymatic NFC suspensions, were investigated at the macro and mesoscales using a transparent Couette rheometer combined with optical observations and ultrasonic speckle velocimetry (USV). Both NFC suspensions showed a complex rheology,...
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Even in simple geometries many complex fluids display non-trivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known since several decades, but the recent years have seen an upsurge of studies offering an ever more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to...
Article
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In recent years, large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) has become a prime tool to investigate the nonlinear rheology of complex fluids. More specifically, most studies use LAOS data as a macroscopic probe for hypothetical microscopic changes, sometimes successfully. Nevertheless, we would like to raise awareness on the potential impact of second...
Article
We report on recent progress made on the flows of living polymer fluids. Such fluids have been model systems for rheological research for more than twenty years and they continue to be fascinating. Like most if not all soft matter systems, living polymers under flow show a strong feedback between the structure of the fluid and that of the flow, the...
Article
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Complex fluids such as emulsions, colloidal gels, polymer or surfactant solutions are all characterized by the existence of a “microstructure” which may couple to an external flow on time scales that are easily probed in experiments. Such a coupling between flow and microstructure usually leads to instabilities under relatively weak shear flows tha...
Article
The flow between concentric cylinders is routinely used in soft matter studies. In many cases, the purpose of the setup is rheometric: the idea is to relate macroscopic changes in material properties to microscopic changes in the structure of the material. The correspondence between the modifications of the microscopic structure and the macroscopic...
Article
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Homogeneous polymer solutions are well known to exhibit viscoelastic flow instabilities: purely elastic when inertia is negligible and inertio-elastic otherwise. Recently, shear-banding wormlike micelle solutions were also discovered to follow a similar phenomenology. In the shear-banding regime, inertia is usually negligible so only purely elastic...
Article
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The Taylor-Couette flow of a dilute micellar system known to generate shear-induced structures is investigated through simultaneous rheometry and ultrasonic imaging. We show that flow instabilities must be taken into account since both Reynolds and Weissenberg numbers may be large. Before nucleation of shear-induced structures, the flow can be iner...
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We report on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in films of giant micelles solutions coating a vertical fibre. We observe that the dynamics of thin films coating the fibre could be very different from the Newtonian or standard Non-Newtonian cases. By varying the concentration of the components of the solutions and depending on the film thickness, we...
Article
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We describe a technique coupling standard rheology and ultrasonic imaging with promising applications to characterization of soft materials under shear. Plane wave imaging using an ultrafast scanner allows to follow the local dynamics of fluids sheared between two concentric cylinders with frame rates as high as 10 000 images per second, while simu...
Article
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This work reports on an experimental study of elastic turbulence in a semi-dilute wormlike micelle system made of a highly elastic betaine surfactant solution. The temporal evolution of both rheological quantities and local flow properties is monitored by combining global rheology, optical visualization, and ultrasonic velocimetry. Even at the smal...
Article
Shear-banding is ubiquitous in complex fluids. It is related to the organization of the flow into macroscopic bands bearing different viscosities and local shear rates and stacked along the velocity gradient direction. This flow-induced transition towards a heterogeneous flow state has been reported in a variety of systems, including wormlike micel...
Article
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In the past twenty years, shear-banding flows have been probed by various techniques, such as rheometry, velocimetry and flow birefringence. In micellar solutions, many of the data collected exhibit unexplained spatiotemporal fluctuations. Recently, it has been suggested that those fluctu-ations originate from a purely elastic instability of the sh...
Article
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We report on the flow dynamics of a wormlike micellar system (CPCl/NaSal/brine) undergoing a shear-banding transition using a combination of global rheology, 1D ultrasonic velocimetry and 2D optical visualisation. The different measurements being performed in a single Taylor–Couette geometry, we find a strong correlation between the induced turbid...
Article
Full-text available
In the past twenty years, shear-banding flows have been probed by various techniques, such as rheometry, velocimetry and flow birefringence. In micellar solutions, many of the data collected exhibit unexplained spatio-temporal fluctuations. Recently, it has been suggested that those fluctuations originate from a purely elastic instability of the fl...
Article
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Shear-banding is a curious but ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in soft matter. The phenomenological similarities between the shear-banding transition and phase transitions has pushed some researchers to adopt a 'thermodynamical' approach, in opposition to the more classical 'mechanical' approach to fluid flows. In this heuristic review, we describe...
Article
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Cell spreading is regulated by signaling from the integrin receptors that activate intracellular signaling pathways to control actin filament regulatory proteins. We developed a hybrid model of whole-cell spreading in which we modeled the integrin signaling network as ordinary differential equations in multiple compartments, and cell spreading as a...
Article
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Cell motility and spreading are regulated by signaling from the integrin receptors. Interaction between the integrin receptors and substrates such as fibronectin triggers the activation of downstream signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of actin regulating proteins such as Arp2/3, gelsolin and profilin. We have developed an integrated mo...
Article
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Many cell types have the ability to move themselves by crawling on extra-cellular matrices. Although cell motility is governed by actin and myosin filament assembly, the pattern of the movement follows the physical properties of the network ensemble average. The first step of motility, cell spreading on matrix substrates, involves a transition from...
Article
Full-text available
Many cell types have the ability to move themselves by crawling on extra-cellular matrices. Although cell motility is governed by actin and myosin filament assembly, the pattern of the movement follows the physical properties of the network ensemble average. The first step of motility, cell spreading on matrix substrates, involves a transition from...
Article
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Cell motility is important for many developmental and physiological processes. Motility arises from interactions between physical forces at the cell surface membrane and the biochemical reactions that control the actin cytoskeleton. To computationally analyze how these factors interact, we built a three-dimensional stochastic model of the experimen...
Article
We study the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow of shear banding wormlike micelles. We focus on the high shear rate branch of the flow curve and show that for sufficiently high Weissenberg numbers, this branch becomes unstable. This instability is strongly sub-critical and is associated with a shear stress jump. We find that this increase of the f...
Article
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Maintaining a physical connection across cytoplasm is crucial for many biological processes such as matrix force generation, cell motility, cell shape and tissue development. However, in the absence of stress fibers, the coherent structure that transmits force across the cytoplasm is not understood. We find that nonmuscle myosin-II (NMII) contracti...
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Extracellular matrices in vivo are heterogeneous structures containing gaps that cells bridge with an actomyosin network. To understand the basis of bridging, we plated cells on surfaces patterned with fibronectin (FN)-coated stripes separated by non-adhesive regions. Bridges developed large tensions where concave cell edges were anchored to FN by...
Article
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Using flow visualizations in Couette geometry, we demonstrate the existence of Taylor-like vortices in the shear-banding flow of a giant micelles system. We show that vortices stacked along the vorticity direction develop concomitantly with interfacial undulations. These cellular structures are mainly localized in the induced band and their dynamic...
Article
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Using flow visualizations in Couette geometry, we demonstrate the existence of Taylor-like vortices in the shear-banding flow of a giant micelles system. We show that vortices stacked along the vorticity direction develop concomitantly with interfacial undulations. These cellular structures are mainly localized in the induced band and their dynamic...
Article
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We report on a non trivial dynamics of the interface between shear bands following a start-up of flow in a semi-dilute wormlike micellar system investigated using a combination of mechanical and optical measurements. During the building of the banding structure, we observed the stages of formation, migration of the interface between bands and final...

Citations

... This class of materials has been observed to show various intriguing rheological signatures such as time-dependent yield stress (Bonn and Denn 2009;Bonn et al. 2017;Negi and Osuji 2010;Vlassopoulos and Cloitre 2014), viscosity bifurcation (Coussot et al. 2002a), overaging (Agarwal et al. 2020;Kaushal and Joshi 2016;Viasnoff and Lequeux 2002), delayed solidification Shukla and Joshi 2009), delayed yielding (Baldewa and Joshi 2012;Gopalakrishnan and Zukoski 2007;Sprakel et al. 2011), shear banding (Bonn et al. 2017;Divoux et al. 2016;Fielding 2014;Fielding 2016), and non-monotonic stress relaxation (Hendricks et al. 2019;Joshi 2022). In particular, for a shear rate-controlled flow field, the phenomenon of shear banding, wherein the flow field gets divided into multiple bands of different shear rates transiently or even at steady state, has been well investigated both experimentally and theoretically (Briole et al. 2021a;Briole et al. 2021b;Divoux et al. 2016;Fielding 2014;Fielding 2016;Sharma et al. 2021). In contrast to the emphasis on rate-dependent protocol in these studies, in the present work, we study the onset of shear banding in aging soft materials under a stress-controlled protocol, using an inelastic structural kinetic model for the material. ...
... This class of materials has been observed to show various intriguing rheological signatures such as time-dependent yield stress (Bonn and Denn 2009;Bonn et al. 2017;Negi and Osuji 2010;Vlassopoulos and Cloitre 2014), viscosity bifurcation (Coussot et al. 2002a), overaging (Agarwal et al. 2020;Kaushal and Joshi 2016;Viasnoff and Lequeux 2002), delayed solidification Shukla and Joshi 2009), delayed yielding (Baldewa and Joshi 2012;Gopalakrishnan and Zukoski 2007;Sprakel et al. 2011), shear banding (Bonn et al. 2017;Divoux et al. 2016;Fielding 2014;Fielding 2016), and non-monotonic stress relaxation (Hendricks et al. 2019;Joshi 2022). In particular, for a shear rate-controlled flow field, the phenomenon of shear banding, wherein the flow field gets divided into multiple bands of different shear rates transiently or even at steady state, has been well investigated both experimentally and theoretically (Briole et al. 2021a;Briole et al. 2021b;Divoux et al. 2016;Fielding 2014;Fielding 2016;Sharma et al. 2021). In contrast to the emphasis on rate-dependent protocol in these studies, in the present work, we study the onset of shear banding in aging soft materials under a stress-controlled protocol, using an inelastic structural kinetic model for the material. ...
... 24−27 The emergence of these topological spin textures is enabled by the lamellar-like morphology of the helimagnetic order analogous to, for example, cholesteric liquid crystals, 28 swimming bacteria, 29 and the skin on our palms. 30 In magnetism, certain analogies exist to ferromagnetic stripe domains, 31 but the involved length scales are substantially different. In chiral magnets, the spin structure twists continuously and the periodicity is up to 3 orders of magnitude smaller than for the classical stripe domains. ...
... Biomembranes are physical and chemical boundaries of cells and many of their organelles, as well as quasitwo-dimensional universes of encounters and actions behind a vast variety of vital functions [1]. Many aspects of membrane dynamics, configuration, topology, and even composition are actively controlled by membraneassociated proteins, facilitating, among others, cellular motility [2], proliferation [3], response to stimuli [4], trafficking and endo/exocytosis [5][6][7][8][9]. This renders the understanding of localization, organization and action of these proteins of utmost importance. ...
... The response of cells to ECM stiffness is cell-type specific [86,[96][97][98]. Still, there is ample evidence that substrate stiffness plays a role in cancer metastasis as tumoral tissue is stiffer than its normal counterpart [3 84,89,99]. ...
... Notably, the used cell types migrate too slowly to match proliferation in any state of cluster expansion. In contrast, in the absence of proliferation, the velocity inside of the clusters was smaller [54] and the cluster size increased linearly, solely dominated by cell migration [52]. This observation also agrees with a recent study showing that inhibition of proliferation is highly effective in arresting motility [47]. ...
... These unexpected flow configurations are caused by the interaction of the stretching, breaking, and reforming micelles with the macroscopic flow. Some of the most representative examples are the oscillations in the velocity of a sphere sedimenting in a WLM solution [26][27][28], the asymmetric flow profiles in cross-slot geometries [24,25,29,30], the onset of secondary vortex flows [31,32] and waves [33] in TC flow, the asymmetric flow profiles past a single or an array of cylinders in a channel [34][35][36][37][38][39], and the synchronization phenomena in flows where WLMs interact with flexible structures [40][41][42]. ...
... The complex dynamics were found to mainly result from the development of secondary flows in the high-shear rate band. These secondary flows are either coherent and associated with interfacial undulations along the vorticity direction 36 , or turbulent 33,89 . Unstable shear-banding flow in wormlike micelles was shown to mainly originate from viscoelastic instabilities driven by normal stresses akin to those well-known to develop in the homogeneous flow of polymer solutions with curved streamlines 83,84 . ...
... The cell needs to develop adhesion clusters in order to correctly remodel its shape in response to external substrates and mechanical cues 27,28 . The large clusters visible under microscope (called focal adhesions for integrins 10,29 , and zonula adherens for cadherin 30,31 ) are the end-product of many smaller clusters aggregating over minutes or hours. ...
... There are three main difficulties in in vitro evaluations caused by the heterogeneous and nonequilibrium conditions. The first problem is that wall-slip and shear-banding phenomena occur frequently in the measurements of functional swallowed foods, such as gel-sol coexistent fluids, using torque-type rheometers (Fardin et al., 2014;Fischer, Wheeler, & Fuller, 2002;Sui & McKenna, 2007). These rheometers are available in multiple geometric options, including plate-plate, cone-plate, and double cylinder types. ...