Mahmoud Aljurf's research while affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre and other places

Publications (476)

Article
Older age and high burden of comorbidities often drive selection of low-intensity conditioning regimens in allogeneic-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. However, the impact of comorbidities in the low-intensity conditioning setting is unclear. We sought to determine the contribution of individual comorbidities and their cumu...
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Recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) have led to numerous medical discoveries. The field of computer vision (CV) for medical diagnosis has received particular attention. Using images of peripheral blood (PB) smears, CV has been utilized in hematology to detect acute leukemia (AL). Significant research has been undertaken in the area...
Article
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 6 CAR T cell (CAR-T) products, including tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel), axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), brexucabtagene autoleucel (brexu-cel), lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel), idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel), and ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel) in the last 5 years. CAR T-cell therapy...
Article
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic engineered receptors with an antigen recognition domain derived from a high-specificity monoclonal antibody that can target surface molecules on tumor cells. T cells are genetically engineered to express CARs, thereby harnessing the antigen-recognition ability of antibodies and effector function of T...
Article
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has an aggressive course and a historically dismal prognosis. For many patients, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the best option for cure, but access, utilization and health inequities on a global scale remain poorly elucidated. Objective: To describe patterns of global HSCT use...
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Several chimeric antigen receptor T-cell constructs (CAR-T cells) are currently approved for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Additionally, multiple other products are being investigated and developed for other hematological malignancies and solid cancers. Patients receiving CAR-...
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Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma is an uncommon and newly recognized entity of lymphoid neoplasm commonly encountered in the young population. Despite its indolent clinical course and localized nodal involvement, it has been characterized by its high-grade histopathological features. The overlapping features between this disease and several entit...
Article
Background: Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a highly curable disease. A minority of patients, however, will have relapse/refractory (RR) disease and these patients are challenging to manage especially those who relapse after autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT). Even though a number of salvage options are available for these pat...
Article
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy has been proven effective in the third-line (and beyond) setting in patients with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). Until recently, high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) was considered the standard of care in the second-line setting in patients demons...
Article
Increasing success of adaptive cell therapy (ACT), such as genetically engineered T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) proven to be highly significant technological advancements and impressive clinical outcomes in selected haematological malignancies, with promising efficacy. The evolution of CAR designs beyond the conventional stru...
Article
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure many non-malignant conditions but concern for morbidity and mortality remains. To help physicians estimate patient-specific transplant mortality risk, the HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is used. However, paediatric physicians use the HCT-CI less frequently than adult counterparts. We used...
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Following the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the number of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for chronic phase (CP) CML has dramatically decreased. Imatinib was the 1st TKI introduced to the clinical arena, predominantly utilised in the 1st line setting. In cases of insufficient respons...
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We investigated the impact of the number of induction/consolidation cycles on outcomes of 3113 adult AML patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) between 2008 and 2019. Patients received allo-HCT using myeloablative (MAC) or reduced-intensity (RIC) conditioning in first complete remission (CR) or with primary i...
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved over time. Studies have shown that total body irradiation (TBI) is the preferable type of myeloablative conditioning (MAC). However, outcomes based on central nervous system (CNS) involvement, namely CNS-positive versus CN...
Article
Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical family members (Haplo-HSCT) offers a potential cure for patients with hematological malignancies who lack an HLA-matched donor. Haplo-HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is associated with induced immune tolerance, rapid hematopoie...
Article
The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) correlates with poor graft function and graft failure (GF) in mismatched human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transplantation. Despite the availability of multiple potential donors, transplant physicians still face scenarios where the recipient has DSA against the appropriate donor. If alternative donors are...
Article
Background: Several treatment strategies for amyloid light chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) have been described in the literature; however, there is no consensus about the optimal approach to AL-CA. Objective: We conducted this systematic review to summarize current evidence from published studies about the safety and efficacy of various treatm...
Article
Background: Both mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) and haploidentical (haplo) transplantation are valid options in patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lacking a matched donor. Methods: The study compared the outcomes of adult patients with ALL in complete remission (CR) who underwent 9/10 MMUD versus haplo transplantation...
Article
Background : Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only known treatment modality that can offer the possibility of cure for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfortunately, relapse and/or disease progression still occurs in over one-third of cases even when patients are allografted in complete hematologic remission (CR)....
Article
The contribution of related donors to the globally rising number of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains increasingly important, particularly because of the growing use of haploidentical HSCT. Compared with the strict recommendations on the suitability for unrelated donors, criteria for related donors allow for more d...
Chapter
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a fast-growing leukemia caused by the rapid proliferation of immature myeloid cells. AML is a life-threatening disease if left untreated. Therefore, early detection of AML is crucial, maximizes the cure opportunities, and saves patients’ lives. Initial AML diagnosis is done by expert pathologists where blood smear im...
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Male-specific late effects after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and subsequent malignancies. They may be closely intertwined and cause prolonged morbidity and decreased quality of life after HCT. We provide a systematic review of male-...
Article
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare disorder that can develop malignant and non-malignant haematological complications. Overall, 10-20% of Shwachman-Diamond patients need hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but most centres have a limited experience and different approaches. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Sev...
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Primary cutaneous γδ T-cell lymphoma (PCGDTL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that arises from T-cells with γδ T-cell receptors. The exact incidence of PCGDTL is unknown, as it is usually lumped with other cutaneous lymphomas, which are also uncommon. It is one of the peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) subtypes which is known to have...
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Background: The main goal of this post hoc analysis of the Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphoma and Myeloma (CALM) study was to evaluate the rate of short- and long-term infectious and non-infectious complications occurring after ASCT in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Methods: The analysis included all patien...
Article
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a heterogeneous entity with disparate outcomes based on clinical and pathologic characteristics. An increasingly detailed understanding of high-grade FL (grade 3) has led to the identification of separate categories of FL3A and FL3B. Recently, genomic studies have made much progress in delineating the genetic differences...
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Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) is an uncommon disease with a higher prevalence in the developing world. IPSID diagnosis relies mainly on a tissue biopsy and a high index of suspicion. Treatment options are variable; however, they mainly include anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without antibiotics in advanced stages. Be...
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Somatic mutations are recognized as an important prognostic factor in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). However, limited data are available regarding their impact on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). In this registry analysis conducted in collaboration with the Center for International Blood and Marrow Tr...
Article
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents an example of a highly complex and costly medical procedure with major applications in hematology and oncology. It is associated with life threatening complications and, consequently, increases demands on healthcare resources. While improving quality is an integral component of the healthcar...
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Background Pediatric-inspired non-transplant regimens for adolescent and adult ALL patients are becoming standard in many institutions. We aimed to compare a cohort of patients receiving a pediatric-inspired protocol to a cohort of patients treated with adult type ALL therapy followed by allografting after achieving CR1. Method Eighty-five adolesc...
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Optimal conditioning for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) and post-transplant cyclophosphamide has not been established so far. We retrospectively compared outcomes for two myeloablative regimens: fludarabine + total body irradiation (Flu-TBI, n = 117) and thio...
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A total of 5642 hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) in 5445 patients (2196—40% allogeneic and 3249—60% autologous) were reported by 127 teams in 14 Latin American countries that answered the 2018 LABMT/WBMT Global Transplant Activity survey. The transplant rate (defined as the number of first transplants per 10 million inhabitants per year) was 85...
Article
Over the past decade, therapeutic options in multiple myeloma (MM) have changed dramatically. Given the unprecedented efficacy of novel agents, the role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in MM remains under scrutiny. Rapid advances in myeloma immunotherapy including the recent approval of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy wil...
Article
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment landscape had evolved over the last decades with better understanding of the disease genomics and the use of the targeted therapy, despite this treatment evolution, 7+3 remains the mainstay treatment for most AML cases. Many attempts had been made to improve the treatment outcome with 7+3 like manipulating the...
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Priming donors with G-CSF before BM harvest is reported to improve engraftment and GvHD in recipients. These effects are highly desirable when transplanting patients with non-neoplastic hematologic diseases, particularly AA patients. Here we retrospectively report the outcomes of 39 AA patients receiving a primed BM graft from MSD to 43 patients re...
Article
Background: T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare, aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options and poor long-term survival. Previous studies of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for T-PLL are limited by small numbers, and descriptions of patient and transplant characteristics and outcomes after alloHCT are...
Article
Importance Matched sibling donors (MSDs) are preferred for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in myelodysplastic syndrome even if they are older. However, whether older MSDs or younger human leukocyte antigen–matched unrelated donors (MUDs) are associated with better outcomes remains unclear. Objective To investigate whether...
Article
Purpose: Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the first cause of transplant failure in patients with Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In other hematologic malignancies, therapeutic advances resulted in significant improvement over time in survival of patients relapsing after...
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a treatment option for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who fail to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). While imatinib seems to have no adverse impact on outcomes after transplant, little is known on the effects of prior use of second-generation TKI (2GTKI). We p...
Chapter
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Cancer burden is increasing worldwide in the current century, and given that its management paradigm is associated with tremendous financial, social, and physiologic complications, it is imperative that nations prepare themselves for a comprehensive management program. The developed countries are barely able to cope up with the exponential increase...
Book
This open access book provides a valuable resource for hospitals, institutions, and health authorities worldwide in their plans to set up and develop comprehensive cancer care centers. The development and implementation of a comprehensive cancer program allows for a systematic approach to evidence-based strategies of prevention, early detection, di...
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Artificial intelligence has revolutionized medical diagnosis, particularly for cancers. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosis is a tedious protocol that is prone to human and machine errors. In several instances, it is difficult to make an accurate final decision even after careful examination by an experienced pathologist. However, computer-aided...
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for patients with malignant and benign hematologic conditions. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a known complication of allo-HCT that results in significant morbidity and mortality. A common GVHD prophylaxis strategy combines a calcineurin inhibitor with methotrexat...
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Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is a common subtype of mature peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). As per the 2016 World Health Organization classification, AITL is now considered as a subtype of nodal T cell lymphoma with follicular helper T cells. The diagnosis is challenging and requires a constellation of clinical, laboratory and histop...
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Autologous (auto-) or allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT is unclear. The ASTCT, CIBMTR, and the EBMT, jointly convened...
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Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities are known to influence post-transplant outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but data assessing the prognostic value of combined genetic models in the HCT setting are limited. We developed an adapted European LeukemiaNet (aELN) risk classification based on available genetic data reported to the Center for...
Article
Introduction: The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) changed profoundly after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Nevertheless, allo-HCT still represents the preferred treatment option for selected high-risk patients in Europe, with TKI resi...
Article
Background A significant proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will either be refractory to initial chemotherapy or will suffer refractory relapse. The role of allogeneic transplantation (SCT) in active disease is contentious. There is a growing body of literature that sequential chemotherapy, pioneered by the German FLAMSA regim...
Article
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a standard of care for adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first or subsequent complete remission (CR). Myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI) combined with cyclophosphamide (Cy) is the most frequently used conditioning regimen. In order to reduce to...
Article
Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment option in patients with advanced Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) who have disease resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or who cannot tolerate these agents. In the absence of a matched sibling donor (MSD), the use of an unrelated donor (...
Article
Background Long-term survival and late mortality risk compared to general population for patients (pts) who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is unknown. We analyzed long-term outcomes of 2-year (yr) HCT survivors with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods Adult pts with ALL who were alive and relapse-free at 2 yrs a...
Article
Background Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is a powerful strategy to prevent occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Initially developed in the setting of haploidentical HSCT, PTCy has been increasingly used for fully HLA-matched transplants with favorable results....
Article
Introduction: Cytogenetics remains one of the most important prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, even for outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Complex karyotype (CK) constitutes a cytogenetic category with a very adverse prognosis in this setting. However, CK is a heterogenous and loosely...
Article
Background: A recent study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT demonstrated that outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved significantly over time and that total body irradiation (TBI) should be considered as the preferable type of myeloablative co...
Article
Background The golden rule when collecting hematopoietic progenitors (HPs) from healthy volunteers is “donor safety”. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for HPs collection from unrelated donors. Collection from a related pregnant-donor is sometimes considered based on the urgency of the transplant indication and the available alternatives. L...
Article
The number of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (haplo-HSCT) being performed has substantially increased in recent years. The immunogenicity derived from the mismatched HLA haplotype, assessed at an antigen level, has no reported significant impact on clinical outcomes. Single-center studies have previously used in silico algo...
Article
Background Bortezomib-based triplet regimens, specifically bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRD) and bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) are the two most common induction regimens used in transplant-eligible patients with NDMM, with conflicting data on comparative efficacy and outcomes in this population. Objectives We...
Article
Cyclosporine A (CSA) and methotrexate (MTX) is the standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen for matched sibling donor (MSD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recently, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has been shown to be effective in GVHD prevention. In this registry-based study, we compared...
Article
The hematopoietic cell transplantation practice has changed significantly over the years. More than 1500 centers around the globe are offering transplant for different types of diseases. This growth was driven by improving the efficacy and the safety of the procedure and the ability to use alternate donors. These improvements made the procedure fea...
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Aplastic anemia is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder, with a reported higher incidence in developing countries in comparison to the West. There are significant variations in epidemiological as well as etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndromes in the developing countries in comparison to the developed world. Furthermore, th...
Article
Background: Nocardiosis is rare after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Little is known regarding its presentation, management, and outcome in this population. Methods: In this retrospective international study, we reviewed nocardiosis episodes in HCT recipients (01.01.2000-31.12.2018; 135 transplant centers; 33 countries) and described...
Article
Background: Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare, inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is considered a curative treatment option, but existing descriptions of patient and transplant characteristics and outcomes after related and unrelated donor HSCT are sparse. Objectives: We desc...
Article
Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a rare and life-threatening disorder, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched sibling donor (MSD) is the standard treatment strategy for young patients. Alternative donor transplantation (ADT) from a matched unrelated donor or an HLA haploidentical donor is not commonly used in the frontline s...
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The World Health Organization-designated Eastern Mediterranean region (EMRO) consists of 22 countries in North Africa and Western Asia with a collective population of over 679 million. The area comprises some of the wealthiest countries per capita income and some of the poorest. The population structure is also unique and contrasts with western cou...