Magnus Nyström's research while affiliated with Stockholm University and other places

Publications (70)

Technical Report
Full-text available
The prospect of a new era of blue growth poses unprecedented sustainability and governance challenges for the ocean, as marine ecosystems face cumulative pressures from local human impacts, global climate change and distal socioeconomic drivers. Driven by increasing consumption patterns, land-based sources decline, and technological progress, the h...
Article
Full-text available
Social–ecological systems (SES) exhibit complex cause‐and‐effect relationships. Capturing, interpreting, and responding to signals that indicate changes in ecosystems is key for sustainable management in SES. Breaks in this signal–response chain, when feedbacks are missing, will allow change to continue until a point when abrupt ecological surprise...
Article
Does humanity's future lie in the ocean? As demand for resources continues to grow and land-based sources decline, expectations for the ocean as an engine of human development are increasing. Claiming marine resources and space is not new to humanity, but the extent, intensity, and diversity of today's aspirations are unprecedented. We describe thi...
Article
Much of the Earth’s biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characte...
Article
Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporat...
Article
Full-text available
The potential consequences of cross-scale systemic environmental risks with global effects are increasing. We argue that current descriptions of globally connected systemic risk poorly capture the role of human–environment interactions. This creates a bias towards solutions that ignore the new realities of the Anthropocene. We develop an integrated...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs worldwide face unprecedented cumulative anthropogenic effects of interacting local human pressures, global climate change and distal social processes. Reefs are also bound by the natural biophysical environment within which they exist. In this context, a key challenge for effective management is understanding how anthropogenic and bioph...
Article
Full-text available
1.We are in the Anthropocene – an epoch where humans are the dominant force of planetary change. Ecosystems increasingly reflect rapid human‐induced, socioeconomic and cultural selection rather than being a product of their surrounding natural biophysical setting. This poses the intriguing question: to what extent do existing ecological paradigms c...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience underpins the sustainability of both ecological and social systems. Extensive loss of reef corals following recent mass bleaching events have challenged the notion that support of system resilience is a viable reef management strategy. While resilience-based management (RBM) cannot prevent the damaging effects of major disturbances, such...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Coral reefs worldwide face an uncertain future with many reefs reported to transition from being dominated by corals to macroalgae. However, given the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem, research on how regimes vary spatially and temporally is needed. Reef regimes are most often characterised by their benthic components; however, co...
Data
Detailed GIS methods used to create fisheries catch maps. (DOCX)
Data
Driver data analysis, assumptions, and limitations. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this...
Data
Correlation matrix for driver layers used in PCA. (XLSX)
Chapter
Ecosystems are shaped by natural processes such as predator–prey interactions and climate, as well as by human activities such as harvesting and pollution. Resilient ecosystems are able to absorb disturbances, but chronic stressors may reduce the capacity of an ecosystem to cope with change (Trends Ecol Evol 15:413–417, 2000). The ability of ecosys...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystem science has developed since the 1940s, when humans obtained the ability to spend substantial time underneath the surface of the ocean. Since then, and drawing on several decades of scientific advances, a number of exciting research frontiers have emerged. We find: Understanding interacting drivers of change, Identifying thresholds...
Article
Full-text available
The decline of coral reefs has been broadly attributed to human stressors being too strong and pervasive, whereas biological processes that may render coral reefs fragile have been sparsely considered. Here we review several ecological factors that can limit the ability of coral reefs to withstand disturbance. These include: (1) Many species lack t...
Article
Anthropogenic changes to the Earth now rival those caused by the forces of nature and have shepherded us into a new planetary epoch – the Anthropocene. Such changes include profound and often unexpected alterations to coral reef ecosystems and the services they provide to human societies. Ensuring that reefs and their services endure during the Ant...
Article
Human impacts on the environment are multifaceted and can occur across distinct spatiotemporal scales. Ecological responses to environmental change are therefore difficult to predict, and entail large degrees of uncertainty. Such uncertainty requires robust tools for management to sustain ecosystem goods and services and maintain resilient ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This pa...
Article
Loss of coral reef resilience can lead to dramatic changes in benthic structure, often called regime shifts, which significantly alter ecosystem processes and functioning. In the face of global change and increasing direct human impacts, there is an urgent need to anticipate and prevent undesirable regime shifts and, conversely, to reverse sh...
Article
Full-text available
Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the ca...
Article
Habitat structure across multiple spatial and temporal scales has been proposed as a key driver of body size distributions for associated communities. Thus, understanding the relationship between habitat and body size is fundamental to developing predictions regarding the influence of habitat change on animal communities. Much of the work assessing...
Article
Full-text available
Production ecosystems typically have a high dependence on supporting and regulating ecosystem services and while they have thus far managed to sustain production, this has often been at the cost of externalities imposed on other systems and locations. Thus one of the largest challenges facing humanity is to secure the production of food and fibre w...
Article
Ecological structures and processes occur at specific spatiotemporal scales, and interactions that occur across multiple scales mediate scale-specific (e.g., individual, community, local, or regional) responses to disturbance. Despite the importance of scale, explicitly incorporating a multi-scale perspective into research and management actions re...
Article
Both coral-dominated and degraded reef ecosystems can be resistant to change. Typically, research and management have focused on maintaining coral dominance and avoiding phase shifts to other species compositions, rather than on weakening the resilience of already degraded reefs to re-establish coral dominance. Reversing degraded coral-reef states...
Article
Full-text available
In many coastal areas, marine ecosystems have shifted into contrasting states having reduced ecosystem services (hereafter called degraded). Such degraded ecosystems may be slow to revert to their original state due to new ecological feedbacks that reinforce the degraded state. A better understanding of the way human actions influence the strength...
Chapter
Regime shifts are large, abrupt, persistent changes in the structure and function of ecosystems. Regime shifts have been empirically documented in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic systems and studied in mathematical models. Understanding of regime shifts is important for ecosystem management as such shifts may have substantial impacts on human...
Article
Parrotfish play two important roles in coral reef social–ecological systems; first as important sources of food for reef dependent people, and second by underpinning the ecological function of herbivory (i.e., grazing of algae) on coral reefs. Overfishing of herbivores can be detrimental to coral reef ecosystems because their removal may allow alga...
Article
Effects of elevated seawater temperature show high spatial heterogeneity and variation within and among coral species. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coral species, Porites lutea and Galaxea fascicularis, from two high latitude reefs differently exposed to chronic disturbance, respond to elevated seawater temperatures. Coral...
Article
This paper analyzes the middlemen–fishermen link in coastal communities along the coast of southern Kenya and Zanzibar, and explores effects of reciprocal agreements and credit arrangements on social-ecological feedbacks of coastal systems. The existence and generality of such arrangements are mapped and their effect on resource use and ecosystem d...
Article
Fishing can have major impacts on the structure of coral reef ecosystems. Overfishing of herbivores is particularly detrimental, as it makes the coral system more likely to undergo shifts to macroalgal dominance in the event of coral mass mortality. Knowing when important processes, such as herbivory, are becoming brittle is important because it ca...
Article
Despite recent advances, ecosystem service monitoring is limited by insufficient data, the complexity of social—ecological systems, and poor integration of information that tracks changes in ecosystems and economic activities. However, new information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the generation of, and access to, such data. Ca...
Article
Degradation of coral reefs is often associated with changes in community structure where macroalgae become the dominant benthic life form. These phase shifts can be difficult to reverse. The debate on coral reef phase shifts has not focused on reports of coral reefs becoming dom- inated by other life forms following disturbance. A review of the pri...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional perceptions of the interactions between people and their environment are rapidly transforming. Old paradigms that view humans as separate from nature, natural resources as inexhaustible or endlessly substitutable, and the world as stable, predictable, and in balance are no longer tenable. New conceptual frameworks are rapidly emerging...
Article
Full-text available
Parrotfishes are a group of herbivores that play an important functional role in structuring benthic communities on coral reefs. Increasingly, these fish are being targeted by fishermen, and resultant declines in biomass and abundance may have severe consequences for the dynamics and regeneration of coral reefs. However, the impact of overfishing e...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs can undergo unexpected and dramatic changes in community composition, so called phase shifts. This can have profound consequences for ecosystem services upon which human welfare depends. Understanding of this behavior is in many aspects still in its infancy. Resilience has been argued to provide insurance against unforeseen ecosystem re...
Article
The relationship between species richness and area is one of the oldest, most recognized patterns in ecology. Here we provide empirical evidence for strong impacts of fisheries exploitation on the slope of the species-area relationship (SAR). Using comparative field surveys of fish on protected and exploited reefs in three oceans and the Mediterran...
Article
This study examines the abundances of three morphological categories of juvenile corals (massive, branching and encrusting) on two different types of natural substratum, dead massive and dead branching corals. The overall results show that the morphological characteristics of dead coral substratum have a significant influence on the coral recruitme...
Article
Full-text available
Marine resource exploitation can deplete stocks faster than regulatory agencies can respond. Institutions with broad authority and a global perspective are needed to create a system with incentives for conservation.
Article
To improve coral reef management, a deeper understanding of biodiversity across scales in the context of functional groups is required. The focus of this paper is on the role of diversity within functional groups in securing important ecosystem processes that contribute to the resilience of coral-dominated reef states. Two important components of s...
Article
Full-text available
Overfishing is increasingly threatening the world's marine ecosystems (1, 2). The search for the social causes of this crisis has often focused on inappropriate approaches to governance and lack of incentives for conservation (3, 4). Little attention, however, has been paid to the critical impact of sequential exploitation: the spatially expanding...
Article
Full-text available
The worldwide decline of coral reefs calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie reef resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activi...
Article
Full-text available
Biological diversity appears to enhance the resilience of desirable ecosystem states, which is required to secure the production of essential ecosystem services. The diversity of responses to environmental change among species contributing to the same ecosystem function, which we call response diversity, is critical to resilience. Response diversit...
Article
This study investigates the effects of two herbicides on the hermatypic coral Porites cylindrica. The herbicides tested were 2,4-D and diuron, since they are commonly used and have different toxic characteristics. Corals were exposed to 10 and 100 mg l(-1) 2,4-D, and to 10, 50 and 100 micro g(-l) diuron for 48 h respectively, and the effects were m...
Article
Full-text available
In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. He...
Article
Full-text available
The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disap...
Article
Compounded disturbances are becoming increasingly common on coral reefs. Impacts of global warming, which is generally perceived as the most serious threat to coral reefs today, often coincide with various common anthropogenic disturbances, such as pollution and overharvesting. To better evaluate the impact of global warming, interactions between e...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the physiological responses in the hermatypic coral Porites lutea when exposed to a combination of reduced salinity (from ambient 30 psu to 20 psu) and two concentrations of copper (CuS04), 10 microg 1(-1) and 30 microg 1(-1). Corals were exposed for 14 h and changes in metabolism in terms of primary production rate per chlo...
Article
There have been several earlier studies that addressed the influence of natural disturbance regimes on coral reefs. Humans alter natural disturbance regimes, introduce new stressors, and modify background conditions of reefs. We focus on how coral reef ecosystems relate to disturbance in an increasingly human-dominated environment. The concept of e...
Article
Stressors arising from human activities may interact not only with each other, but also with natural disturbances. However, experimental studies on disturbance complexity and physiological responses of corals to sublethal stresses, especially those due to human activities, are surprisingly few. In this study we investigated the stress response of t...
Article
Macroalgae were experimentally reduced by approximately 2.5 kg/m2 on eight similar-sized patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, in September 1998. Four of these reefs were in a protected "no-take" zone and four were in a "general use" fishing zone. Eight adjacent reefs (four in each management zone) were also studied as unmanipulated controls t...
Article
Facing a human-dominated world, ecologists are now reconsidering the role of disturbance for coral reef ecosystem dynamics. Human activities alter the natural disturbance regimes of coral reefs by transforming pulse events into persistent disturbance or even chronic stress, by introducing new disturbance, or by suppressing or removing disturbance....
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with sublethal salinity stress on reef building corals in the Inner Gulf of Thailand. Maximum photosynthetic and respiratory rates were measured in Porites lutea and Pocillopora damicornis as changes in dissolved oxygen levels per hour and the gross production to respiration ratio (Pg:R) calculated. Pg:R ratios were significantly l...

Citations

... Highlighting feedbacks can be a tool to focus on how system variables influence each other, but can also help to identify influential domains of leverage. When identifying feedback loops in a coral reef social-ecological system in Jamaica [46] caused by an unsustainable trajectory of overfishing and reef degradation, the leverage points perspective helped to identify possible interventions in the country. By analysing past trends of the social-ecological systems, the authors identified that a value change of the local population regarding Jamaican fish species through Eco-Labels or implementing export bans for fish could strengthen the local markets and alleviate food insecurity and may create a more sustainable future for the Jamaican coral reef social-ecological system. ...
... There is a growing body of prominent research around the notion of 'corporate biosphere stewardship' and the promise of 'science-business initiatives' in sustainability science Blasiak, Jouffray, Wabnitz, Sundström, & Österblom, 2018;Folke et al., 2019Folke et al., , 2020Jouffray, Crona, Wassénius, Bebbington, & Scholtens, 2019;Nyström et al., 2019;Österblom, 2017;Österblom et al., 2015Virdin et al., 2021). This scholarship highlights the benefits of sustainability researchers working closely with large corporate actorsparticularly in sectors characterized by high concentration of ownershipto promote sustainable systems of production and consumption. ...
... Il riscaldamento globale antropogenico con i suoi numerosi fenomeni associati è un fatto scientificamente accertato (Head et al., 2021;IPCC, 2021;Jouffray et al., 2020;, 2020 e 2021) e alcuni governi ne sono a conoscenza dagli anni '60. Nonostante la comunità scientifica ne avesse già segnalato la gravità e imputato le cause alle emissioni di anidride carbonica (CO2) derivanti dall'uso delle fonti energetiche fossili (The White House, 1965), tuttavia fino a pochi anni fa il tema del riscaldamento globale era stato di fatto escluso dalle agende politiche, per ripresentarsi prepotentemente nel dibattito pubblico solo negli ultimi dieci anni grazie all'impegno dei movimenti ambientalisti e giovanili. ...
... Yet, the deep sea provides regulating, provisioning, and cultural services, including many that support life on our planet, such as the cycling of ocean water and nutrients and the regulation of the Earth's climate by acting as a carbon and heat sink (Thurber et al., 2014;Le et al., 2017). The deep sea is also a growing source of living and non-living resources, including fisheries, conventional and non-conventional energy resources, and genetic resources (Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2010;Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2011;Armstrong et al., 2012;Jouffray et al., 2020). In addition, it has the potential to be a source of minerals, although there are significant questions about the sustainability and responsibility of deep-sea mining (Rogers et al., 2014;Levin et al., 2020;Amon et al., 2022b;Amon et al., 2022c). ...