M.B. Katan's research while affiliated with Institute for Health and Care Research and other places

Publications (834)

Data
Supplementary tables A-E and full dataset of predicted energy intakes in table F. (DOCX)
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Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI...
Data
Detailed description of the physiologically-based child growth model of Hall et al [14] (DOC)
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Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matchin...
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Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for pr...
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Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beve...
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Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three...
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A re-analysis of the Sydney Diet Heart Study (Ramsden et al., BMJ 2013) suggested that a diet high in linoleic acid increased the risk of coronary heart disease. The authors ascribe this to a lack of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, in the oils and fats consumed. This argument has some weaknesses. Mortality in the linoleic acid group w...
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This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The results show that the effect of industrially prod...
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Background: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages diminishes weight gain. Method...
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Probiotics are microbes that are claimed to promote health and well-being when added to foods. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has so far advised negatively about health claims for probiotics. Companies and scientists have protested against these rejections, sometimes in vigorous language. I argue that EFSA could not have acted d...
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Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with overweight in observational studies. A possible explanation is that liquid sugars do not satiate and that their intake is not compensated by reduced caloric intake from other foods. However, evidence from intervention studies for this hypothesis is inconclusive because previous studies were not...
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Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) affect markers of...
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Cafestol is a diterpene present in unfiltered coffees. It is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound present in the human diet. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. In contrast, cafestol is also known as a hepatoprotective compound, which is likely to be related to the induction of glutathione biosynthesi...
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Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is at present unclear whether alpha-linolenic acid (ALA...
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Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids from ruminant animals are less clear. We r...
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Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of trans fatty acids from ruminants are...
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is consumed widely as a supplement. It causes hepatomegaly in animals, but toxicological data in humans are limited. We therefore studied the effect of a high daily intake of CLA on liver and kidney function in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects received 14.6 g cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 4.7 g trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers a...
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How much weight would an individual gain by eating an extra chocolate chip cookie every day for life? One approach to answering this question, frequently used in textbooks1 and scientific articles, is based on the assumption that a pound (454 g) of fat tissue has about 3500 kilocalories (kcal). Thus, a daily 60-kcal cookie would be expected to prod...
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Observational studies have shown an association between low plasma cholesterol levels and increased risk of cancer, whereas most randomized clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering medications have not shown this association. Between 1997 and 2002, the authors assessed the association between plasma cholesterol levels and cancer risk, free fr...
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Cafestol and kahweol are diterpene compounds present in unfiltered coffees. Cafestol is known as the most potent cholesterol-raising agent that may be present in the human diet. Remarkably, the mechanisms behind this effect have only been partly resolved so far. Even less is known about the metabolic fate of cafestol and kahweol. From the structure...
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Unsaturated fatty acids are characterized by the presence of at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Two configurations are possible around such a bond (Figure 1): the two hydrogen atoms on either side can point in the same direction (cis) or in op- posite directions (trans). In addition, the double bond can be located anywhere along the length of...
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No medical condition has generated as many dietary remedies as obesity. All diets have their followers, but hard data on the efficacy of the diets are scarce. In this issue of the Journal, Sacks et al.1 report the results of a large, long-term trial that tested the efficacy of weight-loss diets that were high or low in carbohydrates, protein, or fa...
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To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from fish on the incidence of recurrent ventricular arrhythmia in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients by combining results from published trials. We searched in the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and performed a meta-analysis on all three avai...
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Diets high in saturated fat, trans fat and glycaemic load and low in fibre and polyunsaturated fat are associated with a 25 to 50% increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, obesity increases this risk by 500 to 1000%. Effects ascribed to dietary composition might therefore be due to unmeasured effects of body size. In clinical trials, a wei...
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Epidemiologic observational research shows that higher intake of fish fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of fatal heart disease and sudden death, but this effect is not observed with non-fatal heart disease. Currently available trials with clinical endpoints provide no convincing evidence that supplementation with fish oil prevents cardiov...
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The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) differs between men and women for some vitamins, but not for folate. The RDA for folate is derived mainly from metabolic studies in women. We assessed if men differ from women in their response of erythrocyte folate to folic acid supplementation. We used data from 2 randomized placebo-controlled trials with f...
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Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has reduced the number of neural tube defects in North America. Concerns that high intakes of folic acid might mask vitamin B-12 deficiency in older persons have delayed the introduction of fortification in many European countries. Cofortification of flour with folic acid and vitamin B-12 could simul...
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Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs is largely uninvestigated. This study examined t...
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Activia is a yogurt product containing the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010. Five clinical trials have been carried out. Four of these show that dairy products containing this bacterium shorten intestinal transit in volunteers. However, except in a subgroup of 19 out of 267 patients in one study, no significant effect of Acti...
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At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, t...
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Encouraging teetotallers to drink may reduce the risk of heart disease, but it is not likely to improve public health. The reason is that even one drink a day increases the risk of breast cancer, and alcohol causes serious non-fatal diseases that exceed the reduction in heart disease. Other lifestyle and drug interventions are safer and more effect...
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BackgroundThe apolipoprotein E polymorphism may influence the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine and thus the response of serum cholesterol to diet. We decided to use plant sterols to investigate this and studied whether the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols differed between subjects with different apolipoprotein E genotyes. De...
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Nutrition science aims to create new knowledge, but scientists rarely sit back to reflect on what nutrition research has achieved in recent decades. We report the outcome of a 1-day symposium at which the audience was asked to vote on the greatest discoveries in nutrition since 1976 and on the greatest challenges for the coming 30 years. Most of th...
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Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo a...
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Dietary modulated genes. Processes regulated in colon by Salmonella at day 2 in cellulose fed and FOS fed rats.
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Time course infection study. Complete dataset of the time course infection study.
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Dietary infection study. Complete dataset of the dietary infection study.
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Salmonella affected colonic genes. Genes that were upregulated or downregulated at least 1.5-fold in rat colon mucosa by Salmonella at days 1, 3 and 6 after oral Salmonella infection compared to colon mucosa of non-infected rats. Genes are ordered based on function and within functional category based on absolute fold change.
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Primer sequences. Sequences of the primers used for Q-PCR analysis.
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Housekeeping and cell type specific genes. The fold change in expression of housekeeping genes and cell-type specific genes in the colon mucosa at days 1, 3 and 6 after oral Salmonella infection.
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Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetière coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound known in the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol, including cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the...
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The bioavailability of natural food folates is lower than that of synthetic folic acid, but no agreement exists as to the extent of the difference. In a 4-wk dietary intervention study, we determined the aggregate bioavailability of food folates from fruit, vegetables, and liver relative to that of folic acid. Seventy-two healthy adults were random...
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Background: The bioavailability of natural food folates is lower than that of synthetic folic acid, but no agreement exists as to the extent of the difference. Objective: In a 4-wk dietary intervention study, we determined the aggregate bioavailability of food folates from fruit, vegetables, and liver relative to that of folic acid. Design: Seventy...
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Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B12 at screening, we report...
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Drug companies have tried to influence the scientific record so as to make their products look healthier. Are food companies doing the same?
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Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic changes during regional ischemia in hearts from pigs fed a...
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To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. Observational. In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major supermarkets resulting in a total of 30 samples of coffee pads. The...
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Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expressio...