M. Rich's scientific contributions

Citations

... In addition, the 1978 U.S. Copyright Law, which asserted that an image was the photographer's rather than the client's property, provided an institutional guarantee for photographers to exploit stock photography as an additional business opportunity (Frosh, 2001). Moreover, picture agencies adopted the subtle and highly differentiated licensing system of rights-managed content (RM), allowing them to propel repeated and upscale sales of the usage rights of the same picture and thus increase revenues per picture to an unprecedented extent (Rich, 1994). In sum, the combination of the legal assignment of copyright to the image creator, the invention of the RM licensing system along with its sophisticated fee structure, and the efforts of agencies to establish themselves as brands for high-quality visual content were important changes that raised the demand for creative content in advertising. ...