Lynn E. Alden's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (111)

Article
Background Professionals working in the emergency department (ED) are regularly exposed to traumatic events. Rates of posttraumatic mental health conditions vary widely in the literature and there is no agreement that rates in ED staff are elevated relative to other populations. Objective We conducted a systematic review of international literatur...
Article
Theory and research on reassurance-seeking in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has generally focused on interpersonal forms. Interpersonal reassurance-seeking presents social and emotional risks, which individuals with OCD report awareness of and a desire to minimize. Additionally, OCD symptoms—particularly “unacceptable thoughts”—are associated...
Article
Individuals with social anxiety are sensitive to social hierarchies and tend to compare themselves unfavorably with others, perceiving themselves as inferior or lower in social rank. The current study explores patterns of change in these negative perceptions, and their associated emotional outcomes, in an online social context. Undergraduate studen...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Public transportation workers are exposed to higher levels of stress related to accidents, injuries, and person-under-train events when compared to other workers. This systematic review integrates the existing literature on mental health among high-risk public transportation workers to estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress diso...
Article
Background and objectives: Safety behaviors display some similarities to coping behaviors, raising questions about whether the two sets of behaviors display distinct associations with anxiety symptoms. Design and method: To examine this issue, we conducted two cross-sectional studies in which participants (n = 243 and 157) completed measures of...
Article
The current studies examined whether self-attributes can come to elicit anxiety after being paired with negative evaluation. Results from Study 1 suggested that appearing unintelligent and appearing nervous were partially distinct attributes of concern related to social anxiety and validated stimuli used in the subsequent study. In Study 2, partici...
Article
Clinical researchers suggest that post-event thinking functions to negatively bias event recall for socially anxious participants. We used a repeated retrieval paradigm to examine the effects of post-event retrieval on memory for social information. Undergraduate participants (n = 214) engaged in an impromptu public speaking task and received a sta...
Article
Firefighting service is known to involve high rates of exposure to potentially traumatic situations, and research on mental health in firefighting populations is of critical importance in understanding the impact of occupational exposure. To date, the literature concerning prevalence of trauma-related mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress d...
Article
Background The prevalence of PTSD in police officers has been the subject of a large and highly variable empirical literature. The present systematic review evaluates the extant literature on PTSD in police officers using an international dataset. Methods We employed best‐evidence narrative synthesis to evaluate whether PTSD prevalence in police i...
Article
We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature examining the effectiveness of psychological interventions for post-traumatic symptomatology in police, firefighters, and paramedic personnel. The review process was guided by the PRISMA statement (Moher et al. [2009]. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Th...
Article
We conducted two studies to examine the relationship between social anxiety ( n = 134) and social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 126), social exclusion, and empathic accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control or an exclusion condition and then observed four videos of targets discussing high school experiences in which they were s...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that social anxiety was associated with enhanced acquisition of anxiety as measured by subjective ratings in conditioning tasks using faces as the conditioned stimulus and negative evaluation as the unconditioned stimulus. However, a recent study failed to replicate the effect. The current study re-examined the enhanced...
Article
In addition to high-risk and high-stress events that police officers routinely encounter, many are also exposed to extreme traumatic exposures or disasters caused by nature (eg. Hurricanes) and human action (e.g., terrorist attacks or plane crashes). These exposures can result in a variety of adverse reactions including post-traumatic stress disord...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the extant literature on depression and anxiety disorders in police using a multinational data set to determine whether the prevalence of these trauma-related disorders (TRMDs) is elevated in comparison to the general population. Design/methodology/approach Systematic review was employed...
Article
In addition to the daily stressors of the job, correctional officers are exposed to violence, direct threat to themselves, and ultimately workplace injury at rates considerably higher than that of other workers. Yet, while the mental health aftermath of such exposures have been frequently studied in other public safety professions, the consequences...
Article
p> Introduction Paramedics and dispatchers are exposed to high levels of stress and consequent psychological injury. Resilience training enhances the capacity to cope with stress and be resilient. It is widely recommended that resilience training be customised to specific occupational groups, but there is no established method for achieving such c...
Article
Clinical theorists postulate that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) display memory biases such that recall of social events becomes more negative with time; however, alternative memory models have also been proposed. Research has focused predominantly on selective recall of negative information with inconsistent findings. The goal of t...
Article
Objective: Despite the social impairment associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD), little research has examined the impact of treatment on positive relational functioning. Accordingly, the authors conducted a treatment outcome study to evaluate a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) regimen augmented by a relational focus (CBT-R) relative to a gr...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety and loneliness are traits that have been studied extensively and independently. This is surprising given that the two lines of empirical research have produced almost identical findings, particularly those related to underlying mechanisms. Given the growing interest in both constructs, foundational research is needed to examine the t...
Article
Social rejection has been consistently linked to the development of social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the relation have been largely unexplored, which presents an obstacle to fully understanding the origins of social anxiety and to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Two studies were conducted to test the...
Article
Cognitive theorists hypothesize that individuals with social anxiety are prone to memory biases such that event recall becomes more negative over time. With few exceptions studies have focused primarily on changes in negative self-judgments. The current study examined whether memory for positive social events is also subject to recall bias. Undergr...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review empirical studies that examine the link between social exclusion and a variety of DSM-5 diagnostic categories. The review focuses on longitudinal and experimental studies so as to draw more definitive conclusions about the extent to which exclusion is a vulnerability factor for the development of these disorders. This res...
Article
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are motivated to conceal what they perceive to be personal inadequacies. They recognize, however, that their behavior does not convey who they genuinely are. Here, we examined whether increasing perceived authenticity facilitates positive social functioning in these individuals. Participants diagnosed...
Article
We examined whether dispositional social anxiety influenced empathy for individuals who experience aversive social events. Participants (N = 121) were randomly assigned to an experimental condition designed to increase state anxiety via social threat or to a control condition. They then observed videos of target individuals discussing high school e...
Article
First responders routinely experience work-related events that meet the definition of a traumatic stressor. Despite the high exposure to traumatic events, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are relatively low. This discrepancy points to the potential value of identifying factors that distinguish those traumatic stressors that...
Article
Social avoidance goals have been linked to negative social outcomes and may contribute to the social impairment experienced by socially anxious individuals. In this study, we examined whether engaging in acts of kindness, a technique designed to increase happiness, decreases social avoidance goals in socially anxious participants and whether social...
Article
Full-text available
Discrete forms of repetitive thought (RT), such as worry and reflection, can be characterized along basic dimensions of valence (positive vs. negative) and purpose (searching vs. solving). In addition, people can be characterized as high or low in their tendency to engage in RT. This dimensional model has been demanding to assess, and a smaller num...
Chapter
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a prevalent, moderately stable, dysfunctional pattern of personality traits marked by social inhibition, chronic feelings of inadequacy, and fear of negative evaluation. AvPD is associated with substantial social, financial, and educational impairment, as well as lowered quality of life. Topics of current res...
Chapter
Concepts related to the self are an integral feature of contemporary models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Here, we provide a brief overview of major topics related to the self and SAD. Four issues are addressed: self-schema content, self-referent processing, self-related motives and behavioral strategies, and finally, self-schema characteristic...
Article
Following initial interactions, other people are less willing to pursue ongoing contact with socially anxious individuals than with those who are not socially anxious. To better understand this process, we conducted two studies that examined peers’ first impressions of target individuals. Unacquainted individuals (N = 104 and 114) participated in r...
Article
Full-text available
In 2011, the Board of Directors of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) launched the Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice of Psychological Treatments to support and guide practice as well as to inform stakeholders. This article describes the work of this task force, outlining its raison d'etre, providing a comprehensive definition of evide...
Article
A primary tenet of Pryor and Bright’s Chaos Theory of Careers is that our world is full of change and unpredictability. When it comes to career development, rather than relying solely on good planning, one should accept and embrace unexpected changes and think creatively about possibilities. Although the Chaos Theory of Careers approach to counsell...
Chapter
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience significant impairment in their social relationships. Here, we examine the relational difficulties associated with social anxiety across the lifespan. We conclude that socially anxious people unwittingly engage in behaviors that interfere with authentic self-expression and short-circuit rela...
Article
Full-text available
Much acculturation research has investigated links with depression or with general psychological adjustment. Social adjustment, although critical to the acculturation process, has been relatively neglected. The association between acculturation and interpersonal problems was assessed in two samples of Chinese-Canadian university students using the...
Article
Social anxiety is associated with low positive affect (PA), a factor that can significantly affect psychological well-being and adaptive functioning. Despite suggestions that individuals with high levels of social anxiety would benefit from PA enhancement, the feasibility of doing so remains an unanswered question. Accordingly, in the current study...
Article
Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in...
Article
We examine the role of interpersonal processes in the anxiety disorders, a group of conditions characterized by excessive and incapacitating anxiety. The chapter begins with an empirical review that summarizes what is known about the interpersonal factors associated with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessi...
Article
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hypothesized to have a "sense of current threat." Perceived threat from the environment (i.e., external threat), can lead to overestimating the probability of the traumatic event reoccurring (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). However, it is unclear if external threat judgments are a pre-existing vulner...
Article
The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy beha...
Article
Clinical observations indicate that individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) use a variety of safety behaviours; however, virtually no research has examined the functional effect of different safety-seeking strategies. Accordingly, we conducted two studies to address this issue. Study 1 measured global patterns of safety behaviour use in a la...
Article
The current study investigated the mechanism through which safety behaviors perpetuate perceived and actual negative social outcomes hypothesized to maintain social anxiety disorder (SAD). Eighty individuals diagnosed with generalized SAD took part in a "getting acquainted" conversation with a trained experimental confederate. Participants were the...
Article
Self-related concepts figure prominently in contemporary clinical models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Among these are negative self-beliefs, self-focused attention, biased self-judgments, and negative self-images. Clinical researchers have devoted relatively little attention to defining what is meant by "self" and articulating clear models of...
Article
Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs et al. [2006: Behav Res Ther 44:1187-1197] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic rather than in individualistic countries. However, the...
Article
We incorporated strategies based on relational and interpersonal circumplex research within a standard cognitive-behavioral regimen for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (GSAD, Generalized Social Phobia) to determine whether these techniques increased the social approach behaviors that facilitate relationship development. Individuals seeking trea...
Article
This review evaluates the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder (SAD), with a focus on the generalized specifier and alternative specifiers, the considerable overlap between the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for SAD and avoidant personality disorder, and developmental issues. A literature review was conducted, using the validators provided by the...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to examine the link between safety behaviors and social judgments in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Safety behaviors were manipulated in the context of a controlled laboratory-based social interaction, and subsequent effects of the manipulation on the social judgments of socially anxious participants (N = 50, Study 1)...
Article
Anger and the way that anger is expressed have been linked to attrition and poorer treatment outcomes in patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (e.g., Erwin, B. A., Heimberg, R. G., Schneier, F. R. & Liebowitz, M. R. (2003). Anger experience and expression in social anxiety disorder: Pretreatment profile and predictors of attrition and response to c...
Article
Social anxiety is associated with judgmental biases, wherein individuals overestimate the probability that negative social events will occur and the costs associated with these events. Researchers have suggested that these biases may be central to social anxiety and treatment techniques that target judgmental biases are being evaluated (e.g. Hofman...
Article
Structural equation modeling was used to develop and test an integrated model of how emotional and cognitive factors contribute to the development of intrusive memories after a distressing event. The emotional constructs included preexisting emotion and emotional reactivity to the distressing event. Cognitive constructs included peritraumatic cogni...
Article
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear social rejection, but accumulating evidence also shows that they are indeed less liked than their non-anxious counterparts. Three factors are hypothesized to play a role in this social anxiety-social rejection relationship: (1) social performance; (2) elicited negative emotions, and (3) perc...
Article
We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Re...
Article
We report four independent studies that examined the relationship between social interaction anxiety and the tendency to interpret positive social events in a threat-maintaining manner. Study 1 described the development of a scale that measures negative interpretations of positive social events, the interpretation of positive events scale (IPES). S...
Article
It is now well established that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although previous research supports the cognitive proposition that clinical improvement in CBT is achieved in part through the modification of distorted judgment processes, little is known about the specific nature of...
Article
We compared post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster profiles in hospital emergency department (ED) medical staff (N=100) who experienced an emotionally distressing work event that presented either a direct threat to themselves or a witnessed threat to patients. The two groups displayed similar levels of PTSD sympt...
Article
This study examined how pre-existing emotional and personality vulnerability factors affect responses to an analogue trauma experience. Sixty-eight undergraduate participants viewed a distressing film and completed measures of trait anxiety, intelligence, depression, trait dissociation, as well as changes in state anxiety, then recorded intrusions...
Article
We examined whether social anxiety resulted in different levels of perceived impairment in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (ns=65 and 47) compared to their European-heritage counterparts (n=60). We also used a modified version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV) to determine whether the 3 groups responded...
Article
According to cognitive and interpersonal models, safety behaviors in social phobia (e.g., avoiding eye contact, hiding blushing) erroneously induce negative evaluation by interaction partners. Presumably, a bias about the social outcome of safety behaviors causes this negative interaction cycle. Such a bias might be subject to double standard in so...
Article
In this article, the authors describe our clinical observations about the process of delivering a Cantonese-language cognitive- behavioral therapy program to treat depression in Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver, Canada. Our experiences indicated that standard referral and assessment procedures were not optimal for this population. Other factors th...
Article
According to cognitive theorists, intrusive trauma memories have their origin in how information during the event is processed. Two studies investigated functional cognitive strategies during medical crises that might protect against intrusions. In Study 1, interviews with health-care professionals were used to identify cognitive strategies judged...
Article
Forty-one people with generalized social phobia (GSP) and 42 community controls completed a measure of social developmental experiences and then participated in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was either friendly or ambiguous. Following the interaction, confederates rated participants' behavior and their desire to...
Article
The current study examined how the social developmental experiences of people with generalized social phobia (GSP) affect their therapeutic relationships and treatment response. GSP patients (N = 27) completed measures of social learning experiences, and then participated in a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral treatment program. Both patients a...
Chapter
APD is a prevalent personality disorder, one that causes moderate to severe life impairment. Despite its severity, effective treatment regimens have been developed that reduce social avoidance and help these individuals increase their quality of life. Although researchers have made some strides toward understanding the condition, much remains to be...
Chapter
APD is a prevalent personality disorder, one that causes moderate to severe life impairment. Despite its severity, effective treatment regimens have been developed that reduce social avoidance and help these individuals increase their quality of life. Although researchers have made some strides toward understanding the condition, much remains to be...
Article
Patients with generalized social phobia (N = 42) and non-phobic community controls (N = 42) engaged in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was used to create either a positive or an ambiguous social environment. Participants then rated their own performance and their partner's behavior. As a group, social phobic patie...
Article
Although social avoidance is a defining feature of avoidant personality disorder (APD), some theorists posit that APD is characterized by a broader pattern of avoidance that extends beyond social situations. This paper describes a series of four studies that examined the different types of nonsocial avoidance hypothesized to characterize APD in thr...
Article
Social phobia is a condition in which anxiety impairs the person's ability to relate to others. Here, we draw on concepts from interpersonal theory to examine the literature on the role of interpersonal processes in creating and maintaining this disorder. Studies that examine interpersonal interactions with significant others and strangers are revi...
Article
Patients with generalized social phobia (GSP, N = 33) and matched community controls (N = 31) engaged in a social interaction that was constructed to go well, and then received feedback that framed social cues reflecting either the absence of negative outcomes or the presence of positive outcomes. Following feedback that framed positive social cues...
Article
Individuals with Generalized Social Phobia (GSP, N = 25) and community controls (N = 26) participated in a social interaction task. They then rated how well they had performed in the situation and assigned weights and valences to the different types of information they used to arrive at this judgment. The GSP group weighed anxiety-related self-info...
Article
Although repetitive thought (RT) styles such as worry, rumination, and processing correlate positively, they have divergent effects on well-being, suggesting important dimensional variation. In Study 1, multidimensional scaling identified 2 dimensions--positive versus negative content valence and searching versus solving purpose--among students (N=...
Article
Work-related stress in the emergency department previously has been linked to depression and burnout; however, these findings have not been extended to the development of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three sets of factors have been shown to contribute to stress in ED personnel: organizational characteristics, pat...
Article
Ehlers and Clark (Behav. Res. Ther., 38 (2000) 319) recently proposed a cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we examined two facets of this model, appraisal and peritraumatic dissociation, in the context of a hospital emergency room. Fifty-one emergency room personnel completed questionnaires measuring posttraumat...
Article
Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD) is the topic of a growing body of research literature. In this article, we review empirical studies of APD with the goals of identifying the themes that underlie this work and pointing to new directions for future research. In particular, we recommend that future studies evaluate several unique factors postulated...
Article
The interpersonal model of depression developed by Coyne proposes that depression leads to a number of negative interpersonal consequences. We hypothesized that underlying personality traits, particularly autonomy, moderate this relationship. Patients with depression (n = 41) and normal controls (n = 41) were assessed on sociotropy and autonomy and...
Article
Worry and depressive rumination have both been described as unproductive, repetitive thought which contributes to anxiety or depression, respectively. It was hypothesized that repetitive thought, rather than its specific forms, is a general concomitant of negative mood. Study 1 was a cross-sectional test of the hypothesis. Repetitive thought was po...
Article
Full-text available
The unidimensional model of acculturation posits that heritage and mainstream culture identifications have a strong inverse relation, whereas the bidimensional model posits that the 2 identifications are independent. The authors compared these models in 3 samples of ethnic Chinese (ns = 164, 150, and 204), 1 sample of non-Chinese East Asians (n = 7...
Article
We examined three cognitive processes hypothesized to contribute to biases in judgments about and memory for social events: self-focused attention, post-event rumination, and anticipatory processing. Socially anxious (N = 58) and nonanxious (N = 58) subjects participated in a social interaction and then completed measures of self-focused attention...
Article
Three potential mediators of the relationship between social anxiety and social rejection were examined. Undergraduate women (N= 84) participated in a self-disclosure reciprocity task during which trained observers and experimental confederates rated subjects' anxiety-related behaviors, self-disclosure, and similarity to their partner. Partner acce...
Article
Dysphoric and nondysphoric women who hadpredominantly sociotropic or predominantly autonomouspersonality features were compared on their responses toa standardized interpersonal task in which a confederate acted as a "helper" to plan lifechanges. As predicted, sociotropic subjects, whetherdysphoric or not, were more concerned aboutinterpersonal rel...
Article
Socially anxious (N = 41) and non-anxious (N = 41) individuals participated in a getting acquainted situation that was based on the reciprocity self-disclosure paradigm. Subjects' appraisals of the situation were manipulated to be either positive or negative by highlighting the likelihood of positive or negative social outcomes. Subjects' social go...
Article
To examine levels of perfectionism in social phobics and to explore the consequences of perfectionism for such individuals. A between-groups laboratory design was used to provide a level of comparison between phobic and non-phobic individuals in a controlled setting. Participants for the phobic group (N = 28) were recruited from waiting lists for t...
Article
Patients with generalized social phobia (N = 32; 16 men, 16 women) and nonclinical control participants (N = 32; 16 men, 16 women) took part in a social interaction that was manipulated to be successful or unsuccessful. Participants rated their ability, perceptions of others' standards, social goals, and emotional responses before and after the int...
Article
Compared S. J. Blatt's (see record 1976-12367-001) constructs of dependency and self-criticism with A. T. Beck–s (1983) constructs of sociotropy and autonomy in the development and maintenance of depression. 197 undergraduate women completed a battery of instruments, including the Depressive Experience Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Invento...
Article
Socially anxious and nonanxious men participated in a practice interaction with an experimental assistant, ostensibly in preparation for a second interaction with another student. The success of the practice interaction was varied by manipulating the assistant's behavior and the experimenter's feedback about the subject's performance. Subjects then...
Article
32 generalized social phobic outpatients and 32 matched nonclinical control subjects participated in a dyadic 'getting acquainted' interaction with an experimental assistant who engaged in either positive or negative social behavior. The accuracy of social phobics' and control subjects' perceptions of themselves and their partners were compared in...
Article
This study examined perfectionism and standard-setting within a self-regulation framework and systematically compared the roles of both factors in dysphoria and social anxiety. Four groups of subjects representing all combinations of social anxiety and dysphoria completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. They then ra...
Article
The self-disclosures of socially anxious and nonanxious Ss were compared within the framework of R. M. Arkin's (1981) motivational theory of social anxiety. Ss (N = 84 women) were paired with a confederate who disclosed at either a high or a low level of intimacy (i.e., the classic reciprocity paradigm). Consistent with R. M. Arkin's theory, anxiou...
Article
Patients with avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) display varied responses to behavioral treatment. This study examined the extent to which differences in patients' problematic interpersonal behavior influenced treatment response. Outpatients (N=76) meeting diagnostic criteria for AVPD completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex S...
Article
Women high and low in social self-efficacy participated in a social interaction either under conditions of heightened public self-awareness or in a control condition. The self-awareness manipulation increased self-focused attention and self-evaluation, but only among low-efficacy subjects. Low-efficacy subjects withdrew from the interaction more qu...
Article
This study examined the discrepancy between self-established standards and self-efficacy in social situations. Socially anxious and nonanxious men rated a series of standards for judging the adequacy of their performance in an upcoming social interaction; subjects also rated their social self-efficacy, or perceived ability to handle the interaction...
Article
This study examined the effects of social standards on withdrawal from social interactions. Subjects with high or low perceptions of their social ability were provided with either a high, a low, or no social standard prior to an interaction. High-efficacy subjects persisted in the interaction when they could meet the standard and terminated the int...