Luz Rello's research while affiliated with IE University and other places

Publications (97)

Article
Full-text available
Children with dyslexia have difficulties learning how to read and write. They are often diagnosed after they fail school even if dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. Early screening of dyslexia can prevent the negative side effects of late detection and enables early intervention. In this context, we present an approach for universal sc...
Data
This is the user data that was collected with the game MusVis as well as analyzed and published in different publications. We designed the game content taking into consideration the analysis of mistakes of people with dyslexia in different languages and other parameters related to dyslexia like auditory perception as well as visual perception. We c...
Data
Protocol of the iterations to select the content for 'A Universal Screening Tool for Dyslexiaby a Web-Game and Machine Learning'.
Data
Protocol of the semi-structured literature review to select the content for 'A Universal Screening Tool for Dyslexiaby a Web-Game and Machine Learning'.
Data
Protocol of the generated audio files selected for 'A Universal Screening Tool for Dyslexiaby a Web-Game and Machine Learning'.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The use of electronic interventions to improve reading is becoming a common resource. This systematic review aims to describe the main characteristics of randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies that have used these tools to improve first-language reading, in order to highlight the features of the most reliable studies...
Article
Full-text available
Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder related to school failure. Detection is both crucial and challenging, especially in languages with transparent orthographies, such as Spanish. To make detecting dyslexia easier, we designed an online gamified test and a predictive machine learning model. In a study with more than 3,600 participants, our mode...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with dyslexia are often diagnosed after they fail school even if dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. In this work, we present an approach for universal screening of dyslexia using machine learning models with data gathered from a web-based language-independent game. We designed the game content taking into consideration the an...
Thesis
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Children with dyslexia have difficulties learning how to read and write. They are often diagnosed after they fail in school, even though dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. In this thesis, we present an approach for earlier screening of dyslexia using a language-independent game in combination with machine learning models trained with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder related to school failure. Detection is both crucial and challenging, especially in languages with transparent orthographies, such as Spanish. To make detecting dyslexia easier, we designed an online gamified test and associated predictive machine learning model. In a study with more than 4,300 participants,...
Chapter
Nowadays, being excluded from the web is a huge disadvantage. People with dyslexia have, despite their general intelligence, difficulties for reading and writing through their whole life. Therefore, web technologies can help people with dyslexia to improve their reading and writing experience on the web. This chapter introduces the main technologie...
Article
Full-text available
This demo describes an ongoing research project that aims to develop a video game for the training of two independent cognitive components involved in reading development: visual attention and auditory rhythm. The video game includes two types of gaming activities for each component. First, a proof of concept was carried out with 10 children with d...
Conference Paper
This demo describes an ongoing research project that aims to develop a video game for the training of two independent cognitive components involved in reading development: visual attention and auditory rhythm. The video game includes two types of gaming activities for each component. First, a proof of concept was carried out with 10 children with d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using serious games to screen dyslexia has been a suc- cessful approach for English, German and Spanish. In a pilot study with a desktop game, we addressed pre-readers screening, that is, younger children who have not acquired reading or writing skills. Based on our results, we have redesigned the game content and new interactions with visual and m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Detecting dyslexia is important because early intervention is key to avoid the negative effects of dyslexia such as school failure. Most of the current approaches to detect dyslexia require expensive personnel (i.e. psychologists) or special hardware (i.e. eye trackers or MRI machines). Also, most of the methods can only be used when children are l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than 10% of the population has dyslexia, and most are di- agnosed only after they fail in school. This work seeks to change this through early detection via machine learning models that pre- dict dyslexia by observing how people interact with a linguistic computer-based game.We designed items of the game taking into account (i) the empirical l...
Poster
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An initial version of this poster was presented at W4A 2017 , Perth, Western Australia: M. Rauschenberger, L. Rello, R. Baeza-Yates, E. Gomez, and J. P. Bigham, Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements. In W4A’17: International Web for All Conference, 2017, pp. 4–7. http://doi.org/10.1145/3058555.3058565
Conference Paper
The use of colors to enhance the reading of people with dyslexia have been broadly discussed and is often recommended, but evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is lacking. This paper presents a user study with 341 participants (89 with dyslexia) that measures the effect of using background colors on screen readability. Readability was mea...
Conference Paper
In this demo we present DytectiveU, a game with 35,000 exercises to train the cognitive abilities related to dyslexia. To personalize the exercises, the game takes into consideration 25 indicators grouped in performance measures, language skills, working memory, executive functions and perceptual processes. The main contribution of this approach is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report from the Do Not Disturb Challenge where 30 volunteers disabled notification alerts for 24 hours across all devices. The effect of the absence of notifications on the participants was isolated through an experimental study design: we compared self-reported feedback from the day without notifications against a baseline day. The evidence ind...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we introduce the analysis of DysList, a language resource for Spanish composed of a list of unique spelling errors extracted from a collection of texts written by people with dyslexia. Each of the errors was annotated with a set of characteristics as well as with visual and phonetic features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the l...
Data
Paper Presented at the Web for All Conference in Perth, Australia M. Rauschenberger, L. Rello, R. Baeza-yates, E. Gomez, and J. P. Bigham, “Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements,” w4a, pp. 4–7, 2017. The generated musical elements are available at http://bit.ly/2jeejmC The demo of the prototype DysMusic is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current tools for screening dyslexia use linguistic elements, since most dyslexia manifestations are related to difficulties in reading and writing. These tools can only be used with children that have already acquired some reading skills and; sometimes, this detection comes too late to apply proper remediation. In this paper, we propose a method a...
Article
Full-text available
The presentation of a text has a significant effect on the reading speed of people with dyslexia. This paper presents a set of recommendations to customize texts on a computer screen in a more accessible way for this target group. This set is based on an eye tracking study with 92 people, 46 with dyslexia and 46 as control group, where the reading...
Article
Full-text available
We report from the Do Not Disturb Challenge, where 30 volunteers disabled notification alerts for 24 hours across all devices. We isolated the effect of the absence of notifications on the participants through an experimental study design: we compared self-reported feedback from the day without notifications against a baseline day. The evidence ind...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present a language resource for German, composed of a list of 1,021 unique errors extracted from a collection of texts written by people with dyslexia. The errors were annotated with a set of linguistic characteristics as well as visual and phonetic features. We present the compilation and the annotation criteria for the different...
Data
DysList, a list of dyslexic errors annotated with linguistic, phonetic and visual features. Presented 2016 at the LREC conference: Rauschenberger, Maria; Rello, Luz; Füchse, Silke & Thomaschewski, Jörg. 2016. A Language Resource of German Errors Written by Children with Dyslexia. [In Press] Proc. LREC 2016. Portorož (Slovenia), 23-28, May. The Reso...
Conference Paper
We report from an eye-tracking experiment with 104 participants who performed reading tasks on the most popular text-heavy website of the Web: Wikipedia. Using a hybrid-measures design, we compared objective and subjective readability and comprehension of the articles for font sizes ranging from 10 to 26 points, and line spacings ranging from 0.8 t...
Article
Around 10% of the people have dyslexia, a neurological disability that impairs a person's ability to read and write. There is evidence that the presentation of the text has a significant effect on a text's accessibility for people with dyslexia. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no experiments that objectively measure the impact of t...
Conference Paper
At least 10% of the global population has dyslexia. In the United States and Spain, dyslexia is associated with a large percentage of school drop out. Current methods to detect risk of dyslexia are language specific, expensive, or do not scale well because they require a professional or extensive equipment. A central challenge to detecting dyslexia...
Conference Paper
Teaching chess to students with learning disabilities has been shown to benefit their school performance in unrelated domains. At the same time, chess involves skills that are highly correlated with dyslexia, such as visuospatial and calculation abilities. In this paper, we created a online chess game designed for people with dyslexia and seek to u...
Conference Paper
Poor spelling is a challenge faced by people with dyslexia throughout their lives. Spellcheckers are therefore a crucial tool for people with dyslexia, but current spellcheckers do not detect real-word errors, which are a common type of errors made by people with dyslexia. Real-word errors are spelling mistakes that result in an unintended but real...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Playing error-based exercises presented in a computer game was found to significantly improve the spelling skills of chil­ dren with dyslexia in Spanish. Since there are no similar error-based exercises for German, we adapted the method to German and created 2,500 new word exercises. Since dyslexia manifestations are language dependent, the replica...
Conference Paper
Detecting dyslexia is crucial so that people who have dyslexia can receive training to avoid associated high rates of academic failure. In this paper we present Dytective, a game designed to detect dyslexia. The results of a within-subjects experiment with 40 children (20 with dyslexia) show significant differences between groups who played Dytecti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work-in-progress we present a computer-based method to design German reinforcement exercises for children with dyslexia. From different schools, we collected more than 1,000 errors written by children with dyslexia. Then, we created a classification of dyslexic errors in German and annotated the errors with different language specific featu...
Conference Paper
We present a machine learning algorithm to predict how difficult is a word for a person with dyslexia. To train the algorithm we used a data set of words labeled as easy or difficult. The algorithm predicts correctly slightly above 72% of our instances, showing the feasibility of building such a predictive solution for this problem. The main purpos...
Article
In this paper we present a method which aims to improve the spelling of children with dyslexia through playful and targeted exercises. In contrast to previous approaches, our method does not use correct words or positive examples to follow, but presents the child a misspelled word as an exercise to solve. We created these training exercises on the...
Conference Paper
Text can often be complex and difficult to read, especially for people with cognitive impairments or low literacy skills. Text simplification is a process that reduces the complexity of both wording and structure in a sentence, while retaining its meaning. However, this is currently a challenging task for machines, and thus, providing effective on-...
Conference Paper
Worldwide, around 10% of the population has dyslexia, a specific learning disorder. Most of previous eye tracking experiments with people with and without dyslexia have found differences between populations suggesting that eye movements reflect the difficulties of individuals with dyslexia. In this paper, we present the first statistical model to p...
Conference Paper
Reading text on the Web is a challenging task for many people, such as those with cognitive impairments, reading difficulties or people who are learning a new language. In this paper we present a web browser plug-in to help with reading Spanish text on the Web. The plug-in is freely available for Chrome and presents definitions and simpler synonyms...
Conference Paper
This paper reviews the main challenges of studying dyslexia for web accessibility. These are: (1) measuring the impact of dyslexia in the population; (2) the limitations of the up-to-date studies; and (3) including dyslexia in the Web accessibility guidelines. While some aspects are already addressed by the guidelines, we propose the inclusion of s...
Article
The way in which a text is written can be a barrier for many people. Automatic text simplification is a natural language processing technology that, when mature, could be used to produce texts that are adapted to the specific needs of particular users. Most research in the area of automatic text simplification has dealt with the English language. I...
Article
The way in which a text is written can be a barrier for many people. Automatic text simplification is a natural language processing technology that, when mature, could be used to produce texts that are adapted to the specific needs of particular users. Most research in the area of automatic text simplification has dealt with the English language. I...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report from the first holistic study of the effect of notifications across services, devices, and work and private life. We asked 12 people to disable notification alerts on all computing devices for 24 hours. Data was collected through open post-hoc interviews, which were analyzed by Open Coding. The participants showed very strong and polarize...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We asked 12 people to disable notification alerts for 24 hours on all computing devices. We collected data through open post-hoc interviews and analyzed the qualitative data using Open Coding. The participants showed very strong and polarized opinions towards notification alerts. During work, some participants felt less stressed and more productive...
Article
In this paper we study the effect of different lexical resources for selecting synonyms and strategies for word sense disambiguation in a lexical simplification system for the Spanish language. The resources used for the experiments are the Spanish EuroWordNet, the Spanish Open Thesaurus and a combination of both. As for the synonym selection strat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a method to design reinforcement word exercises to support children with dyslexia. The method takes into account linguistic patterns found in the errors written by people with dyslexia and their specific language difficulties. The method has six stages: definition of the exercise type, word selection, word modification, selectio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce a language resource for Spanish, DysList, composed of a list of unique errors extracted from a collection of texts written by people with dyslexia. Each of the errors was annotated with a set of characteristics as well as visual and phonetic features. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest resource of this kind, especially gi...
Article
In this paper we present the evaluation of DysWebxia, a reading app for iOS devices, specially designed for people with dyslexia. DysWebxia integrates previous results about the best way to present text for people with dyslexia together with a unique feature, the ability to show synonyms on demand for complex words. Although the new algorithm used...
Conference Paper
The use of certain font types and sizes improve the reading performance of people with dyslexia. However, the impact of combining such features with the semantics of the text has not yet been studied. In this eye-tracking study with 62 people (31 with dyslexia), we explore whether highlighting the main ideas of the text in boldface has an impact on...
Conference Paper
We present DysWebxia, an eBook reader for iOS which modifies the form and the content of the text. This tool is specifically designed for people with dyslexia according to previous research with this target group. The settings are customizable depending on the reading preferences.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Around 10% of the people have dyslexia, a neurological disability that impairs a person's ability to read and write. There is evidence that the presentation of the text has a significant effect on a text's accessibility for people with dyslexia. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no experiments that objectively measure the impact of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Are numbers expressed as digits easier to read and understand than written with letters? What about fractions and percentages? Exact or rounded values? We present an eye-tracking study that attempts to answer these questions for Spanish, using fixation and reading time to measure readability as well as comprehension questions to score understandabi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Around 10% of the population has dyslexia, a reading disability that negatively affects a person’s ability to read and comprehend texts. Previous work has studied how to optimize the text layout, but adapting the text content has not received that much attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that investigates if people with dysle...
Article
About 10% of the world population has dyslexia, a learning disability affecting reading and writing. Even if dyslexia is neurological in origin, certain text modifications can make texts more accessible for people with dyslexia. We present DysWebxia, a public model that integrates our findings from research conducted with this target group by using...
Conference Paper
In this paper we study the effect of different lexical resources and strategies for selecting synonyms in a lexical simplification system for the Spanish language. The resources used for the experiments are the Spanish EuroWordNet, the Spanish Open Thesaurus and a combination of both. As for the synonym selection strategies, we have used both local...
Conference Paper
In 2012, Wikipedia was the sixth-most visited website on the Internet. Being one of the main repositories of knowledge, students from all over the world consult it. But, around 10% of these students have dyslexia, which impairs their access to text-based websites. How could Wikipedia be presented to be more readable for this target group? In an exp...
Conference Paper
Worldwide, around 10% of the children have dyslexia, a learning disability characterised by difficulties with accurate word recognition and poor spelling. These difficulties can be overcome by language exercises. Typically, they come in the form of books. Hence, they are static and do not adapt to a child's specific needs. We present Dyseggxia, a g...
Conference Paper
We present a user study for two different automatic strategies that simplify text content for people with dyslexia. The strategies considered are the standard one (replacing a complex word with the most simpler synonym) and a new one that presents several synonyms for a complex word if the user requests them. We compare texts transformed by both st...
Conference Paper
Even if dyslexia is neurological in origin, certain text modifications could make texts more accessible for people with dyslexia. We introduce DysWebxia 2.0, a model that integrates our findings from research conducted with this target group. It alters content and presentation of the text to make it more readable. We also present the current integr...
Conference Paper
Text simplification is the process of transforming a text into an equivalent which is easier to read and to understand, preserving its meaning for a target population. One such population who could benefit from text simplification are people with dyslexia. One of the alternatives for text simplification is the use of verbal paraphrases. One of the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present an ebook reader for Android, which displays ebooks in a more accessible way according to user needs. Since people with dyslexia represent a substantial group with a reading disability, we designed a set of specific guidelines which are included in the tool. These layout guidelines for people with dyslexia are based on a use...
Conference Paper
Lexical simplification is the task of replacing a word in a given context by an easier-to-understand synonym. Although a number of lexical simplification approaches have been developed in recent years, most of them have been applied to English, with recent work taking advantage of parallel monolingual datasets for training. Here we present LexSiS,...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a user study which compares reading performance versus user preference in customization of the text. We study the following parameters: grey scales for the font and the background, colors combinations, font size, column width and spacing of characters, lines and paragraphs. We used eye tracking to measure the reading performance...
Article
We present Dyseggxia, a game application with word exercises for children with dyslexia. We design the content of the game combining linguistic and pedagogical criteria as well as corpus analysis. The main contributions are (i) designing exercises by using the analysis of errors written by people with dyslexia and (i) presenting Spanish reinforceme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an ebook reader for Android which displays ebooks in a more accessible manner for users with dyslexia. The ebook reader combines features that other related tools already have, such as text-to-speech technology, and new features, such as displaying the text with an adapted text layout based on the results of a user study with participant...
Article
In this paper we present a first approximation to the automatic detection of zero subjects and impersonal constructions in Brazilian Portuguese. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt of approaching such task using machine learning in Portuguese. We compiled a corpus containing more than 5,600 instances annotated with the classes t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we describe the creation of a corpus of texts written by Spanish speaking children with dyslexia, establish a typology of errors found in the corpus and explore the phonetic basis of vowel substitution errors. The results of the analysis reveal that articulatory phonetic dimensions and frequency of occurrence are relevant factors to b...
Article
In this study we present a lower bound of the prevalence of dyslexia in the Web for English and Spanish. On the basis of analysis of corpora written by dyslexic people, we propose a classification of the different kinds of dyslexic errors. A representative data set of dyslexic words is used to calculate this lower bound in web pages containing Engl...
Conference Paper
We show that a recently introduced lexical quality measure is also valid to measure textual Web accessibility. Our measure estimates the lexical quality of a site based in the occurrence in English Web pages of a set of more than 1,345 words with errors. We then compute the correlation of our measure with Web popularity measures to show that gives...
Conference Paper
Generally, people with dyslexia are poor readers but strong visual thinkers. The use of graphical schemes for helping text comprehension is recommended in education manuals. This study explores the relation between text readability and the visual conceptual schemes which aim to make the text more clear for these specific target readers. Our results...
Conference Paper
In pro-drop languages, the detection of explicit subjects, zero subjects and non-referential impersonal constructions is crucial for anaphora and co-reference resolution. While the identification of explicit and zero subjects has attracted the attention of researchers in the past, the automatic identification of impersonal constructions in Spanish...