Luke Zettlemoyer's research while affiliated with Meta and other places

Publications (259)

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The design choices in the Transformer attention mechanism, including weak inductive bias and quadratic computational complexity, have limited its application for modeling long sequences. In this paper, we introduce Mega, a simple, theoretically grounded, single-head gated attention mechanism equipped with (exponential) moving average to incorporate...
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Many recent approaches to natural language tasks are built on the remarkable abilities of large language models. Large language models can perform in-context learning, where they learn a new task from a few task demonstrations, without any parameter updates. This work examines the implications of in-context learning for the creation of datasets for...
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Large language models have been widely adopted but require significant GPU memory for inference. We develop a procedure for Int8 matrix multiplication for feed-forward and attention projection layers in transformers, which cut the memory needed for inference by half while retaining full precision performance. With our method, a 175B parameter 16/32...
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We present Branch-Train-Merge (BTM), a communication-efficient algorithm for embarrassingly parallel training of large language models (LLMs). We show it is possible to independently train subparts of a new class of LLMs on different subsets of the data, eliminating the massive multi-node synchronization currently required to train LLMs. BTM learns...
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End-to-end spoken language understanding (SLU) predicts intent directly from audio using a single model. It promises to improve the performance of assistant systems by leveraging acoustic information lost in the intermediate textual representation and preventing cascading errors from Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). Further, having one unified m...
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We introduce ART, a new corpus-level autoencoding approach for training dense retrieval models that does not require any labeled training data. Dense retrieval is a central challenge for open-domain tasks, such as Open QA, where state-of-the-art methods typically require large supervised datasets with custom hard-negative mining and denoising of po...
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State-of-the-art encoder-decoder models (e.g. for machine translation (MT) or speech recognition (ASR)) are constructed and trained end-to-end as an atomic unit. No component of the model can be (re-)used without the others. We describe LegoNN, a procedure for building encoder-decoder architectures with decoder modules that can be reused across var...
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We introduce kNN-Prompt, a simple and effective technique to use k-nearest neighbor (kNN) retrieval augmentation (Khandelwal et al., 2021) for zero-shot inference with language models (LMs). Key to our approach is the introduction of fuzzy verbalizers which leverage the sparse kNN distribution for downstream tasks by automatically associating each...
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Evaluating an explanation's faithfulness is desired for many reasons such as trust, interpretability and diagnosing the sources of model's errors. In this work, which focuses on the NLI task, we introduce the methodology of Faithfulness-through-Counterfactuals, which first generates a counterfactual hypothesis based on the logical predicates expres...
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Prior work on language model pre-training has explored different architectures and learning objectives, but differences in data, hyperparameters and evaluation make a principled comparison difficult. In this work, we focus on bidirectionality as a key factor that differentiates existing approaches, and present a comprehensive study of its role in n...
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The emergent cross-lingual transfer seen in multilingual pretrained models has sparked significant interest in studying their behavior. However, because these analyses have focused on fully trained multilingual models, little is known about the dynamics of the multilingual pretraining process. We investigate when these models acquire their in-langu...
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Despite their wide adoption, the underlying training and memorization dynamics of very large language models is not well understood. We empirically study exact memorization in causal and masked language modeling, across model sizes and throughout the training process. We measure the effects of dataset size, learning rate, and model size on memoriza...
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Creating labeled natural language training data is expensive and requires significant human effort. We mine input output examples from large corpora using a supervised mining function trained using a small seed set of only 100 examples. The mining consists of two stages -- (1) a biencoder-based recall-oriented dense search which pairs inputs with p...
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Large language models, which are often trained for hundreds of thousands of compute days, have shown remarkable capabilities for zero- and few-shot learning. Given their computational cost, these models are difficult to replicate without significant capital. For the few that are available through APIs, no access is granted to the full model weights...
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Generative models of code, pretrained on large corpora of programs, have shown great success in translating natural language to code (Chen et al., 2021; Austin et al., 2021; Li et al., 2022, inter alia). While these models do not explicitly incorporate program semantics (i.e., execution results) during training, they are able to generate correct so...
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English pretrained language models, which make up the backbone of many modern NLP systems, require huge amounts of unlabeled training data. These models are generally presented as being trained only on English text but have been found to transfer surprisingly well to other languages. We investigate this phenomenon and find that common English pretr...
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We propose a simple and effective re-ranking method for improving passage retrieval in open question answering. The re-ranker re-scores retrieved passages with a zero-shot question generation model, which uses a pre-trained language model to compute the probability of the input question conditioned on a retrieved passage. This approach can be appli...
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Code is seldom written in a single left-to-right pass and is instead repeatedly edited and refined. We introduce InCoder, a unified generative model that can perform program synthesis (via left-to-right generation) as well as editing (via infilling). InCoder is trained to generate code files from a large corpus of permissively licensed code, where...
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Current methods for few-shot fine-tuning of pretrained masked language models (PLMs) require carefully engineered prompts and verbalizers for each new task to convert examples into a cloze-format that the PLM can score. In this work, we propose PERFECT, a simple and efficient method for few-shot fine-tuning of PLMs without relying on any such handc...
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We present mGENRE, a sequence-to- sequence system for the Multilingual Entity Linking (MEL) problem—the task of resolving language-specific mentions to a multilingual Knowledge Base (KB). For a mention in a given language, mGENRE predicts the name of the target entity left-to-right, token-by-token in an autoregressive fashion. The autoregressive fo...
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Large language models (LMs) are able to in-context learn -- perform a new task via inference alone by conditioning on a few input-label pairs (demonstrations) and making predictions for new inputs. However, there has been little understanding of how the model learns and which aspects of the demonstrations contribute to end task performance. In this...
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Language models increasingly rely on massive web dumps for diverse text data. However, these sources are rife with undesirable content. As such, resources like Wikipedia, books, and newswire often serve as anchors for automatically selecting web text most suitable for language modeling, a process typically referred to as quality filtering. Using a...
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We introduce CM3, a family of causally masked generative models trained over a large corpus of structured multi-modal documents that can contain both text and image tokens. Our new causally masked approach generates tokens left to right while also masking out a small number of long token spans that are generated at the end of the string, instead of...
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Structured knowledge grounding (SKG) leverages structured knowledge to complete user requests, such as semantic parsing over databases and question answering over knowledge bases. Since the inputs and outputs of SKG tasks are heterogeneous, they have been studied separately by different communities, which limits systematic and compatible research o...
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Mixture of Experts layers (MoEs) enable efficient scaling of language models through conditional computation. This paper presents a detailed empirical study of how autoregressive MoE language models scale in comparison with dense models in a wide range of settings: in- and out-of-domain language modeling, zero- and few-shot priming, and full fine-t...
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Large-scale autoregressive language models such as GPT-3 are few-shot learners that can perform a wide range of language tasks without fine-tuning. While these models are known to be able to jointly represent many different languages, their training data is dominated by English, potentially limiting their cross-lingual generalization. In this work,...
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The ubiquity of offensive and hateful content on online fora necessitates the need for automatic solutions that detect such content competently across target groups. In this paper we show that text classification models trained on large publicly available datasets despite having a high overall performance, may significantly under-perform on several...
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When a neural language model (LM) is adapted to perform a new task, what aspects of the task predict the eventual performance of the model? In NLP, systematic features of LM generalization to individual examples are well characterized, but systematic aspects of LM adaptability to new tasks are not nearly as well understood. We present a large-scale...
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Mined bitexts can contain imperfect translations that yield unreliable training signals for Neural Machine Translation (NMT). While filtering such pairs out is known to improve final model quality, we argue that it is suboptimal in low-resource conditions where even mined data can be limited. In our work, we propose instead, to refine the mined bit...
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We introduce MetaICL (Meta-training for In-Context Learning), a new meta-training framework for few-shot learning where a pretrained language model is tuned to do in-context learn-ing on a large set of training tasks. This meta-training enables the model to more effectively learn a new task in context at test time, by simply conditioning on a few t...
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Existing work in language grounding typically study single environments. How do we build unified models that apply across multiple environments? We propose the multi-environment Symbolic Interactive Language Grounding benchmark (SILG), which unifies a collection of diverse grounded language learning environments under a common interface. SILG consi...
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Stateful optimizers maintain gradient statistics over time, e.g., the exponentially smoothed sum (SGD with momentum) or squared sum (Adam) of past gradient values. This state can be used to accelerate optimization compared to plain stochastic gradient descent but uses memory that might otherwise be allocated to model parameters, thereby limiting th...
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We introduce a new domain expert mixture (DEMix) layer that enables conditioning a language model (LM) on the domain of the input text. A DEMix layer is a collection of expert feedforward networks, each specialized to a domain, that makes the LM modular: experts can be mixed, added or removed after initial training. Extensive experiments with autor...
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We introduce a noisy channel approach for language model prompting in few-shot text classification. Instead of computing the likelihood of the label given the input (referred as direct models), channel models compute the conditional probability of the input given the label, and are thereby required to explain every word in the input. We use channel...
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Seemingly simple natural language requests to a robot are generally underspecified, for example "Can you bring me the wireless mouse?" When viewing mice on the shelf, the number of buttons or presence of a wire may not be visible from certain angles or positions. Flat images of candidate mice may not provide the discriminative information needed fo...
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We introduce HTLM, a hyper-text language model trained on a large-scale web crawl. Modeling hyper-text has a number of advantages: (1) it is easily gathered at scale, (2) it provides rich document-level and end-task-adjacent supervision (e.g. class and id attributes often encode document category information), and (3) it allows for new structured p...
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Despite significant interest in developing general purpose fact checking models, it is challenging to construct a large-scale fact verification dataset with realistic claims that would occur in the real world. Existing claims are either authored by crowdworkers, thereby introducing subtle biases that are difficult to control for, or manually verifi...
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This paper proposes a pre-training objective based on question answering (QA) for learning general-purpose contextual representations, motivated by the intuition that the representation of a phrase in a passage should encode all questions that the phrase can answer in context. We accomplish this goal by training a bi-encoder QA model, which indepen...
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Many commonsense reasoning NLP tasks involve choosing between one or more possible answers to a question or prompt based on knowledge that is often implicit. Large pretrained language models (PLMs) can achieve near-human performance on such tasks, while providing little human-interpretable evidence of the underlying reasoning they use. In this work...
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Short textual descriptions of entities provide summaries of their key attributes and have been shown to be useful sources of background knowledge for tasks such as entity linking and question answering. However, generating entity descriptions, especially for new and long-tail entities, can be challenging since relevant information is often scattere...
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The quadratic computational and memory complexities of the Transformer's attention mechanism have limited its scalability for modeling long sequences. In this paper, we propose Luna, a linear unified nested attention mechanism that approximates softmax attention with two nested linear attention functions, yielding only linear (as opposed to quadrat...
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We present a simplified, task-agnostic multi-modal pre-training approach that can accept either video or text input, or both for a variety of end tasks. Existing pre-training are task-specific by adopting either a single cross-modal encoder that requires both modalities, limiting their use for retrieval-style end tasks or more complex multitask lea...
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Large language models have shown promising results in zero-shot settings (Brown et al.,2020; Radford et al., 2019). For example, they can perform multiple choice tasks simply by conditioning on a question and selecting the answer with the highest probability. However, ranking by string probability can be problematic due to surface form competition-...
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We introduce a new balanced assignment of experts (BASE) layer for large language models that greatly simplifies existing high capacity sparse layers. Sparse layers can dramatically improve the efficiency of training and inference by routing each token to specialized expert modules that contain only a small fraction of the model parameters. However...
Preprint
We present mGENRE, a sequence-to-sequence system for the Multilingual Entity Linking (MEL) problem -- the task of resolving language-specific mentions to a multilingual Knowledge Base (KB). For a mention in a given language, mGENRE predicts the name of the target entity left-to-right, token-by-token in an autoregressive fashion. The autoregressive...
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Current models for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) struggle to disambiguate rare senses, despite reaching human performance on global WSD metrics. This stems from a lack of data for both modeling and evaluating rare senses in existing WSD datasets. In this paper, we introduce FEWS (Few-shot Examples of Word Senses), a new low-shot WSD dataset autom...
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We propose pre-finetuning, an additional large-scale learning stage between language model pre-training and fine-tuning. Pre-finetuning is massively multi-task learning (around 50 datasets, over 4.8 million total labeled examples), and is designed to encourage learning of representations that generalize better to many different tasks. We show that...
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Bilingual lexicons map words in one language to their translations in another, and are typically induced by learning linear projections to align monolingual word embedding spaces. In this paper, we show it is possible to produce much higher quality lexicons with methods that combine (1) unsupervised bitext mining and (2) unsupervised word alignment...
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Although pretrained language models can be fine-tuned to produce state-of-the-art results for a very wide range of language understanding tasks, the dynamics of this process are not well understood, especially in the low data regime. Why can we use relatively vanilla gradient descent algorithms (e.g., without strong regularization) to tune a model...
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Many datasets have been shown to contain incidental correlations created by idiosyncrasies in the data collection process. For example, sentence entailment datasets can have spurious word-class correlations if nearly all contradiction sentences contain the word "not", and image recognition datasets can have tell-tale object-background correlations...
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Neural sequence models can generate highly fluent sentences but recent studies have also shown that they are also prone to hallucinate additional content not supported by the input, which can cause a lack of trust in the model. To better assess the faithfulness of the machine outputs, we propose a new task to predict whether each token in the outpu...