Lorenz Deserno's research while affiliated with Technische Universität Dresden and other places

Publications (112)

Article
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by a combination of symptoms including excessive craving, loss of control, and progressive neglect of alternative pleasures. A mechanistic understanding of what drives these symptoms is needed to improve diagnostic stratification and to develop new treatment and prevention strategies for AUD. To date, the...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Alcohol consumption (AC) leads to death and disability worldwide. Ongoing discussions on potential negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on AC need to be informed by real-world evidence. Objective: To examine whether lockdown measures are associated with AC and consumption-related temporal and psychological within-person mechanis...
Preprint
Adolescents undergo maturation in cognition and brain structure. Model-based (MB) control is known to increase from childhood to young adulthood, which is mediated by cognitive abilities. Here, we asked two questions unaddressed in previous developmental studies: Firstly, what are the brain structural correlates of age-related increases in MB contr...
Preprint
Precisely charting the maturation of core neurocognitive functions such as reinforcement learning (RL) and flexible adaptation to changing action-outcome contingencies is key for developmental neuroscience. It can also help us understand how disruptions during development might contribute to the onset of psychopathology. However, research in this a...
Preprint
Self-regulation, the ability to guide behavior according to one’s goals, plays an integral role in understanding loss of control behaviors a pertinent example being substance use disorders (SUD). Yet, experimental tasks that measure processes underlying self-regulation are not easy to deploy in contexts where such behaviors often occur, namely in r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPH binds to the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), which has high density in the striatum. Assessments of the striatal dopamine transporter by single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) in childhood and adolescen...
Article
Re-directing attention to objects in working memory can enhance their representational fidelity. However, how this attentional enhancement of memory representations is implemented across distinct, sensory and cognitive-control brain network is unspecified. The present fMRI experiment leverages psychophysical modelling and multivariate auditory-patt...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Over the last decades, our understanding of the cognitive, motivational, and neural processes involved in addictive behavior has increased enormously. A plethora of laboratory-based and cross-sectional studies has linked cognitive-behavioral measures to between-subject differences in drinking behavior. However, such laboratory-based...
Article
Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPH binds to the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), which has high density in the striatum. Assessments of the striatal dopamine transporter by single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) in childhood and adolesce...
Article
Full-text available
Child maltreatment gives rise to atypical patterns of social functioning with peers which might be particularly pronounced in early adolescence when peer influence typically peaks. Yet, few neuroimaging studies in adolescents use peer interaction paradigms to parse neural correlates of distinct maltreatment exposures. This fMRI study examines effec...
Article
Full-text available
Task-based measures that capture neurocognitive processes can help bridge the gap between brain and behavior. To transfer tasks to clinical application, reliability is a crucial benchmark because it imposes an upper bound to potential correlations with other variables (e.g., symptom or brain data). However, the reliability of many task readouts is...
Article
Full-text available
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be central for flexible behavioral adaptation. However, the causal relationship between mPFC activity and this behavior is incompletely understood. We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the mPFC alters flexible behavioral adaptation during reward-based decision-...
Article
Full-text available
Dopamine is implicated in representing model-free (MF) reward prediction errors a as well as influencing model-based (MB) credit assignment and choice. Putative cooperative interactions between MB and MF systems include a guidance of MF credit assignment by MB inference. Here, we used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design to te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPH binds to the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), which has high density in the striatum. Assessments of the striatal dopamine transporter by single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) in childhood and adolescen...
Article
Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPH binds to the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), which has high density in the striatum. Assessments of the striatal dopamine transporter by single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) in childhood and adolescen...
Preprint
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by a combination of symptoms including excessive craving, loss of control and progressive neglect of alternative pleasures. A mechanistic understanding of what drives these symptoms is needed to improve diagnostic stratification and to develop new treatment and prevention strategies for AUD. To date, ther...
Article
Full-text available
Physical and mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic is typically assessed via surveys, which might make it difficult to conduct longitudinal studies and might lead to data suffering from recall bias. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) driven smartphone apps can help alleviate such issues, allowing for in situ recordings. Implementing suc...
Article
Full-text available
Most mental disorders originate in childhood, and once symptoms present, a variety of psychosocial and cognitive maladjustments may arise. Although early childhood problems are generally associated with later mental health impairments and psychopathology, pluripotent transdiagnostic trajectories may manifest. Possible predictors range from behavior...
Article
Full-text available
Recurring episodes of excessive food intake in binge eating disorder can be understood through the lens of behavioral control systems: patients repeat maladaptive behaviors against their explicit intent. Self-report measures show enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity in binge eating (BE) but are agnostic as to the processes that might lead to impul...
Preprint
Task-based measures that capture neurocognitive processes can help bridge the gap between brain and behavior. To transfer tasks to clinical application, reliability is a crucial benchmark because it poses an upper bound to potential correlations with other variables (e.g., symptom or brain data). However, the reliability of many task-readouts is lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical and mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic is typically assessed via surveys, which might make it difficult to conduct longitudinal studies and might lead to data suffering from recall bias. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) driven smartphone apps can help alleviate such issues, allowing for in situ recordings. Implementing suc...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
Recurring episodes of excessive food intake in binge eating disorder can be understood through the lens of behavioral control systems: patients repeat maladaptive behaviors against their explicit intent. Self-report measures show enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity in binge eating (BE). Task-based neurocognitive investigations can tap into proces...
Preprint
Full-text available
Re-directing attention to objects in working memory can enhance their representational fidelity. However, how this attentional enhancement of memory representations is implemented across distinct, sensory and cognitive-control brain network is unspecified. The present fMRI experiment leverages psychophysical modelling and multivariate auditory-patt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dopamine is implicated in signalling model-free (MF) reward prediction errors and various aspects of model-based (MB) credit assignment and choice. Recently, we showed that cooperative interactions between MB and MF systems include guidance of MF credit assignment by MB inference. Here, we used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects de...
Article
Full-text available
Consuming more energy than is expended may reflect a failure of control over eating behaviour in obesity. Behavioural control arises from a balance between two dissociable strategies of reinforcement learning: model-free and model-based. We hypothesized that weight status relates to an imbalance in reliance on model-based and model-free control, an...
Article
Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to cognitive test performance. A substantial increase in average intelligence test results in the second half of the previous century within one generation is unlikely to be explained by genetic changes. One possible explanation for the strong malleability of cognitive performance measure is that en...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals differ in how they learn from experience. In Pavlovian conditioning models, where cues predict reinforcer delivery at a different goal location, some animals—called sign-trackers—come to approach the cue, whereas others, called goal-trackers, approach the goal. In sign-trackers, model-free phasic dopaminergic reward-prediction errors un...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reinforcement learning involves a balance between model-free (MF) and model-based (MB) systems. Recent studies suggest that individuals with either pharmacologically enhanced levels of dopamine (DA) or higher baseline levels of DA exhibit more MB control. However, it remains unknown whether such pharmacological effects depend on baseline DA. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
One of the major risk factors for global death and disability is alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. While there is increasing knowledge with respect to individual factors promoting the initiation and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUDs), disease trajectories involved in losing and regaining control over drug intake (ReCoDe) are still...
Article
Background: Reward-based decision making is impaired in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ), as reflected by increased choice switching. The underlying cognitive and motivational processes as well as associated neural signatures remain unknown. Reinforcement learning and hierarchical Bayesian learning account for choice switching in different ways....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Reward-based decision-making is impaired in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ) as reflected by increased choice switching. The underlying cognitive and motivational processes as well as associated neural signatures remain unknown. Reinforcement Learning (RL) and hierarchical Bayesian learning account for choice switching in different ways...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consuming more energy than is expended may reflect a failure of control over eating behaviour in obesity. Behavioural control arises from a balance between two dissociable strategies of reinforcement learning: model-free and model-based. We hypothesized that weight status relates to an imbalance in reliance on model-based and model-free control, an...
Article
Background: Working-memory impairment is a core cognitive dysfunction in people with schizophrenia and people at mental high risk. Recent imaging studies on working memory have suggested that abnormalities in prefrontal activation and in connectivity between the frontal and parietal regions could be neural underpinnings of the different stages of...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to cognitive test performance. A substantial increase in average intelligence test results in the second half of the previous century within one generation is unlikely to be explained by genetic changes. One possible explanation for the strong malleability of cognitive performance measure is that en...
Article
Full-text available
In schizophrenia, increased aberrant salience to irrelevant events and reduced learning of relevant information may relate to an underlying deficit in relevance detection. So far, subjective estimates of relevance have not been probed in schizophrenia patients. The mechanisms underlying belief formation about relevance and their translation into de...
Data
Supplementary material. The supplement contains the following analyses and results: additional information on the ISP and raw data analyses of potential stimulus feature effects, additional information on the HGF and the HGF-precision feedback learning model, overview of the model space, fMRI preprocessing, and tables of the priors of learning and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Reward-based decision-making is impaired in schizophrenia, as reflected by increased switching between choices. The underlying cognitive mechanisms and associated neural signatures remain unknown. Reinforcement learning (RL) and hierarchical Bayesian learning account for this behavior in different ways. We hypothesized that enhanced swit...
Article
Dopamine underlies important aspects of cognition, and has been suggested to boost cognitive performance. However, how dopamine modulates the large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance has remained elusive. Using functional MRI during a working memory task in healthy young human listeners, we investigated the effect of levodopa (l-d...
Article
Full-text available
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition characterized by a triad of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. The striatum is particularly vulnerable to the effects of mutant huntingtin, and cell loss can already be found in presymptomatic stages. Since the striatum is well known for...
Preprint
Dopamine underlies important aspects of cognition, and has been suggested to boost cognitive performance. However, how dopamine modulates the large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance has remained elusive. Using functional MRI during a working memory task in healthy young human listeners (N=22), we investigated the effect of levodo...
Article
Theoretical models and preceding studies have described age-related alterations in neuronal activation of fronto-parietal regions in a working memory (WM) load-dependent manner. However, to date, underlying neuronal mechanisms of these WM load-dependent activation changes in aging remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate t...
Article
Full-text available
Substance-dependent individuals often lack the ability to adjust decisions flexibly in response to the changes in reward contingencies. Prediction errors (PEs) are thought to mediate flexible decision-making by updating the reward values associated with available actions. In this study, we explored whether the neurobiological correlates of PEs are...
Article
Full-text available
Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g. overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure t...
Article
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous spectrum disorder often associated with detrimental negative symptoms. In recent years, computational approaches to psychiatry have attracted growing attention. Negative symptoms have shown some overlap with general cognitive impairments and were also linked to impaired motivational processing in brain circuits impl...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a critical maturation period for human cognitive control and executive function. In this study, a large sample of adolescents (n=85) performed a reversal-learning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed behavioral data using a reinforcement learning model to provide individually fitted parameters and imaging da...
Article
Significance statement: In addiction, patients maintain substance use despite devastating consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. These clinical observations have been theoretically linked to disturbed mechanisms of inference, for example, to difficulties when learning statistical regularities of the environmental structure...
Article
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct (‘direct’/‘indirect’) dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational...
Article
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and addiction in general is characterized by failures of choice resulting in repeated drug intake despite severe negative consequences. Behavioral change is hard to accomplish and relapse after detoxification is common and can be promoted by consumption of small amounts of alcohol as well as exposure to alcohol-associated...
Article
Despite its clinical relevance and the recent recognition as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has rarely been investigated from a cognitive neuroscientific perspective targeting a more precise neurocognitive profiling of the disorder. BED patients suffer from a lack of behavioral control during recurrent binge eating...
Article
Full-text available
The default mode network (DMN), a network centered around the cortical midline, shows deactivation during most cognitive tasks and pronounced resting-state connectivity, but is actively engaged in self-reference and social cognition. It is, however, yet unclear how information reaches the DMN during social cognitive processing. Here, we addressed t...
Article
Dopamine potentially unites two important roles: one in addiction, being involved in most substances of abuse including alcohol, and a second one in a specific type of learning, namely model-free temporal-difference reinforcement learning. Theories of addiction have long suggested that drugs of abuse may usurp dopamine’s role in learning. We here b...
Article
Background: Generative models of neuroimaging data, such as dynamic causal models (DCMs), are commonly used for inferring effective connectivity from individual subject data. Recently introduced "generative embedding" approaches have used DCM-based connectivity parameters for supervised classification of individual patients or to find unknown subg...