Lisa Marie DeBruine's research while affiliated with University of Glasgow and other places

Publications (58)

Article
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures...
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Perceptions of the trustworthiness of faces predict important social outcomes, including economic exchange and criminal sentencing decisions. However, the specific facial characteristics that drive trustworthiness perceptions remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by exploring possible relationships between ratings of the trustwo...
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The recent proliferation of big team science is forcing researchers to revisit three issues around authorship: (1) What is an authorship-worthy contribution, (2) How should contributions be documented, and (3) How should disagreements among large teams of co-authors be handled?
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Face stimuli are commonly created in ways that are not explained well enough for others to reproduce them. In this paper, we document the irreproducibility of most face stimuli, explain the benefits of reproducible stimuli, and introduce the open-source R package webmorphR that facilitates scriptable face image processing. We explain the technical...
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While most studies on sexuality in later life report that sexual desire declines with age, little is known about the exact nature of age effects on sexual desire. Using self-reported dyadic sexual desire relating to a partner, dyadic sexual desire relating to an attractive person, and solitary sexual desire from a large (N > 8000) and age-diverse (...
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Salivary steroid immunoassays are widely used in psychoneuroendocrinology to investigate the psychological effects of menstrual cycle phase. Though manufacturers advertise their assays as suitable, they have not been rigorously validated for this purpose. We collated data from eight studies across more than 1,200 women and more than 9,500 time poin...
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Over the past decade, a small literature has tested how trait-level pathogen avoidance motives (e.g., disgust sensitivity) and exposure to pathogen cues relate to preferences for facial symmetry and sexual dimorphism. Results have largely been interpreted as suggesting that the behavioral immune system influences preferences for these features in p...
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Previous research has suggested that heterosexual women show stronger preferences for images of male faces displaying masculine shape characteristics than do homosexual women. Because many other findings regarding individual differences in women’s masculinity preferences have not replicated in subsequent studies, we carried out a direct replication...
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Making scientific information machine-readable greatly facilitates its reuse. Many scientific articles have the goal to test a hypothesis, so making the tests of statistical predictions easier to find and access could be very beneficial. We propose an approach that can be used to make hypothesis tests machine-readable. We believe there are two bene...
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Science is often perceived to be a self-correcting enterprise. In principle, the assessment of scientific claims is supposed to proceed in a cumulative fashion, with the reigning theories of the day progressively approximating truth more accurately over time. In practice, however, cumulative self-correction tends to proceed less efficiently than on...
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Experimental designs that sample both subjects and stimuli from a larger population need to account for random effects of both subjects and stimuli using mixed-effects models. However, much of this research is analyzed using analysis of variance on aggregated responses because researchers are not confident specifying and interpreting mixed-effects...
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Social and behavioural scientists have attempted to speak to the COVID-19 crisis. But is behavioural research on COVID-19 suitable for making policy decisions? We offer a taxonomy that lets our science advance in ‘evidence readiness levels’ to be suitable for policy. We caution practitioners to take extreme care translating our findings to applicat...
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The tendency to attend to and avoid cues to pathogens varies across individuals and contexts. Researchers have proposed that this variation is partially driven by immunological vulnerability to infection, though support for this hypothesis is equivocal. One key piece of evidence finds that recently ill participants – who may have a reduced ability...
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Research on links between peoples’ personality traits and their voices has primarily focused on other peoples’ personality judgments about a target person based on a target person’s vocal characteristics, particularly voice pitch. However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in voices are linked to actual individual differences in per...
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Progress in psychology has been frustrated by challenges concerning replicability, generalizability, strategy selection, inferential reproducibility, and computational reproducibility. Although often discussed separately, we argue that these five problems share a common cause: insufficient investment of resources into the typical psychology study....
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Full-text available
Psychological scientists have attempted to speak to the COVID-19 crisis. Psychology research on COVID-19, we argue, is unsuitable for making policy decisions. We offer a taxonomy that lets our science advance in Evidence Readiness Levels to be suitable for policy; we caution practitioners to take extreme care translating our findings to application...
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Many researchers have proposed that straight men prefer women’s faces displaying feminine shape characteristics at least partly because mating with such women will produce healthier offspring. Although a clear prediction of this adaptation-for-mate-choice hypothesis is that straight men will show stronger preferences for feminized versus masculiniz...
Preprint
Making scientific information machine-readable greatly facilitates its re-use. Many scientific articles have the goal to test a hypothesis, and making the tests of statistical predictions easier to find and access could be very beneficial. We propose an approach that can be used to make hypothesis tests machine readable. We believe there are two be...
Preprint
A large literature exists investigating the extent to which physical characteristics (e.g., strength, weight, and height) can be accurately assessed from face images. While most of these studies have employed two dimensional (2D) face images as stimuli, some recent studies have used three dimensional (3D) face images because they may contain cues n...
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Previous research suggests that humans show positive assortative mating, i.e. tend to pair up with partners that are similar to themselves in a range of traits, including facial appearance. Facial appearance can function as a cue to genetic similarity and plays a critical role in human mate choice. Evidence for positive assortative mating for facia...
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Kinship and facial self-resemblance evoke similar patterns of behaviour, such as increased pro-sociality and decreased sexual motivation. Moreover, it has been suggested that facial resemblance/similarity between individuals informs kinship judgments in third-party kin recognition as one study found that similarity and kinship judgments encapsulate...
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Objective: Although it is widely assumed that men’s sexual desire and interest in casual sex (i.e., sociosexual orientation) are linked to steroid hormone levels, evidence for such associations is mixed. Methods: We tested for both longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between salivary testosterone, cortisol, reported sexual desire and so...
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Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
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Research on whether prosocial behavior is deliberate or intuitive typically uses decision time in economic games as a proxy for the automaticity of underlying cognitive processes. We investigate the relationship between trust and decision time in a sample with a predicted high baseline level of cooperative behavior and low conflict between self-int...
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Secondary data analyses (analyses of open data from published studies) can play a critical role in hypothesis generation and in maximizing the contribution of collected data to the accumulation of scientific knowledge. However, assessing the evidentiary value of results from secondary data analyses is often challenging because analytical decisions...
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Women’s preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about how gay men respond to masculine facial characteristics. One area of disagreement in the emerging literature on this topic is the association between gay men’s partnership status and masculinity preference. One study fo...
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Moral opposition to incest is thought to play an important role in preventing inbreeding. Some researchers have proposed that moral opposition to sibling incest is greater for individuals who have other-sex siblings. Empirical evidence for this claim is mixed, however. Consequently, we compared moral opposition to both third-party sibling and third...
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Previous research has established that humans are able to detect kinship among strangers from facial images alone. The current study investigated what facial information is used for making those kinship judgements, specifically the contribution of face shape and colour. Using 3D facial images, 195 participants were asked to judge the relatedness of...
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Although many researchers have assumed that vocal attractiveness functions as a health cue, direct tests of this assumption have been rare. Consequently, we will test possible correlations between women’s vocal attractiveness and susceptibility to infectious illnesses. We will test correlations between women’s vocal attractiveness and both a range...
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Evidence that affective factors (e.g., anxiety, depression, affect) are significantly related to individual differences in emotion recognition is mixed. Palermo et al. (2018 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance) recently reported that individuals who scored lower in anxiety performed significantly better on two measu...
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This letter (to appear in Behavioral Ecology) reports alternative analyses of Shimoda et al. (2018 Behavioral Ecology https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arx124). These new analyses suggest that conception risk has similar effects on in- and extra-pair sexual desire, rather than the effect on extra-pair desire reported by Shimoda et al. (2018).
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Research into the characteristics of attractive women’s voices has focused almost exclusively on associations with fundamental or formant frequencies. A recent study of a small sample of voices used a bottom-up approach to identify acoustic characteristics associated with women’s vocal attractiveness, finding that many acoustic characteristics othe...
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Some evidence shows that birth order affects kinship detection ability. Kaminski et al. (2010) argue that firstborns use contextual cues (e.g. perinatal association) to assess kinship in their own family, leading to a disadvantage in assessing kinship from facial cues only in strangers. In contrast, laterborns do not have the contextual cue of peri...
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Research on mate preference have often taken a theory-driven approach; however, such an approach can constrain the range of possible predictions. As a result, the research community may inadvertently neglect traits that are potentially important for human mate choice if current theoretical models simply do not identify them. Here, we address this l...
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Since the final version of our review article was accepted for publication, several new preprints have come out that support our thesis. Here we give a brief overview of these articles.
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Previous research has suggested that women using oral contraceptives show weaker preferences for masculine men than do women not using oral contraceptives. Such research would be consistent with the hypothesis that steroid hormones influence women’s preferences for masculine men. Recent large-scale longitudinal studies, however, have found limited...
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Previous research has found that physical characteristics in faces that influence perceptions of trustworthiness and dominance have context-contingent effects on leadership perceptions. People whose faces are perceived to be trustworthy are judged to be better leaders in peacetime contexts than wartime contexts. By contrast, people whose faces are...
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Scientific self-correction is often construed as an outcome of the activities of the community as a whole. In contrast, cases in which researchers publicly point out errors in their own studies are rare and deemed unusual. Here, we argue that such individual self-corrections would be beneficial for the scientific community. In an online project, we...
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On average, women show stronger preferences for mates with good earning capacity than men do, while men show stronger preferences for physically attractive mates than women do. Studies reporting that sex differences in mate preferences are smaller in countries with greater gender equality have been interpreted as evidence that these sex differences...
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The Dual Mating Strategy hypothesis proposes that women’s preferences for uncommitted sexual relationships with men displaying putative fitness cues increase during the high-fertility phase of the menstrual cycle. Results consistent with this hypothesis are widely cited as evidence that sexual selection has shaped human mating psychology. However,...
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Facial attractiveness plays a critical role in social interaction, influencing many different social outcomes. However, the factors that influence facial attractiveness judgments remain relatively poorly understood. Here, we used a sample of 594 young adult female face images to compare the predictive utility of existing theory-driven models of fac...
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Mental simulation theories of language comprehension propose that people automatically create mental representations of real objects. Evidence from sentence-picture verification tasks has shown that people mentally represent various visual properties such as shape, color, and size. However, the evidence for mental simulations of object orientation...
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Men are hypothesized to show stronger preferences for physical attractiveness in potential mates than women are, particularly when assessing the attractiveness of potential mates for short-term relationships. By contrast, women are thought to show stronger preferences for social status in potential mates than men are, particularly when assessing th...
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The ‘dark triad’ refers to the personality traits Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Previous research found that participants could distinguish between images with average facial characteristics of people who scored particularly high or particularly low on dark triad traits. These results suggest that faces contain valid cues to dark t...
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It is well established that men report greater jealousy when imagining scenarios in which their romantic partner interacts with men displaying masculine physical characteristics. However, few studies have tested for corresponding effects of sexually dimorphic characteristics on women’s jealousy or tested for these effects in non-Western samples. Th...
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Al-Shawaf et al. (2015 Evolution & Human Behavior, 36, 199-205) found that people who were more interested in pursuing a short-term mating strategy (indexed by higher total scores on the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory) reported less sexual disgust (indexed by lower scores on the sexual disgust subscale of the Three Domain Disgust Scale)....
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Previous reports that women with attractive faces are healthier have been widely cited as evidence that sexual selection has shaped human mate preferences. However, evidence for correlations between women’s physical health and facial attractiveness is equivocal. Moreover, positive results on this issue have generally come from studies of self-repor...
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Previous research has shown strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness judgments. However, these studies all used a theory-driven approach in which responses to specific facial characteristics are compared between cultures. This approach is constrained by the predictions that can be derived from existing theories and can therefore bia...
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How organisms discount the value of future rewards is associated with many important outcomes, and may be a central component of theories of life-history. According to life-history theories, prioritising immediacy is indicative of an accelerated strategy (i.e., reaching reproductive maturity quickly and producing many offspring at the cost of long-...
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Full-text available
In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.
Article
Full-text available
In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.
Preprint
Social judgments of faces made by Western participants are thought to be underpinned by two dimensions: valence and dominance. Because some research suggests that Western and Eastern participants process faces differently, the two-dimensional model of face evaluation may not necessarily apply to judgments of faces by Eastern participants. Here we u...
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Sell et al. [1] found that cues of upper body strength were a particularly good predictor of women’s judgments of men’s physical attractiveness. As they noted, some theories of men’s physical attractiveness suggest that particularly masculine-, strong-looking men will be relatively unattractive. In other words, these theories predict a quadratic, r...
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Raised progesterone during the menstrual cycle is associated with suppressed physiological immune responses, reducing the probability that the immune system will compromise the blastocyst’s development. The Compensatory Prophylaxis Hypothesis proposes that this progesterone-linked immunosuppression triggers increased disgust responses to pathogen c...
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Full-text available
In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to p ≤ .005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.
Preprint
Social judgments of faces are thought to be underpinned by two perceptual components: valence and dominance. Recent work using a standard key-press task to assess reward value found that these valence and dominance components were both positively related to the reward value of faces. Although bodies play an important role in human social interactio...
Preprint
Effects of facial coloration on attractiveness judgments are hypothesized to be “universal” (i.e., similar across cultures). However, only two studies have directly compared facial color preferences in two cultures. Both of those studies reported that White UK and Black African participants showed similar preferences for facial coloration. By contr...

Citations

... A strong limitation to the current and previous studies is the common approach to measure salivary estradiol and progesterone with immunoassays. Although the immunoassays approach is an easy and accessible method to measure gonadal steroids in saliva, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provides more sensitivity, validity, and accuracy in measuring steroid hormone levels (Arslan et al., 2022). Thus, the results of our hormone models should be interpreted in light of this limitation and are in need for replication with a more valid analysis method. ...
... Finally, recent calls to make distinct aspects of the scientific process machine-readable (Lakens & DeBruine, 2021;Spadaro et al., 2022) could enhance transparency, standardize the literature review process, and reduce time and effort expenditure (Brisebois et al., 2017;Sabharwal & Miah, 2022) ...
... This study found that Chinese lesbian and bisexual women indicate a significant preference for femininity in their potential female partners across different domains. Lesbian and bisexual women demonstrated a stronger preference for feminized female faces, voices (higher voice pitch and shorter VTL), and personality traits over masculinized versions, which is consistent with past research demonstrating that lesbian women prefer partners with a more feminine appearance (Bailey et al., 1997;Bassett et al., 2001;Glassenberg et al., 2010;Shiramizu et al., 2021;Welling et al., 2013). Lesbian and bisexual women showed stronger preferences for feminine rather than masculine cues in faces, voices, and personality traits of females, which also supports the hypothesis proposed by Bailey et al. (1997) that lesbian women's partner preferences mirror those of heterosexual males. ...
... Mixed-effects models are crucial to appropriately analyze data from experimental designs including both subjects and items as crossed random effects (Baayen et al., 2008;DeBruine & Barr, 2021). However, their use is limited in neuroimaging analyses also due to computational time constraints. ...
... Retractions and self-retractions can reveal much about the social dimension of the scientific enterprise. That said, the understanding of factors influencing this correction process should be sought in light of a research culture, including its publication system, that does not incentivize publicly exposing failures (Allison et al., 2016;Bishop, 2018;Rohrer et al., 2021). When it comes to such exposure through self-retractions for honest error, although there have been growing efforts toward normalizing this process (Bishop, 2018;Ribeiro et al., 2022), such cultural shift takes time. ...
... In women, disgust responses have been reported to vary across the menstrual cycle, being at their greatest when progesterone is elevated (reviewed in [97]). However, consistent negative findings have also been reported [98,99]. Recently, systemic administration of progesterone to female mice was suggested to rapidly enhance their avoidance of infected males, though social recognition per se was also affected [100]. ...
... However, as a result, it has inherited the challenges of these parent fields, such as the replication crisismany findings failing to replicate (Open Science Collaboration, 2015;Camerer et al., 2018) and the WEIRD people problemoverreliance on findings from Western contexts and lack of attendance to cross-cultural and contextual differences (Henrich et al., 2010b;Apicella et al., 2020). Within behavioural science, cultural and other contextual heterogeneities are acknowledged as important (IJzerman et al., 2020;Bryan et al., 2021;Sunstein, 2021), but it remains unclear how to systematically incorporate these factors in a principled manner. And so it is difficult to know when we should expect findings and past successes to generalize (Deaton & Cartwright, 2018). ...
... As-of-yet we don't know if the relationship between religion and health will fare any better, but the meta-analysis of Garssen et al., suggests that the effect size in longitudinal studies is small at best. Fourthly, given the large degrees of freedom in the way in which meta-analyses can be conducted, a manyanalyst approach allows different researchers to conduct their analysis on the same data (Forscher et al., 2020). In this way it can be assessed to what extent outcomes, e.g., from meta-analyses, are robust to seemingly arbitrary choices in the design of the statistical tests (e.g., exclusion of outliers; using different methods to control for heterogeneity). ...
... Judging by the modally occurring forms of research practice in experimental research, it would seem that psychology has settled for the latter, even though we profess to being able to provide direction on the former. One of the outcomes of this fact is the strained relationship, and often cynicism, that exists in applied domains of practice, such as education, for the outcomes of academic research, which are seen as generally neither conclusive, nor practical (Broekkamp and van Hout-Wolters, 2007;IJzerman et al., 2020). This may reflect insufficient attention to the existence of moderating variables that can define subgroups who may respond differently. ...
... io/scienceverse/). For RRs that test specific confirmatory hypotheses, all preregistered hypotheses and statistical predictions could also become machine-readable 91 . A machine-readable output can be used to extract key metadata from the RR, as the results either confirm or disconfirm the prespecified hypotheses. ...