Lisa M. Diamond's research while affiliated with University of Utah and other places

Publications (25)

Article
For over two decades, the minority stress model has guided research on the health of sexually-diverse individuals (those who are not exclusively heterosexual) and gender-diverse individuals (those whose gender identity/expression differs from their birth-assigned sex/gender). According to this model, the cumulative stress caused by stigma and socia...
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Past research suggests an apparent paradox: Women who engage in same-gender sexual behavior show higher rates of unintended pregnancy than women with exclusive other-gender sexual behavior. Such women also have disproportionate rates of early adversity (both harshness, such as abuse or neglect, and unpredictability, such as father absence). We used...
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We used a one-month daily diary assessment to measure menstrual cycle-related changes in same-gender and other-gender sexual motivation and behavior in 148 cisgender women (32% lesbian-identified, 35% bisexually identified, and 33% heterosexual-identified). Women with exclusive same-gender orientations reported increased motivation for same-gender...
Article
Objective Sexual activity is a fundamental human function with short-term and long-term emotional, social, and physical benefits. Yet within healthcare, sexuality has been marginalized and many HCPs are unaware of its beneficial implications for immediate and long-term health. Methods To challenge this assumption we combined the data that already...
Article
About one eighth of people are exposed to adversities such as abuse and neglect. Life history theory suggests that early experiences of adversity are strongly associated with later engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Specifically, those exposed to early adversity tend to engage in sex at an earlier age, have casual sex, and have high numbers of p...
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Sexually-diverse individuals (those who seek sexual or romantic relationships with the same and/or multiple genders) and gender-diverse individuals (those whose gender identity and/or expression differs from their birth-assigned sex and/or gender) have disproportionately high physical health problems, but the underlying biological causes for these...
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In September of 2019, the largest-ever (N = 477,522) genome-wide-association study of same-gender sexuality was published in Science. The primary finding was that multiple genes are significantly associated with ever engaging in same-gender sexual behavior, accounting for between 8–25% of variance in this outcome. Yet an additional finding of this...
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Previous research has examined the phenomenon of “sexual fluidity,” but there is no current consensus on the specific meaning and operationalization of this construct. The present study used a sample of 76 women with diverse sexual orientations to compare four different types of sexual fluidity: (1) fluidity as overall erotic responsiveness to one’...
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Purpose of Review The purpose of the present review is to outline what is currently known about oxytocin and human sexual behavior. The present review utilizes existing research to outline an important question remaining in the field; does oxytocin facilitate sexual behavior or is it simply a result of the said behavior? Recent Findings Existing s...
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Life history theory and the adaptive calibration model state that characteristics of one’s early environment influence individual differences in both neuroendocrine reactivity to stress and sexual risk-taking behavior. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between neuroendocrine reactivity to stress and risky sexual behavior....
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Many women experience desires, arousal, and behavior that run counter to their sexual orientation (orientation inconsistent, 'OI'). Are such OI sexual experiences cognitively and neurobiologically distinct from those that are consistent with one's sexual orientation (orientation consistent, 'OC')? To address this question, we employed a mindful att...
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A growing number of children and adolescents report having gender identities or expressions that differ from their birth‐assigned gender or from social and cultural gender norms. Some identify as transgender, whereas others consider themselves nonbinary or gender fluid. Nonbinary and gender fluid youth are distinct from transgender youth in that th...
Article
Objective The objective of this study was to explore sexual orientation disparities in unwanted births by race/ethnicity. Background Previous research has documented that sexual minority women (SMW) are more likely to report unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women and that Black and Latina women are more likely to report unintended pregnancy...
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Mindfulness – the ability to pay attention, on purpose, without judgment, and in the present moment – has consistently been shown to enhance women’s sexual arousal. As a first step toward understanding potential neuroendocrine underpinnings of mindfulness and sexual arousal, we examined whether individual differences in subjective and neuroendocrin...
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Previous research suggests a dynamic regulatory relationship between oxytocin and cortisol, but the specific nature of this relationship and its context-specificity have not been fully specified. In the present study, we repeatedly assessed both salivary oxytocin and salivary cortisol during two experimental sessions (one inducing sexual arousal an...
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Decades of fetal programming research indicates that we may be able to map the origins of many physical, psychological, and medical variations and morbidities before the birth of the child. While great strides have been made in identifying associations between prenatal insults, such as undernutrition or psychosocial stress, and negative development...
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Attachment theory suggests that at all stages of life, regular contact with attachment figures fosters a fundamental sense of safety and security. Yet an increasing number of romantic couples undergo prolonged physical separations from one another, rangingfrom several weeks to several years, and involving widely varying opportunities for communicat...
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Sexuality research has generally privileged attractions based on partners' sexed physical bodies over attractions based on other features, including gender expression and personality traits. Gender may actually be quite central to sexual attractions. However, its role has received little empirical attention. To explore how gendered and sexed featur...
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We examined the stability of same-sex and other-sex attractions among 294 heterosexual, lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women between the ages of 18 and 40 years. Participants used online daily diaries to report the intensity of each day’s strongest same-sex and other-sex attraction, and they also reported on changes they recalled experiencing i...
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We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexu...
Article
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 2(2) of Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity (see record 2015-23404-004 ). There was an error in the Results section, in the third paragraph of the "Partner gender shifts" subsection. The incorrect sentence and the corrected version are provided.] Prior research ha...

Citations

... Unique stressors related to a TGD identity include, for example, laws and policies failing to protect or even stigmatizing TGD individuals, genderbased victimization and rejection, being misgendered and not affirmed in one's gender identity, the internalization of negative attitudes towards one's gender identity (i.e., internalized transnegativity), or gender identity concealment (Tan et al., 2020;White Hughto et al., 2016). These stressors are distinct from stressors related to sexual orientation, but their impact on mental and physical health is commonly described through the same psychological and neurobiological mechanisms (Diamond & Alley, 2022). ...
... Much of the literature, especially among sexual minorities (e.g., MSM) has a onesided biomedical focus assessing only sexual risk factors and prevalence's rates of STI's and HIV infections (Berg, 2012(Berg, , 2013Berg et al., 2020;Jakopanec et al., 2013;Xu et al., 2010). This is despite recent work suggesting that a focus on pleasure and sexual well-being may be most important with vulnerable populations including sexual minorities (Ford et al., 2021;Gianotten et al., 2021). According to the World Health Organization, sexual health is defined as "a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity" (WHO, 2002, p. 4). ...
... Beyond omitting a nuanced discussion of variation in mating strategies, the target article did not thoroughly dissect variation in women's sexual orientation, as observed by Honey and Semenyna (2021). An application of life history theory might also offer illuminative insights regarding female non-heterosexuality (Alley & Diamond, 2021;Semenyna et al., 2022). Recently Luoto et al. (2019) contended that non-heterosexuality in women may be one manifestation of a faster life history strategy, which is mediated by masculinizing hormones. ...
... Less work, however, has examined these differences among sexual minority (SM) populations. The limited body of work in this area has noted an elevated burden of CVD-related risk factors including inflammation, elevated diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate (Clark et al., 2014); (Hatzenbuehler et al., 2013a); ; (Morgan et al., 2020); (Morgan et al., 2021); (Diamond et al., 2021). More recent research has noted that, among young men who have sex with men and transgender women, systemic inflammation (measured by CRP) is significantly Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. ...
... Our study measured sexual orientation identity, but we did not assess other dimensions of sexual orientation, such as behavior and attraction, nor did we measure whether participants had disclosed their sexual orientation to others. The question to assess sexual orientation in this survey also did not account for sexual fluidity: the concept that sexual orientation can change over time, or in different contexts; nor did our measures reflect the full spectrum of sexual orientation identities, in response to recent study showing that sexual orientation should not be measured on a single continuum (Diamond, 2021). For example, future studies may consider applying the Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation which measures sexual identity, behavior and attraction, as well as fluidity, and assesses homosexuality and heterosexuality separately (Stall et al., 2020). ...
... Specifically, oxytocin-mediated increases in generosity (Zak, Stanton, & Ahmadi, 2007), emotional face recognition (Shahrestani, Kemp, & Guastella, 2013), and (potentially) trust (Kosfeld, Heinrichs, Zak, Fischbacher, & Fehr, 2005; but see Declerck, Boone, Pauwels, Vogt, & Fehr, 2020) may increase music's effects on group cohesion resulting in social coping benefits. Changes in eye gaze (Eckstein et al., 2019), selective sociality (Carter, 2017), and sexual arousal and orgasm (Alley & Diamond, 2020) mediated by oxytocin may enhance musical effects on courtship behavior and exclusionary pair formation. Oxytocin-mediated empathy (Wu, Li, & Su, 2012), playful behavior (Szymanska, Schneider, Chateau-Smith, Nezelof, & Vulliez-Coady, 2017), and peripheral effects on parturition and lactation (Carter, 2014) could underlie musical infant-caregiver bonding. ...
... But they is not the only gender-neutral pronoun. Other popular picks include xe and ze [23], with no shortage of novel pronouns being coined. 1 Pronouns can also constantly shift for those who are gender fluid, moving across the spectrum of gender identity over time [24,45]. ...
... Despite the evidence of altered cortisol levels in women with experiences of abuse [17][18][19], women victims of IPV [20], as well as PTSD [21], anxiety, depression and problems with self-esteem [22], there are studies where the differences in cortisol levels are only associated with the chronicity of the abuse of the victims [23], where the physical stressor is the only variable responsible for altering cortisol levels [24]. ...
... We also do not consider differences by race/ethnicity or SES. Given that parenthood (and adult child) experiences differ by gender, including outside of the cisgender woman context, and by race/ethnicity and SES, it is likely that the patterns would differ when considering these different sociodemographic contexts (Everett et al. 2020, Hartnett and Brantley 2020, Reczek 2020. Finally, as discussed in more detail above, we do not yet consider mechanisms linking childbearing to midlife coresidence, and we suggest that these pathways are likely both causal and related to selection factors (Diaz andFiel 2016, South andLei 2015). ...
... The core phenotypic characteristics of interest to the field of same-sex sexual orientation biodevelopment are also reflected by the populations that have been relied upon to conduct studies in this area. Most often, studies have included cisgender (i.e., experienced gender and sex assigned at birth align) adults who vary in sexual orientation (e.g., gay men, lesbian women; Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996a, 1996bDiamond et al., 2020;Kishida & Rahman, 2015;Martin & Nguyen, 2004;Pattatucci & Hamer, 1995;Xu & Zheng, 2017). It has also been quite common for studies to include transgender (i.e., experienced gender and sex assigned at birth do not align) adults varying in sexual orientation (e.g., Blanchard & Sheridan, 1992;Green, 2000;VanderLaan et al., 2017aVanderLaan et al., , 2017b or children and adolescents seen in gender clinics who were heterogeneous with respect to (presumed) sexual orientation and gender identity (e.g., Schagen et al., 2012;VanderLaan et al., 2014;Wallien et al., 2008). ...