Lisa Irmen's research while affiliated with Universität Heidelberg and other places

Publications (15)

Article
Two eye-tracking experiments investigated the effects of masculine versus feminine grammatical gender on the processing of role nouns and on establishing coreference relations. Participants read sentences with the basic structure My is a such as My brother is a singer in a band. Role nouns were either masculine or feminine. Kinship terms were lexic...
Article
The present study investigates the acceptance of diverse person denotations in legal language. Several groups of recipients were tested with an original official text: 1. law professionals (N = 49), 2. people of age 60+ years (N = 46) and 3. people without academic educational degrees (N = 53). In an online study participants were presented with a...
Article
The present ERP study investigated how reference resolution is affected by semantic cues to referent gender such as the gender typicality of role names. Participants read general statements about social and occupational groups denoted by a role name (e.g., pilots, florists), which was followed by a co-referring NP with masculine, feminine or neutra...
Article
Grammatical gender has been shown to provide natural gender information about human referents. However, due to formal and conceptual differences between masculine and feminine forms, it remains an open question whether these gender categories influence the processing of person information to the same degree. Experiment 1 compared the semantic conte...
Article
Two eye-tracking studies assessed effects of grammatical and conceptual gender cues in generic role name processing in German. Participants read passages about a social or occupational group introduced by way of a generic role name (e.g., Soldaten/soldiers, Künstler/artists). Later in the passage the gender of this group was specified by the anapho...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Akzeptanz verschiedener Personenbezeichnungsformen in einem juristischen Originaltext. In einer Online-Studie bearbeiteten Versuchsteilnehmende (N = 88) einen Lückentext, in dem sie an vorgegebenen Stellen aus verschiedenen Personenbezeichnungsformen - generisch maskulinen, geschlechterindiffer...
Conference Paper
In a questionnaire study the effects of discourse structural information on resolving inter-sentential anaphora were investigated. The Right Frontier Constraint, first proposed by Polanyi (1988), states that potential antecedents of an anaphor that are placed at the right frontier of a discourse unit can be accessed more easily than antecedents tha...
Article
Two experiments tested whether, similarly to global gender categories, gender subgroups are activated and applied on an automatic basis. In Experiment 1 (N = 90) the female subgroup career woman was activated in a subliminal priming procedure. Experiment 2 (N = 40) contrasted the subliminal priming of career woman with the activation of the global...
Article
Two studies assessed how gender-marked person denotations in German are interpreted in contrast to their unmarked counterparts in English. Participants read sentences about national groups denoted by nouns of masculine gender in German (Experiment 1) and by gender-unmarked nouns in English (Experiment 2). These statements were followed by a sentenc...
Article
The present paper traces the development of the generic masculine as a linguistic convention focusing on its origin and use in German. Examining theories of grammatical gender from ancient times to the 20th century reveals that the generic use of the masculine cannot be regarded as a merely formal feature of language but as an expression of zeitgei...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die vorliegende Arbeit verfolgt das Ziel, Forschungsergebnisse zur Repräsentation generisch maskuliner Personenbezeichnungen im Deutschen in einen theoretischen Rahmen zu integrieren. Die Befunde stimmen darin überein, dass generische Maskulina zu einer geringeren gedanklichen Einbeziehung von Frauen als von Männern führen. Sie ber...
Article
The present paper traces the development of the generic masculine as a linguistic convention focusing on its origin and use in German. Examining theories of grammatical gender from ancient times to the 20th century reveals that the generic use of the masculine cannot be regarded as a merely formal feature of language but as an expression of zeitgei...
Article
Three experiments investigated how grammatical gender and gender stereotypicality influence the way person information is mentally represented. Participants read sentences about social groups denoted by nouns with different grammatical gender and stereotypicality. A following sentence contained a reference to the social group that qualified the gro...

Citations

... In recent decades, there have been growing concerns about the possibility of masculine generics being at odds with the pursuit of gender equality, for example by reducing women's visibility or perpetuating the notion of "male as norm" (e.g., Stahlberg, Braun, Irmen, & Sczesny, 2011). Multiple experimental studies have provided scientific evidence that supports these concerns (e.g., Bojarska, 2011;Garnham & Yakovlev, 2015;Gastil, 1990;Irmen, 2007). ...
... Niteleyici ilişkilerden bazıları; AYRINTILAMA, ÖRNEKLEME, AÇIKLAMA, ÖNKOŞUL, YORUM biçiminde sıralanabilir. 2 Bir ilişkinin söylem parçalarını nitelendiriyor olması, bir kurucu söylem biriminin bir diğerini yönetiyor olması durumunda gerçekleşir. Diğer yandan, bir ilişkinin sıralamalı bir ilişki olması, hiçbir kurucu söylem biriminin bir diğerini yönetmediği durumda gerçekleşir (Holler ve Irmen 2006). Retorik ilişkiler arasında yapılan bu ayrım, konuşucuların/yazarların ürettikleri sözcelerle daha önceki sözcelerin içeriğine nasıl katkıda bulunduklarını yansıtmaktadır. ...
... Many studies in the third person have shown that ungrammatical or infelicitous gender marking does negatively affect reading (e.g., Dank et al., 2015;Irmen & Schumann, 2011;Keating, 2009). However, in the third-person studies the gender marking mismatch always existed on the level of the text. ...
... 4. For a historical overview of the development of the generic masculine in German, see Irmen & Steiger 2007. 5. For literature on the prescriptive change in job advertisements see Oksaar 1976;Stickel 1983;Oldenburg 1998;Lenk 2002;Demey 2002;Hellinger & Bußmann 2003. ...
... Also, as mentioned above, the studies' results did not fully converge, which may be due to the differences in study designs and manipulations. Another set of studies used still other methods such as sentence evaluations, ratings of sentence correctness, reading times, or eye-tracking (e.g., Gygax et al., 2008;Irmen & Kurovskaja, 2010;Irmen & Roßberg, 2004). These studies are interesting in themselves, as they demonstrate an influence of masculine generics on specific aspects of cognition with different paradigms and measures, but they do not constitute replications of the study by . ...
... Second, the majority of studies finds the aforementioned masculine bias; however, very few studies offer a theoretical account of its underlying representations (e.g. Irmen & Linner, 2005). To this date, no investigation has been made to discover whether there is a connection between the male bias and the representation of masculine generics in the mental lexicon. ...
... Research has shown that in general, language attitudes are crucial moderators in language perception (see Bradac, 1990;Street & Hopper, 1982). Also, previous research found the extent to which individuals engage in gender fair language and their preferences for different kinds of gender-relevant wordings to vary according to their attitudes towards gender fair language (Frank-Cyrus & Dietrich, 1997;Rothmund & Christmann, 2002;Steiger & Irmen, 2007). Applied to our topic, listeners with positive attitudes towards linguistic equality (AtLE) should judge gender fair language speakers as more competent in general because they will treat gender fair speakers as members of their ingroup, as allies. ...
... Neutralization is the practice of using gender-neutral forms (for example nominalized participles in plural form in German: die Studierenden, "those who study"). Compared to masculine forms, the use of gender-fair forms leads to a stronger cognitive inclusion of women (for German, see for example Braun et al., 2005;Heise, 2000;Horvath, Merkel, Maass, & Sczesny, 2016;COMPREHENSIBILITY OF GENDER-FAIR LANGUAGE 4 Irmen & Kurovskaja, 2009;Irmen & Linner, 2005;Irmen & Roßberg, 2004, 2006 for French, see for example for English, see for example Gastil, 1990;Hamilton, 1988;MacKay & Fulkerson, 1979;Miller & James, 2009). ...
... These and other issues suggest that, as in other types of discrimination, implicit factors are related to gender discrimination maintenance, which has been empirically supported (Blair & Banaji, 1996;Irmen, 2006). Consequently, it is necessary to use implicit measures to further investigate this phenomenon at a more profound level. ...
... However, empirical studies have revealed cases in which the adjacent frontier constraint is violated (see Afentenos & Asher, 2010;Asher, 2008;Holler & Irmen, 2007;Prìevot & Vieu, 2008). Contrary to the adjacent-frontier-only hypothesis and the focus memory model, an alternative group of theories (the segmented discourse representation theory [Lascarides & Asher, 2007] and the space stacks theory [Grosz & Sidner, 1986]) claim that distal entities are accessible as long as certain discursive features exist. ...