Linda R. Tropp's research while affiliated with University of Massachusetts Amherst and other places

Publications (121)

Article
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Researchers and educators have increasingly recognized the importance of classroom discussions about race and racism—race talk—for student development, yet teachers often face significant psychological barriers to engaging students in race talk. This research draws on two large samples of U.S. K-12 teachers to examine how teachers’ implicit racial...
Article
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Previous research has indicated that witnessing gender discrimination may instigate women's participation in collective action for gender justice. However, relatively little is known about the role of perceived female support in motivating collective action among women who witness gender discrimination in public life. This study aims to analyse whe...
Article
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The global rise in social protest movements has forced collective action scholars in various disci-plines to think about theoretical models that can comprehensively explain phenomena related to protest participation and mobilization. Despite recent advances in collective action literature, we argue that collective action scholars in social psycholo...
Article
Intergroup contact has long been lauded as a key intervention to reduce prejudice and improve intergroup attitudes among youth. In this review, we summarize classic perspectives and new developments in the intergroup contact literature, highlighting both prospects and challenges associated with achieving desired youth outcomes through contact. Firs...
Article
This study examines the interplay of positive and negative intergroup contact with majority group members from the perspective of ethnic minority youth. Taking a social identity approach, we posit that negative contact experiences (i.e., hostile interactions) may undermine the benefits of some positive contact experiences (i.e., friendly interactio...
Article
Anecdotal reports suggested an uptick in anti-Asian prejudice corresponding with the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Examining responses from White U.S. citizens ( N = 589) during the first months of the pandemic, this study tested: (a) whether actual intensity (official number of cases or deaths reported) or perceived intensity (partici...
Article
White Americans may find diversity threatening in part because they construe non-White Americans as a coherent social and political force. We argue that this perception manifests in a belief that minority groups collude against White people and that White people should act as a political bloc to defend ingroup interests. In a 3-year longitudinal st...
Article
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This study explored the role of secondary transfer effects (STEs) to test whether and how contact between advantaged Turks and disadvantaged Kurds may shape support for the rights of Syrian refugees. We investigated whether dimensions of contact, positive versus negative, between a historically advantaged group (Turks, n = 300) and a disadvantaged...
Article
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater social equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged group members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged group members a need for ac...
Article
Inspired by reviews written by Kauff, Marinucci, and their colleagues, this commentary considers our basic human needs for safety and security, and how intergroup contact research may be usefully informed by theoretical perspectives on attachment. First, I summarize early psychological perspectives on safety and security and discuss factors that ma...
Article
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The present research investigated whether learning that an outgroup humanizes the ingroup (i.e., meta-humanization) enhances how people react to intergroup prosocial behaviors and their willingness to engage in intergroup contact. In three experiments conducted in two cultural contexts (Kosovo and North Macedonia; n = 601), we manipulated meta-huma...
Article
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This article presents the 2021 JSI special issue on intergroup contact, which we designed to offer a fresh outlook on a rapidly expanding literature on the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of interactions between members of opposing groups in society—or intergroup contact. We start by discussing the results of a bibliographic search of inter...
Article
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Though greater intergroup contact has been shown to predict greater support for social change among advantaged group members, little is known about what occurs during the contact that may encourage members of advantaged groups to become willing to engage in collective action in solidarity with the disadvantaged. We argue that intergroup contact wit...
Article
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Three studies tested whether witnessing incidents of racial discrimination targeting Black people may motivate White people to engage in collective action for racial justice. In studies of White Americans (Study 1) and self-identified White activist “allies” (Study 2), witnessing incidents of racial discrimination predicted greater willingness to p...
Chapter
Racial majority and minority groups in the United States often differ in the extent to which they believe that racial bias—including stereotyping, expressions of prejudice, and discrimination— has and continues to influence the opportunities and outcomes of individuals and communities across a wide variety of domains. Communication and dialogue bet...
Preprint
Anecdotal reports suggest an uptick in anti-Asian prejudice in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Across White, United States citizens (N = 609), this study examined whether: (1) objective (reported cases or deaths) or perceived (participant’s estimates of the same) threat from COVID-19 predicted anti-Asian prejudice, and (2) whether intergroup con...
Article
Prior studies have sought to understand how immigrants integrate into U.S. society, focusing on the ways in which local contexts and institutions limit immigrant incorporation. In this study, we consider how interactions among immigrants and U.S.-born within receiving communities contribute to the process of immigrant integration. We emphasize the...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Academic life is full of learning, excitement, and discovery. However, academics also experience professional challenges at various points in their career, including repeated rejection, impostor syndrome, and burnout. These negative experiences are rarely talked about publicly, creating a sense of loneliness and isolation for people who presume the...
Article
There is a growing recognition among researchers, university administrators, funding agencies, and the broader public that the knowledge produced in academia often remains divorced from impacts and use in real‐world contexts. Across a wide range of disciplines, scholars have commonly followed one of two models to take research beyond peer‐reviewed...
Preprint
Full-text available
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged groups members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged groups members a need for accepta...
Article
Full-text available
Guided by the early findings of social scientists, practitioners have long advocated for greater contact between groups to reduce prejudice and increase social cohesion. Recent work, however, suggests that intergroup contact can undermine support for social change towards greater equality, especially among disadvantaged group members. Using a large...
Article
This research examined the role of contact meta‐perceptions on positive intergroup contact and outgroup attitudes. Specifically, perceptions of the ingroup's and outgroup's desire for intergroup contact were simultaneously tested as predictors of intergroup contact and outgroup attitudes. Three correlational studies were conducted in three distinct...
Article
Full-text available
What role does intergroup contact play in promoting support for social change toward greater equality? Drawing on the needs-based model of reconciliation, we theorized that when inequality between groups is perceived as illegitimate, disadvantaged groups members will experience a need for empowerment and advantaged groups members a need for accepta...
Article
A notable increase in immigration into the United States over the past half century, coupled with its recent geographic dispersion into new communities nationwide, has fueled contact among a wider set of individuals and groups than ever before. Past research has helped us understand Whites’ and Blacks’ attitudes toward immigrants and immigration, a...
Poster
Despite various NGO and state-level efforts for Roma inclusion, the Roma remain the most segregated minority in Slovakia. As the second largest ethnic minority, they represent approx. 7.45% of the total population of Slovakia (Mušinka et al., 2014) and they still suffer from structural inequalities, socioeconomic marginalization and widespread prej...
Article
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School teachers have been shown to favor ethnic majority over minority students. However, it is unclear what psychological processes motivate ethnicity-based discrimination. Of the studies that have examined the psychological roots of teacher discrimination, most have focused on implicit or explicit prejudice. We propose an alternate predictor: deh...
Article
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Although scholars have suggested that relationships with people of color can enhance White people’s commitment to racial justice, many women of color have questioned whether White people, and White women in particular, actually “show up” to protest for racial justice. Focusing on the contact experiences and closeness White women have with people fr...
Article
How receiving society members perceive and respond to immigration are crucial factors that shape the context of reception for immigrants coming to a new country. In this paper, we examine these processes through the lens of intergroup contact research, with a focus on relations between immigrants and members of receiving societies, to discern ways...
Article
We examined how two different definitions of cross-ethnic friendships, namely reciprocal peer nominations for shared activities and mutual trust, predict attitudes towards immigrant students among non-immigrant Swiss children and early adolescents (N = 309). Among both Swiss children and early adolescents, only the number of mutually trusting peer...
Article
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Despite ideals grounding American identity in principles and ideas, most U.S. citizens continue to believe that they are rooted at least in part in ascriptive characteristics such as religion, race, or language. Research suggests that these views shape attitudes toward immigrants, and that nonwhite and non-Christian immigrants may therefore be less...
Article
Racial inequality remains an objective reality in the United States and around the world, yet members of advantaged racial groups often deny or minimize its existence. Although we have well-developed theories to explain why advantaged racial groups would be motivated to deny or minimize inequality, at present we know relatively little about why Whi...
Preprint
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of howcontact affects receiving society members' preferences for acculturation orientation ofimmigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined howperceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross-group...
Article
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members’ preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross‐gro...
Article
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The present research focused on two primary goals: (1) identifying the content of sentiments about the Roma to which Hungarians are exposed during everyday family conversations, and (2) determining which types of everyday sentiments about the Roma most strongly predict Hungarian respondents’ anti-Roma prejudice. Content analyzing open-ended respons...
Article
Five experiments examine the interactive power of descriptive and injunctive norms regarding intergroup friendships on the effects of extended contact – knowing ingroup members having outgroup friends – on intergroup orientations. We propose that the positive effect of extended contact can occur even when the ingroup members having outgroup friends...
Article
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This research examines how intergroup contact experiences—including both their frequency and their qualities (friendly, discriminatory)—predict indicators of welcoming among U.S.-born and immigrant groups. Analyzing a new survey of U.S.-born groups (whites and blacks) and immigrant groups (Mexicans and Indians) from the Atlanta and Philadelphia met...
Article
Donald Trump’s ascent to the Presidency of the United States defied the expectations of many social scientists, pundits, and laypeople. To date, most efforts to understand Trump’s rise have focused on personality and demographic characteristics of White Americans. In contrast, the present work leverages a nationally representative sample of Whites...
Article
Positive contact with advantaged group members can improve disadvantaged group members’ attitudes towards them, yet it may also lower perceptions of group discrimination and consequent collective action. Little is known, however, about how negative contact with the advantaged predicts collective action among members of disadvantaged groups. With sa...
Article
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We examined whether past positive and negative interracial contact predict people's views of interracial police violence. White (N = 207) and Black (N = 116) Americans reported on their past intergroup experiences before viewing information about one of two true events involving the death of a Black man at the hands of a White police officer. For W...
Article
The 21st century has seen an exciting "new wave" of research on cross-group contact that is broader in scope, is more international, and offers new insights into what continue to be one of our world's most pressing problems-reducing antipathy and conflict between groups. However, most contact research has not been conducted in contexts that face or...
Article
This article explores a number of new directions that we hope will inspire thought and debate and perhaps broaden the focus of theorizing, research, and interventions based on the relationships between crossgroup contact and intergroup conflict. Pettigrew's (1996) levels-of-analysis framework articulates that intergroup relations include processes...
Article
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Advantaged group members have an important role to play in creating social change, and intergroup contact has tremendous implications in shaping intergroup relations. However, little research has examined how intergroup contact predicts advantaged group members’ inclinations toward collective action to support the interests of disadvantaged groups....
Article
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This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, Mages = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms s...
Article
Positive contact predicts reduced prejudice, but negative contact may increase prejudice at a stronger rate. The current project builds on this work in four ways: establishing an understanding of contact that is grounded in subjective experience, examining the affective mediators involved in the negative contact–prejudice relationship, extending re...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews classic and contemporary perspectives on intergroup contact, with a particular focus on research demonstrating the positive effects of intergroup contact among children and adolescents. It describes the ways in which individuals categorize themselves as group members, and how these categorizations can influence their experience...
Article
With surveys of Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland, and Whites and Blacks in South Africa, this research examines how both contact quality and exposure to intergroup conflict predict attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relevant to intergroup reconciliation. Across both studies, contact of higher quality predicted more positive intergroup a...
Article
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We identify public opinion polls from other countries as an important form of indirect exposure to outgroups, and an important source of intergroup metaperceptions, outgroup perceptions, and support for group-level behavior towards outgroups. Three experiments demonstrate a two-step process through which such exposure affects support for ingroup be...
Article
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Although intergroup friendships have been shown to reduce prejudice, little research has considered whether interventions fostering intergroup friendship would be effective in highly prejudicial contexts. We conducted a quasi-experiment (N = 61) to test whether a contact-based intervention based on intergroup friendship could reduce bias against Ro...
Article
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This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results sho...
Article
Intergroup relations examine how people of different backgrounds and groups interact with one another. Intergroup encounters can range from highly positive (e.g., friendships) to extremely negative (e.g., genocides) so the charge of intergroup relations is to illuminate the social psychological processes that influence such encounters. The present...
Article
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What motivates minority group members to support other minorities, rather than compete for resources? We tested whether inclusive victim consciousness —i.e., perceived similarities between the ingroup's and outgroups’ collective victimization—predicts support for other minority groups; and whether personal and family experiences of group-based vict...
Presentation
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Intergroup contact research has largely focused on attitudinal outcomes, with a call for researchers to shift toward investigating consequences that extend beyond prejudice (Dixon, et al., 2012). Recent findings by two U.S. grand juries not to indict White police officers for the deaths of two Black men provided a unique opportunity to investigate...
Article
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In Hungary, prejudices toward Roma and the LGBT community are highly salient and explicit in public opinion, the media, and in the political discourse. The present study examined the effectiveness of the Living Library prejudice reduction intervention—in which participants as “Readers” have engaging contact with living “Books” who are trained volun...
Chapter
Social psychological theory and research have proposed many strategies that are designed to improve intergroup relations. Two strategies in particular—promoting contact between groups and creating a common group identity—are more often considered in contexts where members of different groups may be willing to engage in reconciliation efforts, or lo...
Article
The present research examines how perceived inclusive and exclusive peer norms for cross-ethnic relations contribute to predicting interest in cross-ethnic friendship among ethnic minority and majority children. Across two survey studies, European American and African American children (Study 1) and European American and Latino American children (S...
Conference Paper
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Cheek, N.N., Cheek, J.M., Grimes, J.O., & Tropp, L.R. (2014, February). Public displays of self: Distinctions among relational, social, and collective aspects of the interdependent self. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Austin, TX. Abstract: See Download [For an updated review of the tetr...
Article
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We argue that psychological and contextual factors play important roles in bringing about, facilitating, and escalating violent conflict. Yet rather than conclude that violent conflict is inevitable, we believe psychology's contributions can extend beyond understanding the origins and nature of violent conflict, to promote nonviolence and peace. In...
Article
Adapting the goal orientation framework from the achievement motivation literature, the present research tests whether learning orientation, as compared to performance orientation, predicts greater comfort and interest in intergroup contact. These links are examined in a cross-sectional survey of European American and African American middle school...
Conference Paper
Despite increasing levels of multicultural integration in the Western world, interracial conflict pervades modern society. One explanation for this paradox is that whilst positive intergroup contact has increased, so too has negative contact. Research has also found that negative contact is a stronger predictor of prejudice than positive contact (B...
Conference Paper
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Identity orientations refer to the relative importance of various identity attributes in the construction of self-definitions. For Cheek and Briggs (1982), social identity orientation referred to the importance of James’ (1890) social me: one's popularity or social reputation deriving from interpersonal relationships. Abrams (1988), however, critic...
Article
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A systematic review was conducted of studies evaluating the effects of interventions aimed at reducing ethnic prejudice and discrimination in young children. Articles published between 1980 and 2010 and including children of 8 years and under were identified, harvested, and assessed for quality, both for the exposure/program as well as for the eval...
Article
This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by tes...
Article
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Using structural equation modeling and cross-lagged analyses, this longitudinal study investigates ethnic identification, a group-based coping strategy, as a mediator of the influence of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being and willingness to engage in activism on behalf of one’s ethnic group among Latino students in both their firs...
Article
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Two studies shed light on construals (i.e., attributions of responsibility and perceived severity of harm) of extreme intergroup violence and the relationship between in-group identification and these construals. An investigation of Turkish construals of Armenian massacres at the beginning of the 20th century (Study 1) and Hutus' and Tutsis' constr...
Article
Research and theory on intergroup contact have become one of the fastest advancing and most exciting fields in social psychology in recent years. The work is exciting because it combines basic social psychological concerns - human interaction, situational influences on behavior - with an effective means of improving intergroup relations at a time w...
Article
This chapter reviews individual and contextual processes that explain why prejudice exists in diverse societies and what processes and strategies can contribute to its reduction. The first half of the chapter discusses origins and definitions of intergroup prejudice, along with ideological and structural factors that support the endurance of interg...
Article
This work identifies how cross-group friendships are conceptualized and measured in intergroup research, investigates which operationalizations yield the strongest effects on intergroup attitudes, explores potential moderators, and discusses the theoretical importance of the findings. Prior meta-analyses have provided initial evidence that cross-gr...
Article
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Recent advances in intergroup contact theory and research are reviewed. A meta-analysis with 515 studies and more than 250,000 subjects demonstrates