Lijun Zhao's research while affiliated with Shaanxi Normal University and other places

Publications (12)

Article
Background High sodium intake can up-regulate the level of renal serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK1), which plays a pivotal role in controlling blood pressure via activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension. Increased potassium intake, or a vegetarian diet, counteracts salt-sensi...
Presentation
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When the SARS genomic sequence became available early in 2003, I was able to identify 2 programmed ribosomal frameshift sites in the virus, both associated with an in-frame UGA (potential selenocysteine) codon in the overlapping reading frame. Both of these frameshift sites were later shown to be functional via in vitro reporter gene assays. Dr. Ji...
Article
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Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may...
Article
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Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined s...
Article
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HIV infection is more common among smokers than nonsmokers, and, remarkably, HIV-infected individuals are about 3 times more likely to smoke than the uninfected general population. However, the relationship between tobacco smoking and HIV/AIDS disease progression remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrate a potent enhancing effect of aque...
Article
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Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal pl...
Article
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In an alternate reading frame overlapping the viral envelope gene, HIV-1 has been shown to encoded a truncated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) module. Essential active site residues of the catalytic core regions of mammalian GPx sequences are conserved in the putative viral GPx (vGPx, encoded by the env-fs gene). Cells transfected with an HIV-1 env-fs...
Article
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The "Long Terminal Repeat" (LTR) of HIV-1 is the target of cellular transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, and serves as the promoter-enhancer for the viral genome when integrated in host DNA. Various LTR-reporter gene constructs have been used for in vitro studies of activators or inhibitors of HIV-1 transcription, e.g., to show that antioxidant...
Article
HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) often suffer from serious nutritional deficiencies. This is a concern because plasma levels of micronutrients such as vitamin B12, zinc, and selenium have been correlated with mortality risk in HIV-positive populations. Injection drug use also increases lipid peroxidation and other indicators of oxidative st...

Citations

... An experimental study in birds showed that selenium supplementation associated with ginseng increased the immune response against avian coronavirus [85]. Selenium deficiency was associated with mutations in genomic RNA that can potentially influence the virulence of certain RNA viruses, such as influenza A virus [86]. Clinical benefits associated with the potential immunomodulatory effects of selenium supplementation have also been demonstrated in other viral infections, including HIV-1 [87]. ...
... Results demonstrated that RPTN plays an important role in the emotional and cognitive skills. Decline in the RPTN serum levels indicates its potential association in disease pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (Wang et al. 2015). Burbano et al. (2010) reported that there were merely 5 genes containing over 1 fixed variant altering the main sequence of the coding proteins. ...
... Similarly, the most recent epidemiologic study estimated that the prevalence of tobacco use in those living with HCV (62%) is three times higher than the general population . Although literature that characterizes the negative effects of tobacco use in patients living with HCV is not as well established as HIV literature, tobacco use also worsens the natural history of HCV (Zhao, Li, & Taylor, 2013). Tobacco use in patients living with HCV is associated with a heightened risk for pulmonary disease, elevated liver enzymes (i.e. ...
... In addition, studies have also shown that cigarettes can induce oxidative stress and increase HIV replication (38), resulting in a higher VL in smokers than non-smokers (39). Smoking can promote HIV replication in cells has also been found in vitro studies (40). Although more research is needed to explore the specific cellular pathways by which cigarette smoke affects HIV replication, promoting smoking cessation and improving unhealthy lifestyles among HIV/AIDS patients may also be a supplemental measure to improving treatment effectiveness. ...
... Although such models may not always mimic living bacteria, they can be helpful in testing for anti-inflammatory drugs. These findings suggest that EP is a general anti-inflammatory drug capable of alleviating several of the symptoms of respiratory infections [186,187]. The extract derived from the aerial elements of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench has higher antibacterial and antioxidant properties than the extract acquired by ultrasonic extraction [4]. ...
... This may be due to the stage of the disease; asymptomatic [40,68,84,111,133] HIV-positive individuals tend to have unaltered selenium levels, while symptomatic HIV-positive individuals [40,[133][134][135][136][137][138] and AIDS [40,68,81,130,[133][134][135][136][137][138] patients tend to have significant reductions in selenium levels. This reduction in selenium could be due to increased nutritional requirement, decreased food intake, sequestration of selenium to HIV selenoproteins, or viral utilization [139]. ...
... Moreover, in contrast to the powerful antioxidant ascorbic acid, ET does not enter pro-oxidative reactions with iron or copper. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that fungal extracts with ET as the major active component inhibit some viral proteases suggesting the possible activity of ET in the inhibition of the binding or replication of SARS-CoV-2 [186,187]. Taking into account all the above-mentioned facts, it seems that ET is worth exploring as a potential medicine for administration in COVID-19 to reduce the severity of the disease. ...
... Elevated levels of GPX1 have been reported in HIV-infected adolescent and young adults with or without antiretroviral drug treatments, both of which cause oxidative stress [74]. In an unrelated study, cells transfected with HIV env genes showed a 100% increase in GPX expression [75]. Deficiency or inactivation of GPX1 has been associated with diabetic macrovascular disease, reduced mitochondrial energy production and increased oxidative stress, indicating its protective role in vivo [73,76]. ...