Lew Hardy's research while affiliated with Bangor University and other places

Publications (140)

Article
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“Diversion” schemes encouraging children and young people away from offending have successfully reduced the numbers of young people within the youth justice system. However, for those not successfully diverted, recidivism remains obstinately high. Many of those remaining in the youth justice system appear to have complex psychological needs. Resear...
Article
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Self-determination theory proposes that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs is equally beneficial for everyone – the Universal Hypothesis . Equally, there are intra-individual differences in how the satisfaction of differentially important needs might be differentially beneficial, which we term the Intra-individual Hypothesis . We aimed t...
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that distinguished between injured athletes who displayed high compared with low levels of rehabilitation adherence following anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of these factors, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with six...
Article
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Despite a growing interest into the role of psychosocial factors during the recovery period following sports injuries, there remains a paucity of longitudinal studies examining the indirect relationships between psychosocial factors, psychological responses, and recovery outcomes. The purpose of this study was to construct and test a conceptual mod...
Article
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Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the structural validity of the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) in light of previously reported dimensionality issues, and (2) examine the relationships between the IKDC and patients’ knee‐related quality of life 2‐9 years after anterior cruciate ligament (...
Preprint
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Diversion" schemes encouraging children and young people away from offending have successfully reduced the numbers of young people within the youth justice system. However, for those not successfully diverted, recidivism remains obstinately high. Many of those remaining in the youth justice system appear to have complex psychological needs. Researc...
Article
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The present study compares the development experiences and the nature and microstructure of practice activities of super-elite and elite cricket batsmen, domains of expertise previously unexplored simultaneously within a truly elite sample. The study modeled the development of super-elite and elite cricket batsmen using non-linear machine learning...
Article
In this chapter, the authors use the term “high‐risk sports” to delineate sports where one has to reckon with the possibility of severe injury or death as a consequence of something going awry. Sensation seeking theory began as a theory of the optimal level of cortical arousal. There exists a large body of evidence that suggests sensation seeking d...
Article
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Research exploring the development of expertise has mostly adopted linear methods to identify precursors of expertise, assessing statistical differences between groups of isolated features (variables) by way of attaching importance; e.g., deliberate practice hours (Ericsson et al., 1993). However, confining the complex nature of expertise developme...
Article
Despite many decades of research that has highlighted all risk-taking sport activities as a means to satisfy sensation seeking needs (e.g., Zuckerman 1979 Zuckerman, M. 1979. Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]), recent research has challenged that view and has revealed...
Article
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This multidisciplinary study used pattern recognition analyses to examine the developmental biographies of 16 Great British Olympic and World Champions ("Super-Elite") and 16 matched international athletes who had not won major medals ("Elite"). Athlete, coach and parent interviews (260 total interview hours) combined in-depth qualitative and quant...
Article
Objectives A novel analytical framework was used to re-examine and extend Cheng, Hardy and Markland’s (2009) hierarchical model of anxiety. The modified model was characterized by six first order constructs, with worry, private self-focus and public self-focus representing cognitive anxiety, somatic tension and autonomous hyperactivity representing...
Article
Imagery research has identified two main visual perspectives, external visual imagery (EVI, third person) and internal visual imagery (IVI, first person). Based upon findings from brain imaging literature showing that different neural substrates are recruited for IVI and EVI perspectives, and that IVI activates motor system brain areas, we hypothes...
Article
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Self-regulated training behaviours plays a vital role in athletes’ physical and mental sporting development. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of self-regulated training behaviours (self and coach rated) on the relationship between self-reported Mental Toughness (MT) and coaches perceptions of swimmers Mentally...
Article
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In this manuscript we outline a model of coaching that is conceptually grounded in workplace and sport coaching literature and present two studies conducted to test this model, the extent coaching behaviors are present in a military training setting, and their association with performance-related outcomes. Following an extensive review of literatur...
Article
Mental toughness has been shown to have relevance in a wide range of performance-related fields where distractions, anxiety, and fear are common challenges; however, there remains a dearth of research in the military where the construct has obvious utility. A quasi-experimental trial with treatment (n = 83) and control (n = 90) conditions examined...
Article
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The relative age effect (RAE) describes an overrepresentation of players born early (Q1) in a selection year and is highly prevalent within youth sport pathways. However, a dearth of research has investigated the RAE at the “super-elite” level. The present research assessed the presence of RAE in super-elite performers. Study 1 investigated RAEs in...
Chapter
Participants were 32 former GB athletes from Olympic sports, 16 Super-Elite athletes who had won multiple medals at major championships, and 16 matched Elite athletes who had not. In-depth interviews with the athletes, their coaches, and one of their parents explored all psychosocial aspects of their development and careers. Content analyses reveal...
Chapter
Hardy et al. (2017) reported the findings of a large-scale, multisource, qualitative study that examined the commonalities of, and discriminators between, a group of super-elite (SE) and a group of elite (E) athletes who were matched on gender, sport, discipline, and era. Fifteen research teams who are actively engaged in research in the domain the...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to examine the interactive effects of punishment and reward sensitivity in predicting Mentally Tough behaviour and performance in swimming. First, we validated a measure of MT behaviour in a mixed sample of competitive swimmers and then examined the interactive effects of punishment and reward sensitivities in p...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUCTION. It is widely accepted that avalanche accidents are not just the product of bad luck but that they are usually the result of decision making errors. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood because previous research has either focused on a narrow sample of the wider population (e.g., only using accident v...
Article
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Objective: Humans are often required to perform demanding cognitive and motor tasks under pressure. However, in such environments there is considerable inter-individual variability in the ability to successfully execute actions. Here, we consider how individual differences in self-reported sensitivity to punishment influence skilled motor performa...
Article
Objectives Recent research has reported the benefits of using holistic rather than part process goals to avoid the negative effects associated with the conscious processing of task relevant information by skilled but anxious athletes. This experiment compared the efficacy of these two goal focus strategies in a neutral condition and a competitive c...
Article
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The literature base regarding the development of sporting talent is extensive, and includes empirical articles, reviews, position papers, academic books, governing body documents, popular books, unpublished theses and anecdotal evidence, and contains numerous models of talent development. With such a varied body of work, the task for researchers, p...
Poster
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Poster presentation looking a the development and validation of an informant rated multidimensional measure of meant robustness relevant to military operations. The poster won the conferences’ postgraduate poster presentation award.
Article
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Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a mental toughness instrument for use in military training environments. Study 1 (n = 435) focused on item generation and testing the structural integrity of the Military Training Mental Toughness Inventory (MTMTI). The measure assessed ability to maintain optimal performance under pressure from...
Article
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The present article examines the interactive effects that goal importance and self-efficacy may exert upon the progress of multiple life goals. Personal goal progress in an adult sample (N = 76) were examined over a 12 week period. In accordance with previous research, it was hypothesised that when goal importance is high, self-efficacy will have a...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. Design: The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availab...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a field-based quasi-experimental study designed to examine the effectiveness of a transformational leadership intervention in remediating poor performance. The intervention was conducted on elements of the organization that senior management perceived as being low performing. Design/methodology/appr...
Article
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[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 2(4) of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology (see record 2013-38704-002). The three figures were mislabeled and in the wrong order. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mental toughness int...
Article
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We investigated for the first time whether the principles of specificity could be extended to the psychological construct of anxiety and whether any benefits of practicing with anxiety are dependent on the amount of exposure and timing of that exposure in relation to where in learning the exposure occurs. In Experiment 1, novices practiced a discre...
Article
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We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI) would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI) for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group) performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achie...
Article
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Psychological skills are typically viewed as beneficial to performance in competition. Conversely, narcissists appear to thrive in competitive environments so should not need psychological skills to the same degree as less narcissistic individuals. To investigate this moderating hypothesis high-standard ice-skaters completed measures of narcissism,...
Article
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Research on people's motives for engaging in high-risk activities has typically been viewed through the single-focused lens of sensation seeking. We provide evidence that comprehensively challenges that view. First, we develop and confirm the structure of a 3-factor measure of motives: the Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation, and Agency Scale (SE...
Article
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OBJECTIVES: Four studies were conducted with two primary objectives: (i) to conceptualize and measure mental toughness from a behavioral perspective; and (ii) to apply relevant personality theory to the examination of between-person differences in mentally tough behavior. METHOD: Studies 1 (n = 305) and 2 (n = 110) focused on the development of an...
Article
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We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1, 40...
Chapter
Some dimensions of coping are well documented (Cox & Ferguson, 1991). However, the use of health behaviours, such as exercise, as coping strategies is less well documented. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationships between health behaviours which participants reported using as coping strategies, and other, more documented, ways...
Article
Reports an error in "Enhancing Mental Toughness and Performance Under Pressure in Elite Young cricketers: A 2-Year Longitudinal Intervention" by James J. Bell, Lew Hardy and Stuart Beattie (Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Jun 17, 2013, np). The three figures were mislabeled and in the wrong order. All versi...
Article
The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to investigate relationships between acute mountain sickness (AMS) and physical and mental health during a high altitude expedition. Forty-four participants (mean age, 34 ± 13 y; body mass index, 23.6 ± 3.5 kg·m(2) ; 57% male) completed the Dhaulagiri base camp trek in Nepal, a 19-day exped...
Article
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The sporting arena is replete with examples and anecdotes of great inspirational coaches that have led teams to success, often in the face of adversity and against seemingly better opponents. The role of the coach in developing and motivating athletes has also been the focus of much research in sport psychology (e.g., Challaduria 1990; Smith & Smol...
Article
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In target-directed aiming, afferent information is used to adjust limb trajectories during movement execution (i.e. online) and to enhance the programming of subsequent trials (i.e. offline). The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of state anxiety on both online and offline afferent information processing for the first ti...
Article
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This article presents cross-cultural validation of a three-dimensional measurement model of performance anxiety proposed recently (Cheng, Hardy, & Markland, 2009). This re-conceptualization of performance anxiety emphasizes the adaptive capacity involved in the dynamics of anxiety by including a regulatory dimension, in addition to the conventional...
Article
Objectives. This study aimed to explore the relationships between health behaviours which participants reported using as coping strategies, and other, more documented, coping strategies. Design. The relationships were examined using exploratory factor analysis of questionnaire data. Methods. Items reflecting the use of health behaviours as ways of...
Article
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We investigated narcissism as a moderator of social loafing on a physical performance task. High and low narcissistic individuals twice performed a cycling task in same-sex teams of three: once when identifiability was low; and once when identifiability was high. A significant interaction between narcissism and identifiability was revealed, F(1, 40...
Article
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Objectives: Robust confidence beliefs (the ability to maintain confidence beliefs in the face of adversity) have been highlighted as an important characteristic that contributes to the make up of mentally tough athletes. The purpose of the present set of studies was to develop such a measure. Design: Three studies are reported that chart the develo...
Article
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We tested the predictive validity of the recently validated three-dimensional model of performance anxiety (Chang, Hardy, & Markland, 2009) with elite tae-kwon-do competitors (N = 99). This conceptual framework emphasized the adaptive potential of anxiety by including a regulatory dimension (reflected by perceived control) along with the intensity-...
Article
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Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sp...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the main and buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to sport injury with samples of high- and low-performance standard injured participants. Method: High- (N = 147) and low-performance (N = 114) standard injured participants completed measures of p...
Article
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Objectives To test the hypothesis that a decrease in confidence on a well-learned task will increase effort and performance.DesignA 2 (group: control, experimental) × 2 (trial: practice, competition) mixed-model with repeated measures on the second factor.Method Expert skippers’ (n = 28) self-confidence was reduced via a combination of task (i.e.,...
Article
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ObjectiveTo explore the agentic emotion regulation function that prolonged engagement high-risk sports (ocean rowing and mountaineering) may serve.DesignIn two studies, a cross-sectional design was employed. In Study 1, ocean rowers were compared to age-matched controls. In Study 2, mountaineers were compared to two control groups, one of which was...
Article
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Two studies examined the interactive effects of different visual imagery perspectives and narcissism on motor performance. In both studies participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40: Raskin & Hall, 1979) and were assigned to either an internal visual imagery or external visual imagery group. Participants then performed a...
Article
The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscio...
Article
Two studies examined the effects of a differentiated model of transformational leadership on follower outcomes. In Study 1, 484 UK Royal Marine recruits completed questionnaires about their trainers' leadership behaviors and their own attitudes towards training. Training outcome was measured as successful completion of training or non-completion. D...
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Background and purposeA recent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) by Lane, Harwood, Terry, and Karageorghis [2004. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 803–812] provided only mixed support for structural integ...
Article
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This study examined the effectiveness of a logbook and paperclip technique on awareness of the use and content of negative self-talk as well as the motivation to change negative self-talk. Participants (n = 73) completed a questionnaire measuring these variables, and were assigned to either a control, paperclip or logbook group. Participants perfor...
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The present study explored the construct validity of a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory and its relationship with team cohesion and performance level. Three hundred and nine club standard ultimate Frisbee players in the United Kingdom (mean age = 24.30 years, SD = 3.90) completed an adapted version of Hardy, Arthur, Jones, Shari...
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This study investigated the effects of a one-to-one intervention designed to increase social support and improve performance using a single-subject multiple baseline design. Participants were 3 high-level male golfers, mean age 25.0 years (SD = 2.6). All participants reported significantly higher levels of emotional, esteem, informational, and tang...
Article
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We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happi...
Article
ObjectivesAn integrated three-dimensional model of performance anxiety was constructed to offer an alternative conceptualization that may contribute to understanding of the complex anxiety–performance relationship. In particular, the adaptive potential (producing positive effects) of anxiety was acknowledged explicitly by including a regulatory dim...
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Hardy and Moriarty (2006) presented evidence in support of James's (1890) individual importance hypothesis using a new methodology. Marsh (in press) criticized the Hardy and Moriarty approach, claiming that it did not constitute a valid test of the hypothesis and that in his article he had produced more evidence against it. In this article, we refu...