Leslie de Chernatony's research while affiliated with Aston University and other places

Publications (165)

Article
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Mentioning products or brands on Facebook enables individuals to display an ideal self to others through a form of virtual conspicuous consumption. Drawing on conspicuous donation behaviour literature, we investigate ‘conspicuous virtue signalling’ (CVS), as conspicuous consumption on Facebook. CVS occurs when an individual mentions a charity on th...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the relationship between young people’s Conspicuous Donation Behaviour (CDB) on social media platforms and their offline donation behaviour, specifically intentions to donate and volunteer time. It also explores materialism, self-esteem and self-monitoring as CDB trait antecedents, as a form of conspicuous co...
Article
Full-text available
Brand identity management and corporate social responsibility have increased importance in both managerial practice and academic research. However, only a small number of studies have examined how these strategic tools influence employees’ attitudes and behaviours. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse how employees’ perceptions of brand...
Article
Purpose Brand “Likes” on Facebook facilitate self-expression, forming part of consumers’ virtual selves. Yet, consumers’ brand “Likes” may bear little resemblance to their material realities. This paper aims to test similarities of brand image with self-image for Facebook “Likes” to determine whether self-congruence with a “Liked” brand leads to p...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the brand identity management process from the employees’ perspective. Specifically, it explores how the different dimensions of brand identity management influence employees’ attitudinal and behavioural responses. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was carried out to test the...
Chapter
Organisations are continually searching for their next source of growth. One potential option is growth by acquisition. Acquisitions are not risk free, many fail to achieve their potential. One reason for failure is employees from the acquired firm not developing sufficiently strong bonds with the acquiring organisation, leading to poor integration...
Article
Purpose This paper applies the B2B Service Brand Identity Scale (SBI) to empirically assess the influence of service brand identity on brand performance for the first time. Design/methodology/approach Based on data collected from 421 senior marketing executives this paper applies the B2B Service Brand Identity Scale (SBI) and structural equation mo...
Chapter
This article opens by clarifying how brands are built. It explores the meaning of brand and some of the contributors to brand success. The benefits of brands are explored. Brands are not just important in consumer markets and some of their benefits in B2B markets are addressed.
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This article summarises the meaning and importance of brand values.
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Brand personality is defined. Some of the benefits of brand personality are explored. The inferences people make from brand personality are considered. The personality traits consumers wish to project using brands are addressed.
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Strategic group analysis portrays an industry as a few categories of firms, but researcher selected variables curtail its reflection of managerial reality. From a cognitive perspective it is shown that managers simplify their environment by grouping similar competitors. It is argued that they do not perceive industry structure in the manner propose...
Chapter
The literature Indicates brands have evolved beyond the 1960 AMA definition. Interviews with 20 leading edge brand consultants emphasize brands’ intangible components, linking firms’ marketing activities with consumers’ perceptions. Experts perceived a gap between theirs and brand managers’ more simplistic perspective due to their short-term, inter...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes of consumers who engage with brands through Facebook “likes”. It explores the extent to which these brands are self-expressive and examines the relationship between brand “liking” and brand outcomes. Brand outcomes include brand love and advocacy, where advocacy incorporates WOM and brand...
Article
Although many managers recognize that Facebook Fans represent a marketing opportunity, there has been little research into the nature of different Fan types. This study explores a typology of Fans, drawn from a sample of 438 individuals who "Like" brands on Facebook. Fans' brand loyalty, brand love, use of self-expressive brands, and word of mouth...
Article
Purpose – Ind suggests front line employees can be segmented according to their level of brand-supporting performance. His employee typology has not been empirically tested. The paper aims to explore front line employee performance in retail banking, and profile employee types. Design/methodology/approach – Attitudinal and demographic data from a...
Article
Dado el papel central que las marcas ocupan en la estrategia de las empresas, la medición y control de su valor sigue siendo una de las líneas de investigación más importantes del marketing. Ante la falta de acuerdo existente en la conceptualización y medición del valor de marca, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo proponer y validar una medida...
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This article analyses similarities and differences in corporate identities communicated through corporate brand websites between banks operating in Spain and the United Kingdom. Cross-cultural dissimilarities between Spain and the United Kingdom, and specific features of the banking sector in each country, lead to expectations about differences in...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the components of consumer‐based brand equity from the perspective of experts in brand management in the UK, Germany and Greece. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from semi‐structured interviews with senior brand consultants and managers, five in the UK, five in Germany and five in Gre...
Article
Given the central role that brands play in business strategy, the measurement and control of brand equity is still a priority area for marketing research. In the absence of agreement on the conceptualization and measuring of this construct, this study proposes and validates a measurement system for brand equity. After highlighting the importance of...
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper is to shed light on the determinants of consumers' evaluations and purchase intentions of gift promotions. Factors analysed relate to the promoted product, the gift, the relationship between the product and the gift, and consumer traits and perceptions. Design/methodology/approach A 2 (product type: utilitarian vs hed...
Article
This JBR Special Issue contains ten articles developed from presentations at the Seventh Annual Thought Leaders' International Conference on Brand Management, held at Università della Svizzera italiana in Lugano, Switzerland in March 2011. The conference organizing committee received submissions and following a double blind reviewing process papers...
Article
Front line employees are critical to service brand success, as their performance brings brand promises to life. Banking employees, like others, must remain committed to their employers, to live the brand, particularly during periods of economic uncertainty and customer frustration. Employees' commitment influences their brand adoption and brand-sup...
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This study explores the relationships between two central elements of marketing communication programs — advertising and sales promotions — and their impact on brand equity creation. In particular, the research focuses on advertising spend and individuals' attitudes toward the advertisements. The study also investigates the effects of two kinds of...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model to better understand brand equity. It seeks to investigate the effects of this construct on consumers ' responses using data from two European countries. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Measurement invariance and stabil...
Article
This paper reviews the concept of place brand identity within the supply side aspect of place branding. With no widely accepted model of place brand identity, the paper proposes a new model, which has its roots in marketing, tourism and sociological theory. The model focuses on the country brand of Slovenia, representing the first systematic brandi...
Article
This study tests hypotheses integrating relational aspects of social networks, self-expressive brands and consumers’ brand advocacy. We explore the relationship between homophily and social ties, and the extent to which strong ties are associated with Facebook users’ incorporation of self-expressive brands in their personal profiles by ‘Liking’ the...
Article
Cross-cultural/national research is essential for both scholars and practitioners. Although the methodological issues specific to this research have long been acknowledged in the literature, recent studies confirm that the standards demanded by earlier studies have not been met. Accordingly, we review some of the most relevant methodological issues...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of corporate identity modeling. Corporate identity is an abstract concept that takes many forms, from the brand and logo, to the product and the company's reputation. One of the keys to a successful business presence hinges on effective management of corporate identity. The paper seeks to...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the influence of the culture of the service firm on its interpretation of the role of the brand and on the development and implementation of its brand values. Design/methodology/approach A grounded theory approach was used. Interviews were conducted with 20 managers within two leading banking firms in Ireland and...
Article
Several brand identity frameworks have been published in the B2C and the B2B brand marketing literature. A reliable, valid and parsimonious service brand identity scale that empirically establishes the construct's dimensionality in a B2B market has yet to be developed. This paper reports the findings of a study conducted amongst 421 senior executiv...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore front line employee performance in retail banking and presents distinct components of employee performance, including extra‐role and sabotage behaviours. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from Irish bank employees. Usable responses were received from 404 respondents and subjected to exploratory facto...
Article
Retail banking is facing many challenges, not least the loss of its customers’ trust and loyalty. The economic crisis is forcing banks to examine their relationships with stakeholders and to offer greater reassurance that their brand promises will be delivered. More than ever, banks need to stand for something positive and valued by stakeholders. O...
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Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to explore the mechanism of brand internalisation when a brand transcends national borders. It focuses on the ways international and local managers interpret the brand, develop brand understanding and enact it through communication with other colleagues. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a case study of I...
Article
Purpose – The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that influence consumers' responses toward gift promotions. Specifically, the aim is to analyse four variables: the nature of the promoted product, the fit between the product and the gift, the type of brand used in the promotion and the deal-proneness. Design/methodology/app...
Article
This special issue contains eight articles developed from presentations at the fourth annual Thought Leaders' International Conference on Brand Management, held in Birmingham, UK in April 2008. Following a blind reviewing process, 65 papers were accepted and presented at the conference and all authors had the opportunity to revise their papers for...
Article
This has long been the one book that students can rely on to get them thinking critically and strategically about branding. This new fourth edition is no exception. THE definitive introductory textbook for this crucial topic, it is highly illustrated and comes packed with over 50 brand-new, real examples of influential marketing campaigns. Bullets:...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a large body of research on brand equity, little in terms of a literature review has been published on this since Feldwick’s (1996) paper.To address this gap, this paper brings together the scattered literature on consumer-based brand equity’s conceptualisation and measurement. Measures of consumer-based brand equity are classifie...
Article
Las empresas necesitan medir el valor de sus marcas para poder tomar las mejores decisiones tácticas y estratégicas relativas a estos activos intangibles. Es por ello que este trabajo desarrolla un instrumento de medida del valor de marca utilizando un enfoque formativo. A diferencia de investigaciones anteriores, este estudio propone un modelo for...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a large body of research on brand equity, little in terms of a literature review has been published on this since Feldwick's (1996) paper. To address this gap, this paper brings together the scattered literature on consumer-based brand equity's conceptualisation and measurement. Measures of consumer-based brand equity are classifi...
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of perceived fit, brand type and country's culture on the consumers' attitude towards brand extensions and on the parent brand equity. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected in three European countries: Spain, UK, and Norway. A series of analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore managers' and employees' views about service brand sabotage at the front line in retail banking. The current literature emphasises the role of the employee in service delivery, and advocates the cultivation of brand ambassadors – employees who support the service brand through their performance. Yet there also exi...
Article
Service employees are brand champions when their frontline performance supports the brand message. Conversely, employees are brand saboteurs when their performance detracts from the brand. This article explores frontline employees’ attitudes about their service performance. Findings from a study of 956 employees in Irish retail banking and grocery...
Article
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect that brand extension strategies have on parent brand equity. Specifically, we propose and test a model to explore how variables related to the parent brand, the extension and the consumers personality influence parent brand equity after the extension. Data was gathered from a survey in the UK and...
Article
As an intangible asset, the meaning of 'brand' varies between managers in the same organization striving to increase their brand's performance. This paper considers from an evolutionary perspective how brand interpretations vary and a unifying definition is postulated.
Article
It is suggested there is a need to broaden theorizing about brands to include service, relational and social perspectives as well as the traditional managerial perspective. Rather than attempt to develop a grand theory about brands, a more productive approach is to focus on the interface between theory and practice, provided by the managerial, serv...
Article
Adopting a grounded theory perspective, this research investigates the roles and interactions between marketing, customer services and human resources (HR) in driving success in UK financial services brands. CEOs/MDs, Directors of Marketing, HR and Customer Services, their line reports, front line staff and their agencies from 2 successful and 4 le...
Article
This special issue of the Journal of Business Research contains 13 articles presented at the Spring 2007 Thought Leaders International Conference on Brand Management. Following a blind reviewing process 69 papers were presented at the conference then authors were invited to revise their papers for inclusion consideration for this special issue. A f...
Article
This paper explores the creation and launch of a challenger brand in the UK financial services. The challenger was an extension of a more traditional brand. A definition of a challenger brand is proposed. A case study approach is adopted. A model is proposed of the process of brand development and launch. Factors found to influence challenger brand...
Article
Purpose This study seeks to investigate the measurement invariance of the consumer‐based brand equity scale across two samples of UK and Spanish consumers. Design/methodology/approach Brand equity was conceptualised as a multi‐dimensional concept consisting of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations and brand loyalty. To test the br...
Article
Brand extension strategy is often employed by multinational companies in order to launch new products to the market. Nevertheless, this strategy is able to negatively affect the brand image. For this reason, the article aims to propose and contrast a model analysing the effect of brand extension strategy on brand image and including the main variab...
Article
Full-text available
La estrategia de extensión de marca es muy utilizada por las empresas multinacionales afectar negativamente a la imagen de marca. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es proponer y contrastar un modelo que analiza el efecto que tiene la estrategia de extensión de marca en la imagen de marca, considerando las variables más relevantes de la literat...
Article
This paper explores the management of brand saboteurs. The literature emphasises the role of the employee in delivering a service brand, and advocates the cultivation of brand ambassadors. Yet there exist saboteurs, employees who work against the brand, and there is a dearth of literature exploring this group. Through 20 in-depth interviews with ma...
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Purpose This paper seeks to consider the interaction between corporate brands and organisational cultures within less successful UK financial services organisations to provide guidance about better managing corporate brands. Design/methodology/approach A total of 41 in‐depth interviews were conducted within less successful UK financial services or...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model that shows how extending a brand affects the overall brand image. The relations between the relevant variables in brand extension strategies in the UK and Spanish markets are analysed to determine if the brand extension strategies have the same effect on brand image. Design/methodol...
Article
Companies need to measure brand equity to make the best tactical and strategic decisions related to this intangible asset. Therefore, this paper develops a measure of brand equity using a formative approach. Unlike previous research, this study proposes a second-order formative model and empirically validates this in two countries, Spain and the Un...
Article
On 11 April 2005 the Centre for Research in Brand Marketing at Birmingham University Business School, in conjunction with the Academy of Marketing, hosted the international conference, 'Critical Issues in Brand Management'. Over 30 competitive papers were presented and the authors were invited to incorporate feedback from the sessions and to consid...
Article
Many business-to-business firms recognise that strong brands can be a valuable resource in today's competitive business environment. To realise the potential of B2B brands, effective communication of brand values is essential. In most B2B markets, the primary form of brand communication is through the sales force and their ability to adapt sales st...
Conference Paper
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The paper contributes to online marketing performance measurement and brand equity body-of-research knowledge by developing and validating a new metric of brand equity that takes into account the special characteristics of the Web (Novak and Hoffman 1996) which render consumers co-creators of brand value. Following a review of the literature on bra...
Article
Full-text available
Brand equity is a much researched topic and despite its importance, no published study to date has addressed equity measurement in an online context. This paper outlines the procedures followed in developing a valid, reliable and parsimonious consumer based brand equity scale for retail service providers with online presence. Five distinct, yet cor...
Article
This paper explores the ways that services brand values are communicated to both staff and customers. Values are communicated to employees via overt internal communications, the ripple effect, senior management example/involvement, HR activities and external communications. A number of failure factors which could hinder the communication of values...
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Although brand equity is an important source of competitive advantage online, previous conceptualisations and measures overlook the unique characteristics of the internet that render consumers co-creators of brand value. In view of this, a three-phased research programme was undertaken to identify the facets of online retail/service (ORS) brand equ...
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Purpose The paper aims to clarify the relationship between organisational structures and individual brand supporting behaviour. It proposes modelling the social transformation process and outlining why and how leadership is important throughout the internal brand building process. The study aims to expand the domain of corporate branding by includi...
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There has recently been a growing interest and literature in the application of brand management principles to political parties. The idea of applying branding to political parties is, however, challenging as political parties have long viewed themselves as ideologically driven. With the ascent of consumerism, which was encouraged by Thatcher's neo...
Article
Competition between places has led to city branding becoming increasingly important. Due to its multifaceted nature, city branding differs from product/services branding for several reasons including: (1) the lack of control over the city experience (2) the mutating nature of the target market (3) the variety of stakeholders and steerers. These iss...
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Purpose Having a successful brand that is integrated and coherent can provide a sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is to identify internal factors contributing to financial services brand success and ultimately to facilitate better‐informed branding activities, thereby growing brand equity. Design/methodology/approach A groun...
Article
Purpose To investigate the factors characterising financial services brands in the UK which are succeeding rather than thriving. Design/methodology/approach From a grounded theory perspective, depth interviews were conducted with 42 respondents within four UK financial services organisations. Findings Brands which had not achieved “greatness” ten...
Article
Purpose The main objective of this study is to analyse the influence that service brand extensions have on corporate image. Design/methodology/approach After reviewing the previous literature, a model is proposed and tested that shows how extending a services brand affects the overall corporate image. Statistical analysis of data from a market sur...
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Purpose To provide a conceptual framework to help researchers and managers understand the complex factors affecting the associations between brands. Design/methodology/approach Brand extension, co‐branding and other associative techniques together with an increasingly communicative environment are resulting in an increasingly complex set of networ...
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We put forward the six station model of corporate identity. This is done by reviewing the corporate identity literature to appreciate the limitations of existing models. Ten criteria are suggested as important for robust models. Based on this, the six station model is presented. To gauge its usefulness and managerial applicability 28 depth intervie...
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This article examines the pragmatic use of triangulation to assess services brand success, and the theoretical and practical issues faced employing the technique. This is illustrated via a UK case study using triangulation to assess the relative success of services brands, so successful versus less successful brands could be investigated in a large...
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Identifying and sustaining the values of a services brand is vitally important for brand success. This paper explores the origins of services brands' values and the issues that arise when identifying and sustaining them. In addition, the failure factors associated with and the people responsible for the identification of services brands' values are...
Article
This paper approaches the subject of brand equity measurement on and offline. The existing body of research knowledge on brand equity measurement has derived from classical contexts; however, the majority of today's brands prosper simultaneously online and offline. Since branding on the Web needs to address the unique characteristics of computer-me...
Article
In increasingly competitive markets, branding is of growing interest to business-to-business (B2B) firms. Despite an increased interest in branding, and the predominance of branding in consumer markets, B2B branding has received scant attention from academics. In this paper it is argued that organisational buyers can be influenced by both rational...
Article
With no universal approach for measuring brand performance, we show how a consumer-based brand measure was developed for corporate financial services brands. Churchill's paradigm was adopted. A literature review and 20 depth interviews with experts suggested that brand loyalty, consumer satisfaction and reputation constitute the brand performance m...
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Full-text available
Brand equity is an extensively researched subject associated with marketing performance measurement. Although brand equity is a significant source of competitive advantage online, previous conceptualisations and measures thereof overlook the unique characteristics of computer mediated environments that render consumers co-creators of brand value as...
Article
Starting from the fact that a `brand' is a universal concept regardless of environment, but its enactment changes according to environment, this paper provides pointers about brand building on the internet. It presents a three-level model of a brand to help organisations characterise their brands' promises. By expanding this model it then considers...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model that shows how extending a brand affects the overall brand image. The relations between the relevant variables in brand extension strategies in the UK and Spanish markets are analysed to determine if the brand extension strategies have the same effect on brand image. Design/methodolo...
Article
There are few valuable services brands, which may be due to the lack of services branding knowledge and the inappropriate use of product-based branding advice. To contribute to services branding knowledge the authors undertook a review of the services management and services branding literature and postulated a model of services branding. In-depth...
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This article examines the services-brand-building process, based on depth interviews with leading-edge brand consultants. A model is posited of the factors involved when building a services brand from scratch. Insights about those involved in the services-brand-building process are provided along with a consideration of the impact of the organisati...
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While there is growing interest in the topic of corporate brands, there is confusion about what this means and how to achieve brand coherence. This paper argues that the brand concept is context independent, thus the concept of the corporate brand is the same as the concept of the product or services brand — it is the enactment that is different. T...
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The characteristics of services make each service brand unique and difficult for managers to pragmatically capture. The augmented services offering model may help identify sources of brand differentiation. Empirical application of this services offering model through 15 depth interviews with managers responsible for two financial services brands in...
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This paper examines the use made by political parties of branding, as a means of establishing party values and winning political support. It looks in particular at the way in which political parties use communication to create, build and maintain political brands.The paper involves an examination of the recent history of the British Labour Party. A...
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From institutional theory, we argue (a) that the competitive, or task environment may encourage divergence of management cognition between organizations, management functions and amongst senior managers, and (b) that the institutional environment may encourage cognitive convergence at the level of the industry, the strategic group and within instit...
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This paper presents, then explains, a model to grow and sustain brands strategically. It adopts a more balanced perspective than existing models, since it builds on the asset of knowledgeable and committed staff whose values ideally align with the brand's values. The model encourages a multifunctional brand team progressing through the phases of st...
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Little has been published about services brands, even though we are in a services economy. The literature shows services have unique characteristics, but their implications for brand building have not been explored. To understand how to develop and sustain successful services brands with their unique characteristics, we undertook in depth interview...
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Corporate branding necessitates a different management approach. It requires greater emphasis on factors internal to the organisation, paying greater attention to the role of employees in the brand building process. This paper explores the implications of corporate branding for the management of internal brand resources. We describe a model for man...
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Examines the issues associated with the creation and development of service brands in corporate branding. Initially considers the increasing importance of the services sector, the appropriateness of corporate versus individual branding and how service organisations have challenged the traditional approach to business. By analysing the success and f...
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This paper focuses on some of the issues involved in brand building on the Internet. A new mindset is needed to execute an on-line branding strategy which thinks more about enhancing benefits to consumers rather than just to the organisation. By questioning some of the assumptions managers have made about migrating their brands to the Internet, ins...
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There are diverse interpretations about the nature of brands. This paper reviews the theoretical basis for thirteen different interpretations.
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This paper adds to knowledge about direct marketing by focusing on what direct marketing does for brand building or for ‘bonding’ with customers. This issue is important because direct mail alone accounted for as much as £1,665m or 11.6 per cent of total advertising expenditure in 1998 in the UK. This is more than the total outdoor, radio and cinem...
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We argue that creating an appealing corporate brand requires consideration of both internal and external stakeholders. A model for managing corporate brands is described in terms of the process of increasing the congruency between brand identity components and narrowing the gap between a brand's identity and its reputation. Propositions are derived...
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This article examines the appropriateness of the notion and application of relationship marketing in various contexts. Theoretical and conceptual similarities between the broad notions of 'the brand' and of relationship marketing as risk reducers, simplifiers of choice and guarantee of quality are uncovered. We put forward a notion of relationship...
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This paper considers the way that greater staff understanding (intellectual buy-in) and commitment (emotional buy-in) can enhance brand and business performance. Focusing on internal branding it shows from the literature review why these two issues are important drivers of brand success. The intellectual-emotional buy-in matrix is developed, showin...
Article
This paper explores the assumptions retailers make when developing lifestyle retail brands (LRBs). Observations from the marketplace are integrated with marketing theory and insights from related disciplines to develop a set of research propositions. The issues explored concern the consumption experience, retail marketing mix, brand management, lif...

Citations

... La enfermedad pandémica del coronavirus ha desarrollado un incremento en ventas mediante esfuerzos de mejorar la satisfacción del cliente importante para los negocios con canales digitales. En el 2020, debido al confinamiento obligatorio por causas sanitarias a nivel local, nacional y mundial, las tiendas de abarrotes tradicionalmente visitadas fueron objeto de la introducción de tecnologías digitales que crearon relaciones de empatía con los clientes a través de los canales digitales (Buil, et al., 2013). ...
... Of note, although virtuous actions and ethical codes of conduct are perceived positively (Andersch et al., 2019;Bai et al., 2020), virtue signaling is not necessarily a favorable characteristic, considering that consumers may publicly signal virtue without being virtuous themselves (in case the signaling is insincere). Recent work connected to socially desirable and publicly approved consumption has shown virtue signaling to be an important motive guiding consumers' purchase decisions and product preferences (Wallace et al., 2020). As such, consumers may signal virtue with their organic food purchases as an impression management tactic to convey a desirable image about themselves to others, given that organic food options are perceived as socially desirable (Gasiorowska et al., 2023;Folwarczny et al., 2023). ...
... This "social return" construct mirrors symbolic value variables like self-concept and self-congruity (Boley et al., 2018;Boley et al., 2018) also found that social return was positively associated with behavioural intention to travel. Wallace et al. (2017) found that other-oriented conspicuous consumption behaviour leads to donation intention. Wallace et al. (2020) conspicuous virtue-signalling led to pro-social behaviour on social media sites. ...
... Since the financial crisis of 2008/2009, bank institutions have been more interested in CSR practices [32]. Banks, which were held at least partly responsible for this crisis, have sought to restore their credibility and consumers' trust and to reinforce their corporate identity by investing in CSR initiatives [33]. Banks are expected to foster society's well-being by enacting sustainability strategies and are required to combine their concern for profit with socially responsible behavior [34]. ...
... The self-image/group-image congruity to determine the membership, that is, joining, continuing, or changing the group affiliation(Choi & Rifon, 2012), (b) consumption behaviour of an individual based on affiliating social group-image/ brand image congruity. (c) self-congruity with an object (e.g., social media influencer) in electronic-mediated parasocial affiliationWallace et al., 2017). ...
... Anees-ur-Rehman et al., 2018, p. 306;Esch and Eichenauer, 2016, p. 311,). The research of Bravo et al. (2017) demonstrated that information needs to be consistent across communication channels if it is to positively impact employees' level of identification with the brand and thus their brand citizenship behaviour. ...
... In the specific case of HE and as confirmed by the study by Yang and Mutum (2015), the eWOM of current students and alumni directly affects prospective students' enrollment choices and justifies marketers' and academic leaders' actions to strengthen relationships that may promote eWOM actions. Customers increasingly resort to digital resources to stay informed about the market and brand offerings (Christodoulides & De Chernatony, 2010;Llopis-Amorós et al., 2019). This creates an opportunity for brands to communicate with potential customers and influence their perceptions of the brand without a commercial bias, shaping their behavior and purchasing decisions (Severi et al., 2014). ...
... This brand performance theory is also a methodical alignment of all branding concepts with a company's growth goals including brand awareness and brand loyalty [32]. Brand performance theory believed that brand performance should be assessed by an internal measure: customers [33] (loyalty and awareness). This pointed out that one of the most important themes of brand performance theory is the relationship between a customer and a brand, a relationship that results in brand loyalty. ...
... On the other hand, the indirect approach assesses potential sources of CBBE by identifying consumers' brand knowledge structures. The majority of the work follows the indirect approach to measure brand equity as they can provide with a more aggregate picture of the brand through identifying the underlying dimensions and sources of CBBE (Christodoulides et al. 2006;Christodoulides et al. 2012). ...
... Yang et al. (2015) stated that brand familiarity is like a measurement of understanding about the brand in customers' memory that gets accumulated after interacting with the brand. In other words, higher the contact with the brand, higher will be the brand familiarity (Buil et al., 2013). Additionally, Mikhailitchenko et al. (2009) argued that the number and strength of association evoked by the brand in customers' memory determines the level of brand familiarity and this phenomenon also captures the strength of associations that the brand name evokes in customers' memory, and in this way it captures the schemata of customers' brand attitude. ...