Leena Paavolainen's research while affiliated with KIHU - Research Institute for Olympic Sports and other places

Publications (28)

Article
This study investigated fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular and stride characteristics during and immediately after the 5-km running time trial. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed a maximal 20-m sprint test and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a leg press machine before and immediately after the 5-km running time trial...
Article
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of concurrent endurance and explosive strength training on electromyography (EMG) and force production of leg extensors, sport-specific rapid force production, aerobic capacity, and work economy in cross-country skiers. Nineteen male cross-country skiers were assigned to an experimental grou...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of the neuromuscular and force–velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s−1, 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), and a...
Article
This study investigated the effects of the neu-romuscular and force–velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s À1 , 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of concurrent strength and endurance training (SE) (2 plus 2 days a week) versus strength training only (S) (2 days a week) in men [SE: n=11; 38 (5) years, S: n=16; 37 (5) years] over a training period of 21 weeks. The resistance training program addressed both maximal and explosive strength comp...
Article
This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg · m−2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two gr...
Article
This study was carried out to investigate the importance of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and so-called muscle power factors relating to neuromuscular and anaerobic characteristics as determinants of peak horizontal and uphill treadmill running velocity (Vmax). Muscle power factors were measured as peak velocity (VMART) and blood lactate concentra...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10 km running (10 K) performance in well-trained endurance athletes with different distance running capability. Nine high (HC) and ten low (LC) caliber endurance athletes performed the 10 K on a 200 m indoor track, constant velocity lap (CVL, 4.5 m x s(-1)) 5 times during the...
Article
To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate neuromuscular characteristics and muscle power as determinants of distance running performance. Seventeen male endurance athletes performed a 5-km time trial (5K) that included three separate constant-velocity 200-m laps during the course and a maximal 20-m speed (V20m) test on an indoor track, and runni...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare two cycle ergometer modifications of the maximal anaerobic running test (MART) with each other and with the MART. Ten male physical education students performed the two maximal anaerobic cycling tests (MACT) in a random order and the MART between the MACTs. Each test consisted of n.20-s exercise bouts with a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and energy performance characteristics of anaerobic power and capacity and the development of fatigue. Ten endurance and ten sprint athletes performed a new maximal anaerobic running power test (MARP), which consisted of n x 20-s runs on a treadmill with 100-s recovery between the runs. Blo...
Article
To investigate the effects of a combination of simultaneous strength and endurance training on selected neuromuscular and aerobic performance characteristics seven male cross-country skiers underwent training for a period of 6 weeks. The experimental group trained 6-9 times per week with a programme consisting of 34% explosive type strength trainin...

Citations

... From a physiological point of view, it is well accepted that maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max), anaerobic threshold and cost of transport (CoT) can assist in predicting distance running performance [5]. In addition, the so-called neuromuscular factors have also been demonstrated to positively influence distance running races [6,7], showing that the neuromuscular ability to produce maximal muscle force is related to running performance on level terrains [8]. Due to characteristics on positive work production markedly in uphill, the maximal muscle force at slow velocity is expected to be an explanatory factor of performance in hilly terrain. ...
... Several studies have been performed to evaluate biomechanical abnormalities that cause injury in a state of prolonged running-induced fatigue, investigate the relationship between exercise and biomechanical factors in order to predict the potential occurrence of injury, and diagnose and understand injury (Bruggemann & Arndt, 1994;Bruggemann et al., 1995;Dierks et al., 2010;Gheluwe et al., 1995;Hunter & Smith, 2000;Jean-Benoit et al., 2011;Nicol et al., 1991;Paavolainen et al., 1995;Ryu, 2013;Ryu, 2014;Siler & Martin, 1991;Verbitsky et al., 1998;Williams et al., 1991). However, no studies have investigated the FT-which is known to be a cause of tibial stress fractures during running-in a state of fatigue. ...
... Most previous studies reporting increased red cell volume, red cell mass, and Hb mass caused by erythropoiesis following hypoxic training have utilized the living-high training-low (LHTL) regimen (Levine and Stray-Gundersen, 1997;Robach et al., 2006;Wehrlin et al., 2006). Several previous studies using the LHTL regimen reported mean increases of 5-9% in red cell volume and >8% in Hb concentration (Levine and Stray-Gundersen, 1997;Rusko et al., 1999;Hahn et al., 2001;Stray-Gundersen et al., 2001). In a previous study (Sinex and Chapman, 2015), an LHTL regime residing at 2000-2,500 m or lower for 3-4 weeks with over 12 h of continuous altitude exposure per day appeared to be sufficient to activate an EPO response and RBC production. ...
... Previous studies have mainly focused on changes in T and C levels following exposure to terrestrial altitudes above 3500 m [30][31][32][33]. Furthermore, a few studies have analyzed the effects of moderate altitude training on resting T and C levels, and their results are contradictory [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. ...
... 3). Moreover, in agreement with previous studies [20,28], in our study runners who showed the greatest initial vertical height values tended to have the largest decreases in vertical height values over successive sprints (p < 0.01; r = 0.48). This greater susceptibility to fatigue has been associated with a higher proportion of fast twitch fibres [29]. ...
... Moreover, Losnegard et al. [16] reported significant improvements in aerobic parameters such as VO 2 max. On the other hand, various studies did not observe significant improvements in VO 2 max after a period of strength training [17,18]. Furthermore, Carlsson et al. [19] compared strength training versus ski ergometer training and found no significant between-group differences for gross efficiency, upper-body strength or time to exhaustion (TTE). ...
... Über die Jahre kam es bei der Testdurchführung zu gewissen Modifikationen, um verschiedene Leistungseigenschaften zu bestimmen und den Test für die entsprechenden Anwendergruppen geeignet zu machen. Weiterhin bot der WAnT die Grundlage für die Entwicklung neuerer Testverfahren ähnlicher Art sowie dem laufbasierten Sprint-Intervall-Test Tossavainen et al., 1996). Üblicherweise wird der Test auf dem Radergometer durchgeführt, wobei das Testprotokoll auch an einem Handkurbel-Ergometer absolviert werden kann. ...
... [6]. A plethora of modifiable determinants of running economy have been reported, including stride length, stride rates, contact times, lower vertical oscillation, greater leg stiffness, lower limb kinematics, alignment of the ground reaction force and lower limb axis during the propulsive phase, arm swing, lower coactivation, and firm footwear [7][8][9]. In addition, several anthropometric characteristics such as height, limb dimensions, and body composition have been suggested to influence running economy [10]. ...
... In his endurance performance model, Joyner considered three key physiological parameters-VO 2 max, blood lactate concentration, and running economy [42]. Paavolainen et al. suggested that among well-trained distance runners, running economy is a better predictor of performance thanVO 2 max [43]. A recent systematic review showed improvements of running economy without changes iṅ VO 2 max and blood lactate concentration in pre-trained athletes after RE intervention [41]. ...
... Risk of bias scores ranged from 5 to 11 out of a possible 16. Of the 36 studies that were included in the review, 14 were low quality (Avogadro et al., 2003;Clansey et al., 2016;TR Derrick et al., 2002;Finni et al., 2003;Girard et al., 2013;Hanley & Tucker, 2018;Hunter & Smith, 2007;Paavolainen et al., 1999;Rabita et al., 2013;Reenalda et al., 2019;Verbitsky et al., 1998;Voloshin et al., 1998), 22 were medium quality (Abt et al., 2011;Amado et al., 2017;Brahms et al., 2020;Butler et al., 2007;Camelio et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2020;Dutto & Smith, 2002;Garcia-Pinillos et al., 2020;Gerlach et al., 2005;Giovanelli et ...