Lee Jarvis's research while affiliated with University of East Anglia and other places

Publications (94)

Article
This article explores ‘everyday’ or ‘vernacular’ conceptions of Muslims, Islam and their relationship to ‘British values’. Drawing on original data from focus groups in the East of England, it argues that the relationship is typically constructed around a series of binary pairings. Where Islam is held to be traditional, conservative, pious and outm...
Article
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This article explores the importance of constructions of temporality within the UK government’s discourse on the COVID-19 coronavirus crisis across the first six months of 2020. Drawing on over 120 official texts, it traces the emergence of discontinuous, linear, and cyclical conceptions of time in representations of the virus’ pasts, presents, and...
Article
Recent years have witnessed increasing academic, media, and political attention to the threat of far-right terrorism. In this article, I argue that scholarship on this threat has suffered from two limitations, each with antecedents in terrorism research more broadly. First, is an essentialist approach to this phenomenon as an extra-discursive objec...
Chapter
Autoethnographic research—by its nature—centres the experiences, perspective, interests and voice of its individual (though situated) subject. What does this mean, then, in the context of collaborative research projects involving teams of researchers? How do the contexts, dynamics and interests of research partners shape, complement or undermine th...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on understandings and debates around cyberterrorism as well as the effect particular representations of this phenomenon have upon assessing its threat. The chapter begins by introducing various understandings of cyberterrorism and differentiates between narrow and broad conceptions as well as effects and intent based definition...
Article
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This article reflects on methodological decisions, strategies, and challenges from a recent interdisciplinary project on the relationship between “British values” and Islam. The project employed digital storytelling to access “everyday” conceptions and constructions of this contentious relationship. The research was undertaken by participant resear...
Article
This article reports on a survey of researchers designed to capture current perspectives on core questions around cyberterrorism. The survey—conducted in 2017 as a follow-on to an initial, 2012, exercise—focused on questions of definition, threat and response. By documenting our findings in each of these areas—and highlighting developments in the y...
Article
This article draws on original focus group research to explore constructions of ‘British values’, in ‘everyday’ discourse. Two prominent, yet competing conceptions of this term are identified: political/institutional and social/cultural. Although each of these conceptions risks essentialising ‘British values’, this risk is mitigated by publics in a...
Article
Terrorists – or, better, those portrayed as ‘terrorist’ – are remembered in a multiplicity of ways after their death. In murals and music, in slogans and speeches, on t-shirts and online, in fiction and in film. This article focuses on one specific site of social memory – the newspaper obituary – to explore how these: narrate deceased ‘terrorists’...
Article
This article explores the parameters, value and limitations of different critical strategies for those dissatisfied with the contemporary politics of terror. It argues, first, that the prominent (counter-)terrorism paradigm – in which terrorism is approached as a ubiquitous and very specific security challenge meriting appropriately exceptional res...
Article
This article contributes to a small, but growing, scholarship on military videogames. Focusing specifically on diverse manifestations of temporality within these games, it demonstrates that this genre both is more diverse and has greater critical potential than is often recognized. The article begins with a brief overview of contemporary scholarshi...
Research
Full-text available
In 2012 members of the Cyberterrorism Project conducted a survey of researchers on cyberterrorism. A total of 118 responses were received, from researchers working in 24 countries across six continents. The findings were published in a report and series of four journal articles, listed below, examining understandings of cyberterrorism, assessments...
Article
This article serves as an introduction to this Special Issue on the banning or proscription of terrorist organisations around the world. It begins by arguing for greater attention to proscription powers because of their contemporary ubiquity, considerable historical lineage, implications for political life, and ambiguous effectiveness. Following an...
Article
This article explores UK Parliamentary debate around the proscription – or banning – of terrorist organisations. It argues that these debates are usefully conceptualised as a form of political ritual organised around a core script, established participant roles, a shared respect for the performance of democracy and a predictable outcome. Taking the...
Book
Terrorist use of the Internet has become a focus of media, policy, and scholarly attention in recent years. Terrorists use the Internet in a variety of ways, the most important being for propaganda purposes and operations-related content, but it is also potentially a means or target of attack. This book presents revised versions of a selection of p...
Article
The contemporary fascination with terrorism in Anglo-American popular culture, political discourse, news reportage, and beyond is boundless and well documented. In this article, we explore contemporary productions of terrorism as the outcome of three drives to knowledge: laugher, lamentation, and detestation. Drawing on a range of social and cultur...
Article
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A recent wave of scholarship has drawn attention to the need for further engagement with the role of ‘the audience’ in securitization ‘games’. This article contributes to this discussion both theoretically and empirically by exploring the types of question an audience may ask of a securitizing actor before a securitizing act meets with success or f...
Article
This article presents findings from original focus group research on the importance of identity claims within public understandings of counter-terrorism across the UK. Following a review of existing literature on the terrorism/counter-terrorism/identity nexus, the article introduces four prominent subject positions inhabited within public articulat...
Article
This article explores original empirical findings from a research project investigating representations of cyberterrorism in the international news media. Drawing on a sample of 535 items published by 31 outlets between 2008 and 2013, it focuses on four questions. First, how individuated a presence is cyberterrorism given within news media coverage...
Article
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This article explores constructions of cyberterrorism within the global news media between 2008 and 2013. It begins by arguing that the preoccupation with questions of definition, threat and response in academic literature on cyberterrorism is problematic, for two reasons. First, because it neglects the constitutivity of representations of cyberter...
Article
This article explores findings from focus group research in which UK publics were asked, If you were in government, what would you do about terrorism? After situating our research within contemporary ‘bottom-up’ work on counter-terrorism, we discuss the diversity of answers we received to this question, which included improving education, addressin...
Article
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The Internet is a transformative technology that terrorists are exploiting for the spread of propaganda and radicalizing new recruits. While Al Qaeda has a longer history, Islamic State is conducting a modern and sophisticated media campaign centered around online social networking. This article introduces and contextualizes the contributions to th...
Article
This article offers a discursive analysis of UK Parliamentary debate on the proscription of terrorist organisations between 2002 and 2014. It argues that these debates play an important constitutive role in the (re)production of national Self and terrorist Other that remains largely overlooked in existing work on this counter-terrorism mechanism. T...
Article
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This article explores findings from a global survey of the terrorism research community to explore whether states may be deemed capable of conducting cyberterrorism. The article begins with a brief review of recent literature on state terrorism, identifying empirical and analytical justifications for greater use of this concept. Following a discuss...
Book
This book explores how different publics make sense of and evaluate anti-terrorism powers within the UK, and the implications of this for citizenship and security. Drawing on primary empirical research, the book argues that whilst white individuals are not unconcerned about the effects of anti-terrorism, ethnic minority citizens (including, but not...
Article
The articles in this special issue are drawn from papers presented at a conference entitled “Neoliberalism and/as Terror”, held at the Nottingham Conference Centre at Nottingham Trent University by the Critical Terrorism Studies BISA Working Group (CSTWG) on 15-16 September 2014. The conference was supported by both a BISA workshop grant and supple...
Article
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This article examines the way in which the English language international news media has constructed the threat of cyberterrorism. Analysing 535 news items published by 31 different media outlets across 7 countries between 2008 and 2013, we show that this coverage is uneven in terms of its geographical and temporal distribution and that its tone is...
Article
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This article assesses the use of proscription powers as a tool for countering terrorism, using the United Kingdom as a case study. The article begins with a brief overview of the United Kingdom’s current proscription regime. It then situates this in historical context, noting the significant recent increase in proscribed groups and the predominance...
Article
This is a reply to:Clément, Maéva. 2014. “Al-Muhajiroun in the United Kingdom: the role of international non-recognition in heightened radicalization dynamics.” Global Discourse. 4 (4): 428–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23269995.2014.918306
Article
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This article explores the endurance of the pervasive framing of “9/11” as a moment of temporal rupture within the United States. It argues that this has persisted despite the existence of plausible competitor narratives for two reasons: first, because it resonated with public experiences of the events predating this construction’s discursive sedime...
Research
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This report provides an overview of findings from a research project exploring how mainstream media represent cyberterrorism. The research was conducted in the summer of 2013 and focused on a sample of thirty-one news outlets. These outlets were selected for reasons of accessibility, language, diversity of geographical origin, and, diversity of pol...
Research
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This report contains findings from the Cyberterrorism Project’s symposium on terrorists’ use of the Internet. The event was hosted by Swansea University, UK, on 5-6 June 2014. 43 delegates attended the symposium, including researchers from a number of UK universities, as well as institutions in the Republic of Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Norw...
Article
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This article reports on a recent survey designed to capture understandings of cyberterrorism across the global research community. Specifically, it explores competing views, and the importance thereof, amongst 118 respondents on three definitional issues: (a) the need for a specific definition of cyberterrorism for either policymakers or researcher...
Article
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This article reports on findings from a survey on the concept of cyberterrorism from researchers working in twenty-four countries across six continents. Our aim is to contribute to the definitional debate in this area by exploring the boundaries between cyberterrorism and potentially related terms. Focusing on two questions from our survey in parti...
Article
This article explores how the death of Osama bin Laden was narrated by the Obama administration between the night of his killing and the 2012 State of the Union address. Three aspects of this unfolding story, in particular, are explored: i) descriptions of the operation itself; ii) constructions of bin Laden’s life and character; iii) accounts of t...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores how the death of Osama bin Laden was narrated by the Obama administration between the night of his killing and the 2012 State of the Union address. Three aspects of this unfolding story, in particular, are explored: i) descriptions of the operation itself; ii) constructions of bin Laden's life and character; iii) accounts of t...
Article
Chapter Overview: This chapter engages with the concept of cyberterrorism by investigating three connected questions. First, to what - if anything does cyberterrorism refer, and from where does its meaning derive? Second, how useful is this term for academics, policymakers, legislators and other potential users? Third, what problems or limitations...
Book
This is the first book to present a multidisciplinary approach to cyberterrorism. It traces the threat posed by cyberterrorism today, with chapters discussing possible technological vulnerabilities, potential motivations to engage in cyberterrorism, and the challenges of distinguishing this from other cyber threats. The book also addresses the rang...
Article
The articles in this special issue are drawn from papers presented at a conference titled Critical Terrorism Studies: Practice, Limits and Experience. The conference was organised by the Critical Studies on Terrorism Working Group of the British International Studies Association (BISA). The event was supported by both a BISA workshop grant and by L...
Article
This article explores the value of scholarship on state terrorism for the critical study of terrorist violences. The article begins by identifying four primary contributions of this scholarship: first, a rethinking of the status and significance of terrorism; second, an unsettling of broader assumptions within International Relations (IR) and terro...
Article
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This article reports on a recent research project exploring academic perspectives on the threat posed by cyberterrorism. The project employed a survey method, which returned 118 responses from researchers working across 24 different countries. The article begins with a brief review of existing literature on this topic, distinguishing between those...
Article
This article draws on primary focus group data from the UK to offer three contributions to recent debate on the impact of anti‐terrorism measures on citizenship. First, it presents a qualitatively rich account of citizens' own perspectives on this relationship. Second, it explores the significance of ethnic identity in relation to public attitudes....
Article
The corroding impacts of anti-terrorism measures on citizenship have been much discussed in recent years. Drawing on qualitative research from the UK, this article argues that citizens do indeed frequently feel that aspects of citizenship – such as rights, duties, identity claims and the ability to participate in the public sphere – have been signi...
Research
Full-text available
This report contains findings from The Cyberterrorism Project’s conference: A Multidisciplinary Conference on Cyberterrorism. The event was held at Jury’s Inn Hotel, Birmingham, UK on 11-12 April 2013. Forty-eight delegates attended the conference, including researchers from a number of UK universities, as well as institutions in the Republic of Ir...
Article
This article draws on primary focus group research to explore the differing ways in which UK publics conceptualise and discuss security. The article begins by situating our research within two relevant contemporary scholarly literatures: The first concerns efforts to centre the ‘ordinary’ human as security’s referent; the second, constructivist exp...
Research
Full-text available
This report provides an overview of findings from a project designed to capture current understandings of cyberterrorism within the research community. The project ran between June and November 2012, and employed a questionnaire which was distributed to over 600 researchers, authors and other experts. Potential respondents were identified using a c...
Article
This article explores competing efforts to make sense of the 9/11 attacks within entries posted on the “Where Were You … September 11th, Two Thousand One” Internet archive. Open to written contributions for one year from 15 September 2001, the archive amassed more than 2,500 responses, with posters writing from over twenty different countries. The...
Article
This article explores the ways in which Western states have adapted their counter-terrorism strategies to meet the demands of a post-9/11 era. Focusing on the USA and UK as illustrative case studies, this article charts the emergence of a new, complex topography of security measures aimed at confronting the threat of unconventional violence from ab...
Article
This article explores the burgeoning academic interest in establishing a critical terrorism studies research programme. It begins by reviewing the debates over definition, causation and response that still dominate mainstream discussions of terrorism. The analytical and normative limitations of these debates, it argues, open considerable space for...

Citations

... Political violence is more and more becoming a central theme in ethical and political debates (Jarvis 2022) [8]. There is almost no country on the planet that has not experienced some form of political violence. ...
... Here, the government was confronted with a fast-moving crisis moment, in which it was forced to constantly adapt its response, and narrate this to the public, on a daily basis. In a temporal context of an urgent national emergency (see also Jarvis, 2021), intense media scrutiny and a mounting set of problems and criticisms, it became much more difficult for government actors to control the various stories they wanted to tell. As our findings below highlight, this forced ministers into a frantic attempt to pass responsibility between a number of actors using a range of narratives designed to steer a delicate line between receiving credit for their emergency measures and distancing themselves from blame for a growing number of failures. ...
... Less obvious, perhaps, but as vital to this narrative's construction, were a series of important, but distinct, claims about temporality: about time. In a statement lasting less than nine minutes, Johnson conceptualised time both as a resource for the satisfaction of (here unmet) needs-apologising for his being 'away from my desk for much longer than I would've liked'-and as collectively-experienced duration, arguing 'we are passing through the peak' of the pandemic (see also Jarvis 2021). He drew upon familiar, and powerful, temporal metaphors to emphasise COVID-19's historical significance, depicting this 'crisis' 1 as the 'Biggest single challenge this country has faced since the [second world] war'. ...
... To amplify a truthful understanding of these experiences we were interested in researching with CRs ("participantresearchers") rather than about them, 18 consistent with a shared value of "Nothing about me, without me." We therefore focused on a methodology that was participatory in nature. ...
... Although cyberterrorism has not been conclusively defined, and there is an absence of an incident that might be labelled 'cyberterrorism' per se, we can speak of a loose consensus within cyberterrorism scholarship that a 'cyber-attack' by terrorist entities would entail an attack upon critical infrastructure (see Bieda and Halawi, 2015;Denning, 2000;MacDonald et al., 2019). The authors suggest that the threat of cyberterrorism has been invoked across EU institutions as part of a process of re-legitimizing the need for pan-European involvement in the securing of critical infrastructure. ...
... Although we finished the research with double this number of films, we were less successful than expected in recruiting and retaining participant researchers beyond Norwich itself, where the research team is based and has the greatest existing network of contacts. A range of recruitment initiatives were attempted including online advertisements, advertisements in specialist publications, leaflet drops, snowballing through community contacts, radio requests, and social media activity (see Jarvis et al. 2019). ...
... In terrorism studies, Jackson (2012) conceptualised 'unknown knowns' as knowledge that is ignored or downplayed, and may include that which is judged to be inferior or 'unscientific' by other analysts. Some have argued for more understanding of how counterterrorism strategies are experienced by those processed by counterterrorist systems and by Muslim communities more broadly (Jarvis, 2019;Qureshi, 2020). A different perspective comes from a terrorism scholar who states that many of those claiming expertise on terrorism post-9/11 'are not truly scholars, are not versed in the scientific method, and often pursue a political agenda' (Sageman, 2014, 566). ...
... Mesmo assim, não há dúvidas de que os jogos com um foco na parte militar são predominantes entre os jogos de guerra, não apenas em termos de lançamentos a cada ano, mas também em relação ao sucesso. Em um cenário no qual a indústria dos games era a indústria de entretenimento com crescimento mais rápido [3], o 11 de Setembro e o início das guerras no Iraque e no Afeganistão levaram a um boom de jogos com temas militares [4]. Nota-se que muitos destes jogos são comerciais; não possuem objetivos políticos explícitos; e simulam a Guerra ao Terror primariamente para entreter [5]. ...
... In order to evaluate claims such as these, we undertook a recent study of over 500 news items, published by a total of 31 different outlets between 2008 and 2013, was conducted in order to offer the first detailed exploration of media representations of cyberterrorism. 83 First, the study demonstrates that the volume of news media coverage of cyberterrorism has increased in recent years. 84 Second, media coverage of cyberterrorism is predominantly apprehensive in tone. ...
... This concern contrasts with some of the more sceptical academic perspectives which frequently question whether would-be cyberterrorists have the means, motive or opportunity to engage in this type of activity [21]. It does, however, correspond rather more closely to a recent survey of researchers working on this topic in which 70% of those surveyed stated that cyberterrorism either does constitute, or potentially constitutes, 'a significant threat' [22]. This is important, we argue, because news coverage has a constitutive rather than corresponding relationship to the 'reality' of cyberterrorism: it is actively involved in the production of this potential security threat. ...