# Lawrence M. Wein's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

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## Publications (152)

The genealogy process is typically the most time‐consuming part of—and a limiting factor in the success of—forensic genetic genealogy, which is a new approach to solving violent crimes and identifying human remains. We formulate a stochastic dynamic program that—given the list of matches and their genetic distances to the unknown target—chooses the...

The utility of a match in a two-sided matching market often depends on a variety of characteristics of the two agents (e.g., a buyer and a seller) to be matched. In contrast to the matching market literature, this utility may best be modeled by a general matching utility distribution. In “Asymptotically Optimal Control of a Centralized Dynamic Matc...

We consider the best-arm identification problem in generalized linear bandits: each arm has a vector of covariates, there is an unknown vector of parameters that is common across the arms, and a generalized linear model captures the dependence of rewards on the covariate and parameter vectors. The goal is to identify a near-optimal arm with high pr...

The April 7, 2020, Wisconsin election produced a large natural experiment to help understand the transmission risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of April 14, 2020, 1 551 711 total votes were cast ( https://bit.ly/2yWPhlF ), ¹ and 1 138 491 absentee ballots were returned as of April 21, 2020, ¹ suggesting that...

Significance
Within the context of sexual assaults, we address a fundamental issue in criminal investigations: how much evidence to collect and process. Using data from the San Francisco Police Department, we show that machine learning algorithms outperform sexual assault forensic examiners at identifying probative samples. Relative to selective te...

We analyze confirmed cases and new hospitalizations in Wisconsin in the weeks surrounding the April 7, 2020 election, and find no evidence of a surge in SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

We consider a matching market where buyers and sellers arrive according to independent Poisson processes at the same rate and independently abandon the market if not matched after an exponential amount of time with the same mean. In this centralized market, the utility for the system manager from matching any buyer and any seller is a general rando...

Motivated by drug design, we consider the best-arm identification problem in generalized linear bandits. More specifically, we assume each arm has a vector of covariates, there is an unknown vector of parameters that is common across the arms, and a generalized linear model captures the dependence of rewards on the covariate and parameter vectors....

Motivated by the debate over how to deal with the huge backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the U.S.A., we construct and analyze a mathematical model that predicts the expected number of hits (i.e., a new DNA profile matches a DNA sample in the criminal database) as a function of both the proportion of the backlog that is tested and whether t...

Introduction While the possible terrorist use of biological agents against civilian targets was a subject of concern before September 11, 2001 (Alibek, 1999; Miller, Engelberg, & Broad, 2001), the deliberate mailings of anthrax-laden letters and resultant infections, deaths, and panic that ensued in October of that same year provided a bioterror “p...

Ballistic imaging systems can help solve crimes by comparing images of cartridge cases, which are recovered from a crime scene or test-fired from a gun, to a database of images obtained from past crime scenes. Many U.S. municipalities lack the resources to process all of their cartridge cases. Using data from Stockton, CA, we analyze two problems:...

Supporting Material.
Contains additional figures discussed above.
(PDF)

Fecal microbiota transplantation is being assessed as a treatment for chronic microbiota-related diseases such as ulcerative colitis. Results from an initial randomized trial suggest that remission rates depend on unobservable features of the fecal donors and observable features of the patients. We use mathematical modeling to assess the efficacy o...

The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient coun...

Supporting Material.
Contains additional figures and tables discussed above.
(PDF)

Raw Data.
Contains the data used to perform this analysis.
(DTA)

Supporting Material.
Contains the statistical estimation of model parameters and provides tradeoff curves for secondary results.
(PDF)

Court-mandated downsizing of the CA prison system has led to a redistribution of detainees from prisons to CA county jails, and subsequent jail overcrowding. Using data that is representative of the LA County jail system, we build a mathematical model that tracks the flow of individuals during arraignment, pretrial release or detention, case dispos...

Background:
Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized mann...

Background
Motivated by the observation that children suffering from undernutrition are more likely to experience disease and are more likely to die if they do contract a disease, mathematical modelling is used to explore the ramifications of targeting preventive disease measures to undernutritioned children.
Methods
A malaria model is constructed...

Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ), height-for-age z score (HAZ) and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ [Formula: see te...

Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allo...

Firearms identification imaging systems help solve crimes by comparing newly acquired images of cartridge casings or bullets to a database of images obtained from past crime scenes. We formulate an optimization problem that bases its matching decisions not only on the similarity between pairs of images, but also on the time and spatial location of...

Several aid groups have proposed strategies for allocating ready-to-use (therapeutic and supplementary) foods to children in developing countries. Analysis is needed to investigate whether there are better alternatives. We use a longitudinal dataset of 5,657 children from Bwamanda to construct a bivariate time-series model that tracks each child's...

To address growing concerns over childhood obesity, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently recommended that children undergo obesity screening beginning at age 6. An Expert Committee recommends starting at age 2. Analysis is needed to assess these recommendations and investigate whether there are better alternatives. We...

Recent studies show that transfusing older blood may lead to increased mortality. This raises the issue of whether transfusing fresher blood can be achieved without jeopardizing blood availability.
We propose a simple family of policies that is defined by a single threshold: rather than transfusing the oldest available blood that is younger than 42...

Motivated by the need to predict the future biometric performance of the U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology program as it increases the size of its watchlist database, we use extreme-value theory (which is an asymptotic theory for the maximum of a large number of independent and identically distributed random variables) to analy...

We superimpose a radiation fallout model onto a traffic flow model to assess the evacuation versus shelter-in-place decisions after the daytime ground-level detonation of a 10-kt improvised nuclear device in Washington, DC. In our model, ≈ 80k people are killed by the prompt effects of blast, burn, and radiation. Of the ≈ 360k survivors without acc...

Motivated by the ease with which online customers can bid simultaneously in multiple auctions, we analyze a system with two competing auctioneers and three types of bidders: those dedicated to either of the two auctions and those that participate simultaneously in both auctions. Bidding behavior is specified and proven to induce a Bayesian Nash equ...

Motivated by the links between terror and crime and the difficulty in directly detecting terror activity, this article formulates and solves a resource allocation problem on overlapping networks to determine if interdiction efforts may be able to take advantage of these connections. The government, knowing only the general structure and overlap of...

Abstract Motivated by the cost and disruption involved in changing from a two-finger to a ten-finger biometric system for matching U.S. visitors to a watchlist of criminals and terrorists, we investigate whether any two-finger multistage biometric strategies would,fix the inadequate matching,performance,of poor- quality prints that plagues the U.S....

We develop a dynamic model in which Operation Iraqi Freedom servicemembers incur a random amount of combat stress during each month of deployment, develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if their cumulative stress exceeds a servicemember-specific threshold, and then develop symptoms for PTSD after an additional time lag. Using Department of D...

This paper is the archival record of the INFORMS Philip McCord Morse Lecture delivered in 2008. It describes the author's research on four topics in homeland security and public health: preparedness and response to a bioterror anthrax attack, preparedness and response to a bioterror attack on the food supply, routes of transmission and infection co...

We model the orbital debris environment by a set of differential equations with parameter values that capture many of the complexities of existing three-dimensional simulation models. We compute the probability that a spacecraft gets destroyed in a collision during its operational lifetime, and then define the sustainable risk level as the maximum...

We construct a mathematical model of aerosol (i.e., droplet-nuclei) transmission of influenza within a household containing one infected and embed it into an epidemic households model in which infecteds occasionally infect someone from another household; in a companion paper, we argue that the contribution from contact transmission is trivial for i...

We develop a mathematical optimization model at the intersection of homeland security and immigration, that chooses various immigration enforcement decision variables to minimize the probability that a terrorist can successfully enter the United States across the U.S.-Mexico border. Included are a discrete choice model for the probability that a po...

We derive mathematical expressions for the mean number of casualties resulting from a deliberate release of a biological or chemical agent into a food supply chain. Our analysis first computes the amount of contaminated food as a function of the network topology and vessel sizes in the food processing plant. A probabilistic analysis, in which each...

Motivated by the desire to assess nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, we seek in this study to quantify the routes of transmission for this disease. We construct a mathematical model of aerosol (i.e., droplet-nuclei) and contact transmission of influenza within a household containing one infected. An analysis of this model in co...

We formulate and analyze an optimal stopping problem concerning a terrorist who is attempting to drive a nuclear or radiological weapon toward a target in a city center. In our model, the terrorist needs to travel through a two-dimensional lattice containing imperfect radiation sensors at some of the nodes, and decides at each node whether to deton...

We formulate and analyze a spatial queueing model concerning a terrorist who is attempting to drive a nuclear or radiological weapon toward a target in a city center. In our model, imperfect radiation sensors form a circular wall around the periphery of the city, and vehicles setting off sensor alarms (representing a terrorist or a nuisance alarm)...

Due to lack of detention capacity (the U.S. government measures capacity by the number of detention beds), tens of thousands of apprehended illegal aliens are released into the U.S. interior each year, instead of being removed from the country. This vulnerability can be exploited by terrorist groups wanting to enter the United States. We construct...

Radiation portal monitors are starting to be deployed at overseas ports to prevent nuclear weapons from entering the U.S. in a shipping container. Current designs have containers on trucks passing through a portal monitor at approximately 10 mph, before being routed to one of several lanes at the port's front gate for a driver identification check....

We formulate and solve an optimization problem in which a terrorist is attempting to drive a nuclear weapon toward a city center, but needs to travel through an array of imperfect neutron radiation sensors that form a wall around the periphery of the city. A fleet of interdiction vehicles are available to chase, and attempt to interdict, vehicles t...

Motivated by the failure of current methods to control dengue fever, we formulate a mathematical model to assess the impact on the spread of a mosquito-borne viral disease of a strategy that releases adult male insects homozygous for a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic trait. A dynamic model for the female adult mosquito population, which incor...

We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification...

Motivated by recent electronic marketplaces, we consider a single-product make-to-stock manufacturing system that uses two alternative selling channels: long-term contracts and a spot market of electronic orders. At time 0, the risk-averse manufacturer selects the long-term contract price, at which point buyers choose one of the two channels. The r...

We developed a mathematical model of a cows-to-consumers supply chain associated with a single milk-processing facility that is the victim of a deliberate release of botulinum toxin. Because centralized storage and processing lead to substantial dilution of the toxin, a minimum amount of toxin is required for the release to do damage. Irreducible u...

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends which strains of influenza to include in each year's vaccine to countries around the globe. The current WHO strategy attempts to match the vaccine strains with the expected upcoming epidemic strains, a strategy we refer to as thefollow policy. The recently proposed antigenic distance hypothesis suggest...

Motivated by the difficulty of biometric systems to correctly match fingerprints with poor image quality, we formulate and solve a game-theoretic formulation of the identification problem in two settings: U.S. visa applicants are checked against a list of visa holders to detect visa fraud, and visitors entering the U.S. are checked against a watchl...

The potency, or fitness, of a protein-based drug can be enhanced by changing the sequence of its underlying protein. We present a novel stochastic model for the sequence-fitness relation, and estimate its four parameters from industrial data. Using this model, we formulate and analyze two variants of the protein design problem. In the single-period...

To aid in understanding how best to respond to a bioterror anthrax attack, we analyze a system of differential equations that includes a disease progression model, a set of spatially distributed queues for distributing antibiotics, and vaccination (pre-event and/or post-event). We derive approximate expressions for the number of casualties as a fun...

We developed a mathematical model to compare 2 indoor remediation strategies in the aftermath of an outdoor release of 1.5 kg of anthrax spores in lower Manhattan. The 2 strategies are the fumigation approach used after the 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoc...

Motivated by recent therapeutic initiatives for Alzheimer’s disease, we developed a mathematical model of the accumulation
of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brain. The model incorporates the production and clearance of Aβ monomers, and the elongation and fragmentation of polymers by monomer aggregation and break-off, respectively. Our analysis
sugge...

Decision making for bioterror preparedness involves estimating the consequences of different attack scenarios paired with
alternative preparedness and response policies, and selecting an appropriate strategy to minimize deaths, disease, and costs
to society. Smallpox vaccination policy provides an excellent case study of these concepts in action. W...

We address the problem of designing multi-item procurement auctions for a monopsonistic buyer in capacity-constrained environments. Using insights from classical auction theory, we construct an optimization-based auction mechanism (Üsmart marketÝ) relying on the dynamic resolution of a linear program minimizing the buyer's cost under the suppliers'...

To aid in understanding how best to respond to a bioterror anthrax attack, we analyze a system of differential equations that includes an atmospheric release model, a spatial array of biosensors, a dose-response model, a disease progression model, and a set of spatially distributed tandem queues for distributing antibiotics and providing hospital c...

Replication-competent viruses have the potential to overcome the delivery barrier in tumors that has plagued traditional gene-therapy approaches to cancer treatment. However, recent clinical data suggests that a cytokine-based immune response against the virus-infected tumor cells may severely limit the efficacy of the replication-competent approac...

Weber and Stidham (1987) used submodularity to establish transition monotonicity (a service completion at one station cannot reduce the service rate at another station) for Markovian queueing networks that meet certain regularity conditions and are controlled to minimize service and queueing costs. We give an extension of monotonicity to other dire...

We consider a manufacturer who uses a reverse, or procurement, auction to determine which supplier will be awarded a contract. Each bid consists of a price and a set of nonprice attributes (e.g., quality, lead time). The manufacturer is assumed to know the parametric form of the suppliers' cost functions (in terms of the nonprice attributes), but h...

To evaluate existing and alternative proposals for emergency response to a deliberate smallpox attack, we embed the key operational features of such interventions into a smallpox disease transmission model. We use probabilistic reasoning within an otherwise deterministic epidemic framework to model the 'race to trace', i.e., attempting to trace (vi...

Detecting Bioterror Attacks by Screening Blood Donors: A Best-Case Analysis

To assess whether screening blood donors could provide early warning of a bioterror attack, we combined stochastic models of blood donation and the workings of blood tests with an epidemic model to derive the probability distribution of the time to detect an attack under assumptions favorable to blood donor screening. Comparing the attack detection...

In their report “Containing bioterrorist smallpox” (15 Nov., p. [1428][1]), M. E. Halloran et al. state that their “structured simulator” does not produce the “two orders of magnitude difference” between the number of deaths under targeted vaccination and the number of deaths under mass

We incorporate a previously validated mathematical model of a vascularized tumor into an optimal control problem to determine the temporal scheduling of radiotherapy and angiogenic inhibitors that maximizes the control of a primary tumor. Our results reveal that optimal antiangiogenic monotherapy gives a large initial injection to attain a 20:1 rat...

Title from cover. "October 15, 2000." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 40-44). Jérémie Gallien, Lawrence M. Wein.

We developed a mathematical model to compare various emergency responses in the event of an airborne anthrax attack. The system consists of an atmospheric dispersion model, an age-dependent dose-response model, a disease progression model, and a set of spatially distributed two-stage queueing systems consisting of antibiotic distribution and hospit...

Motivated by the rapid expansion in the development of replication-competent viral agents for the treatment of solid tumors, we formulated and analyzed a three-dimensional mathematical model of a tumor that is infected by a replication-competent virus. We initially considered three patterns of intratumoral injection in which a fixed fraction of cel...

Motivated by the recent development of highly specific agents for brain tumours, we develop a mathematical model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a brain tumour that receives an infusion of a highly specific cytotoxic agent (e.g. IL-4-PE, a cytotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin). We derive an approximate but accur...

We analyse a sequence in which the three most commonly prescribed cancer treatments – surgery (S), chemotherapy (C) and radiotherapy (R) – should be administered. A system of ordinary differential equations is formulated that captures the various local and systemic effects of the three modes of treatment, as well as the first-order effects of the i...

Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are being developed for the treatment of cancer, but the safety and feasibility of repeated adenovirus delivery to tumors via the bloodstream was unknown, particularly in light of a patient death after hepatic artery infusion of a replication-defective adenovirus vector. We performed a Phase II trial of...

With the advent of novel therapies for Alzheimer's disease, there is pressing need for biomarkers that are easy to monitor, such as the amyloid-beta (A beta) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. To gain a better understanding of the explanatory power of these biomarkers, we formulate and analyze a compartmental mathematical model for...

In the event of a smallpox bioterrorist attack in a large U.S. city, the interim response policy is to isolate symptomatic cases, trace and vaccinate their contacts, quarantine febrile contacts, but vaccinate more broadly if the outbreak cannot be contained by these measures. We embed this traced vaccination policy in a smallpox disease transmissio...

We present results from a mathematical analysis that is aimed at finding the best way to sequence the three traditional cancer treatments: surgery (S), chemotherapy (C), and radiotherapy (R). The mathematical model tracks the temporal evolution of the primary tumor and its associated metastases, and incorporates the primary tumor's effect on the do...

We analyse the sequence in which the three most commonly prescribed cancer treatments--surgery (S), chemotherapy (C) and radiotherapy (R)--should be administered. A system of ordinary differential equations is formulated that captures the various local and systemic effects of the three modes of treatment, as well as the first-order effects of the i...

Title from cover. "December 2001."

We incorporate a previously validated mathematical model of a vascularized tumor into an optimal control problem to determine the temporal scheduling of radiotherapy and angiogenic inhibitors that maximizes the control of a primary tumor. Our results reveal that optimal antiangiogenic monotherapy gives a large initial injection to attain a 20:1 rat...

Replication-competent viruses have shown considerable promise in overcoming the inefficient gene transduction experienced by traditional gene therapy approaches to cancer treatment. The viruses infect tumor cells and replicate inside them, eventually causing lysis. Virus particles released during lysis are then able to infect other tumor cells, and...

This paper examines how setups, due dates, and the mix of standardized and customized products affect the scheduling of a single machine operating in a dynamic and stochastic environment. We restrict ourselves to the class of dynamic cyclic policies, where the machine busy/idle policy and lot-sizing decisions are controlled in a dynamic fashion, bu...

A simple mathematical model is developed for determining the time-varying fraction of senescent cells in culture in terms of the underlying probability distribution of the number of population doublings until senescence. This functional relationship is inverted, which allows for the estimation of the probability distribution of the number of popula...

We address the procurement of new components for recyclable products in the context of Kodak's single-use camera. The objective is to find an ordering policy that minimizes the total expected procurement, inventory holding, and lost sales cost. Distinguishing characteristics of the system are the uncertainty and unobservability associated with retu...

The linear-quadratic model typically assumes that tumor sensitivity and repopulation are constant over the time course of radiotherapy. However, evidence suggests that the growth fraction increases and the cell-loss factor decreases as the tumor shrinks. We investigate whether this evolution in tumor geometry, as well as the irregular time interval...

The crux of the kidney allocation problem is the trade-off between clinical efficiency and equity. We consider a dynamic resource allocation problem with the tri-criteria objective of maximizing the quality-adjusted life expectancy of transplant candidates (clinical efficiency) and minimizing two measures of inequity: a linear function of the likel...

The dilemmas experienced by managers in cultural industries are also to be found in a growing number of other industries where knowledge and creativity are key to sustaining competitive advantage. Firms that compete in cultural industries must deal with ...

We consider two queueing control problems that are stochastic versions of the economic lot scheduling problem: A single server processes N customer classes, and completed units enter a finished goods inventory that services exogenous customer demand. Unsatisfied demand is backordered, and each class has its own general service time distribution, re...

We analyze three queueing control problems that model a dynamic stochastic distribution system, where a single capacitated vehicle serves a finite number of retailers in a make-to-stock fashion. The objective in each of these vehicle routing and inventory problems is to minimize the long run average inventory (holding and backordering) and transpor...

this paper without altering our results; the Poisson output from the last FCFS queue preserves the product-form stationary distribution. Now suppose that m FCFS queues are appended to the end of the network. Because customer overtaking cannot occur, the sojourn time of all customers in the FCFS stations is given by the workload. Using the snapshot...

We analyze the performance of a tandem queueing network populated by two customer types. The interarrival times of each type and the service times of each type at each station are independent random variables with general distributions, but the load on each station is assumed to be identical. A setup time is incurred when a server switches from one...

BACKGROUND: There are not enough cadaveric kidneys to meet the demands of transplant candidates. The equity and efficiency of alternative organ allocation strategies have not been rigorously compared.METHODS: We developed a five-compartment Monte Carlo simulation model to compare alternative organ allocation strategies, accommodating dynamic change...

There are not enough cadaveric kidneys to meet the demands of transplant candidates. The equity and efficiency of alternative organ allocation strategies have not been rigorously compared.
We developed a five-compartment Monte Carlo simulation model to compare alternative organ allocation strategies, accommodating dynamic changes in recipient and d...

We consider a production stage that produces a single item in a make-to-stock manner. Demand for finished goods is stationary. In each time period, an updated vector of demand forecasts over the forecast horizon becomes available for use in production decisions. We model the sequence of forecast update vectors using the Martingale model of forecast...

We model an isolated portion of a competitive supply chain as a M/M/1 make-to-stock queue. The retailer carries finished goods inventory to service a Poisson demand process, and specifies a policy for replenishing his inventory from an upstream supplier. The supplier chooses the service rate, i.e., the capacity of his manufacturing facility, which...

We consider a serial inventory system with N stages. The material flows from an outside supplier to stage N, then to stage N - 1, etc., and finally to stage 1 where random customer demand arises. Each stage replenishes a stage-specific inventory position according to a stage-specific reorder point/order quantity policy. Two variations of this polic...

Objective
To evaluate four strategies for monitoring plasma HIV RNA levels and/or resistance genotypes to decide when to change antiretroviral therapy. The strategies include: (i) 1997 guidelines recommending a therapy switch when plasma RNA exceeds a threshold level; (ii) a viral load policy, using a fixed increase in viral load as the trigger; (i...

## Citations

... These policies are unsuitable for systems with abandonments, as they allow for unnecessary abandonments to occur. When incorporating abandonments, policies that wait before performing matchings can only be asymptotically optimal if the abandonment rate is asymptotically negligible [2,4]. Other recent works in the matching system that considers abandonments do so in continuous time and with a mix of items with zero and infinite patience [12,15]. ...

... This setting assumes that the expected reward of arms (as a function of arm features) lies in a known function class. The best arm identification in this setting exploits this additional structure with bounds that depend on the complexity of the reward model class (see e.g., Soare et al., 2014;Xu et al., 2018;Jedra and Proutiere, 2020;Kazerouni and Wein, 2021). ...

... even if endorsed by health experts, like postponing elections indefinitely ( Arceneaux et al., 2020 ). Elections are gatherings of vital importance for the functioning of democratic countries, and their postponement or cancellation can undermine the citizens' trust in the political institutions of a country ( Levitsky and Ziblatt, 2018 ). Despite this fact, public health concerns related to have resulted in at least 78 countries postponing national or regional elections between February 2020 and July 2021, while more than 128 countries still held polls as previously scheduled ( Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), 2021 ). ...

... These explosions in the demand for resources require updated strategic plans, followed by tactical and operational decisions to carry out those plans. Many of the publications over this period have examined alternative plans and methods to address the strains on system resources [10][11][12][13]. ...

... As a result, suspect DNA from SAKs now had the potential to be identified upon testing and entry into CODIS (Berson, 2009). Even more, testing costs had dropped to $500-1700 a kit by the early 2000s (Dickson, 2014;Wang & Wein, 2018). On their face, these changes would appear to greatly increase the value of SAKs to police investigations. ...

... Wang, Beggs-Cassin & Wein (2017) have some suggestions to optimize the ballistic imagine operation for laboratories that are dealing with large numbers of cartridge cases, but have limited resources. The number of hits seems to increase by prioritizing evidence over test shots, and by grouping cartridge cases by their caliber and allocating most of the capacity to the higher ranking calibers [57,58]. ...

... However, other factors, such as genetics and environment can also influence the success of FMT. It has been suggested that remission rates can be improved by pooling donor stools together, thereby limiting patients' chances of receiving only ineffective stools (Kazerouni and Wein, 2017). This approach was studied in a cohort of 85 patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis in Australia (Paramsothy et al., 2017a), and patients in the treatment group received a mixture of stools containing