Lawrence G. Calhoun's research while affiliated with University of North Carolina at Charlotte and other places

Publications (157)

Article
This study examined the relationships between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) across 10 countries and assessed the factorial invariance of the standardized inventory assessing PTG and PTD, the PTGDI-X, the expansion of the PTGI-X (Tedeschi et al., 2017). We also investigated the roles of social and cognitive factors...
Book
Posttraumatic Growth reworks and overhauls the seminal 2006 Handbook of Posttraumatic Growth. It provides a wide range of answers to questions concerning knowledge of posttraumatic growth (PTG) theory, its synthesis and contrast with other theories and models, and its applications in diverse settings. The book starts with an overview of the history...
Article
This study evaluates the effect of a psycho-educational intervention about posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese adolescents. Study 1 examined whether those who learned about changes related to stress would report higher growth than those who did not. Study 2 examined whether those who learned about PTG perceived more growth than those who lear...
Article
Spiritual Change (SC) is one of 5 domains of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) assesses this area of growth with only 2 items, one focusing on religiosity and the other focusing on spiritual understanding. The addition of 4 newly developed spiritual-existential change (SEC) items, creating an expanded PTG...
Article
Posttraumatic growth is a process and an outcome found in the struggle with highly stressful events. In this process, survivors of trauma recognize important positive personal transformations, yielding five types of changes: a greater appreciation of life, a sense of personal strength, better relationships with others, new possibilities in life, an...
Chapter
Trauma can be understood as a set of circumstances that not only produces immediate physiological challenges to the systems that help people deal with danger and survive, but also violate people's views of the world and their place in it. The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as moral injury fits within a broader framework of underst...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people livi...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the literature that shows that growth occurs in the aftermath of a variety of life crises, and summarizes ways of understanding how this growth occurs. The chapter coined the term posttraumatic growth to describe the experience of positive changes that occur as the result of the struggle with major life crises. The kinds of pos...
Article
Posttraumatic growth (PTG), psychological growth as a result of personal struggle with trauma, is hypothesized to occur when a highly stressful life event, such as a natural disaster, forces people to reexamine their core beliefs. To the authors' knoweldge, the present study is the first investigation in Japanese people examining the role of core b...
Article
Jayawickreme and Blackie provided an interesting look at post-traumatic growth and personality characteristics. Unfortunately, their paper perpetuated some misunderstandings about work in the area and relied heavily on one methodologically problematic study in their critique. The target article failed to reflect the current evidence concerning self...
Article
The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) is the most commonly used measure of positive psychological change that can result from negotiating a traumatic experience. While the PTGI has strong internal reliability, validity studies are still sparse. The present research details trauma survivors' understanding of items comprising the PTGI in order to...
Article
Disruptions to core beliefs, rumination, and finding meaning have been associated with the development of posttraumatic distress (Janoff–Bulman, 1992, 2006). These variables have also contributed to the development of posttraumatic growth, which is the experience of a positive life change as the result of a traumatic experience (Tedeschi & Calhoun,...
Article
In this chapter, the authors assume that the reader is familiar with the concept of posttraumatic growth (PTG) and they will focus on the application of this concept in clinical work. In earlier discussions of these applications, the authors have made it clear that they are not proposing a new form of treatment, but rather looking for ways to integ...
Article
There is evidence suggesting that the struggle with highly challenging circumstances (e.g., earthquakes, fires, major transportation accidents) can produce significant positive changes for persons coping with trauma. The authors have termed these changes "posttraumatic growth" (PTG). PTG is positive change that an individual experiences as a result...
Chapter
The Concept of Posttraumatic GrowthThe Process of Posttraumatic GrowthWays Clinicians can Facilitate the Process of Posttraumatic GrowthConclusion
Article
Full-text available
A model of the processes leading to posttraumatic growth and to life satisfaction following exposure to trauma was tested. Two types of repeated thought, deliberate and intrusive, posttraumatic symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and meaning in life, were assessed as predictors of general life satisfaction. Challenges to core beliefs were shown to be r...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing body of literature examining posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) in adult populations from various cultures, the emerging research base involving youth includes few studies exploring the construct in youth from Eastern cultures. This study examined PTG and perceived growth in the abs...
Article
Full-text available
An acute leukemia diagnosis can be an extremely stressful experience for most patients. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is positive psychological change experienced following a struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. The current study is the first longitudinal investigation of predictors of PTG and distress in adult acute leukemia patients...
Chapter
A Surprise AttackPlan for TreatmentPosttraumatic Clinical Work with JaneWhat This Case Tells UsA Surprise Result
Article
Working with Real People Facing Real Crises: Recommendations for Clinical WorkFuture Research
Article
Culture and PTGSociocultural Influences and PTG: Distal InfluencesThe Model of Posttraumatic GrowthCultural Influences and the PTG Model: Specific ConsiderationsA Clinical Footnote: The Proximate Culture of Psychotherapy
Article
The relationship of challenge to core beliefs, rumination, disclosure, and some sociocultural elements to posttraumatic growth (PTG) were explored. Participants were college students enrolled in psychology classes who reported having experienced a stressful event within the past 2 years and who completed measures in groups. Findings suggested that...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theory and research have drawn attention to the need to better understand the positive changes, termed posttraumatic growth, that often occur in bereaved individuals; even as negative emotions related to grief persist. We describe five dimensions of posttraumatic growth and present a model for understanding how the loss of a close other can...
Article
Full-text available
Positive changes (posttraumatic growth [PTG]) and negative changes (posttraumatic depreciation [PTD]) were assessed using the PTGI-42 with persons reporting changes from a stressful event. PTG and PTD were uncorrelated, and PTG was much greater than PTD. PTG was positively related to disruption of core beliefs and recent deliberate rumination and n...
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = .27, 95% CI = .21 −.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to identif...
Article
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Central Gulf Coast region of the United States. The storm and its aftermath resulted in the most severe, damaging, and costly natural and unnatural disaster in the nation's history—as evidenced by the size of the region affected, the loss of life, the extensive destruction of property, a...
Article
This study examined the effects of disclosure about a highly stressful event and perceived social reactions to the disclosure on posttraumatic growth (PTG) and distress. Participants (395 Japanese university students) reported on their most traumatic life event that had occurred less than 10 years previously. Those who had disclosed about their eve...
Article
Full-text available
A short form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF) is described. A sample of 1351 adults who had completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in previous studies provided the basis for item selection. The resulting 10-item form includes two items from each of the five subscales of the original PTGI, selected on the basis of loading...
Article
Full-text available
Posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) was examined among children impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R) assessed PTG at two time points, 12 (T1) and 22 months (T2) posthurricane. The PTGI-C-R demonstrated good reliability. Analyses focused on t...
Article
Full-text available
Stressful events that disrupt the assumptive world can force people to make cognitive changes to accommodate these highly stressful experiences. As fundamental assumptions are reestablished, many people report changes and experiences that reflect posttraumatic growth (PTG). The present research describes the development of the Core Beliefs Inventor...
Article
To examine the role of rumination in the aftermath of traumatic/stressful events, posttraumatic growth (PTG) and the four types of rumination (i.e., intrusive rumination soon after the event, intrusive rumination recently, deliberate rumination soon after the event, and deliberate rumination recently) were assessed retrospectively for participants...
Article
Full-text available
Will people report both posttraumatic growth and depreciation following a highly stressful event? Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory as the measure of growth, two studies compared responses to equivalent items designed to assess depreciation. Both types of change were reported, but growth was reported at much higher levels, and there was no c...
Article
This study examined the relationships between rumination, distress and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Seventy-one bereaved Japanese university students completed the PTG Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and a rumination scale. Three models, with variables including intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, distress, and PTG, were teste...
Article
There are different views about the dimensions of the positive changes resulting from the struggle with traumatic events. Using Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) data reported by participants (N = 926) experiencing a variety of traumatic events, five models of the underlying structure of the PTGI were tested via confirmatory factor analyses to...
Article
Relationships among attachment styles, conflict styles and humour styles were examined in the context of romantic relationships. Each style was assumed to be based upon underlying assumptions about self and others, so relationships among the measures were predicted. A model assuming that the relationship of attachment styles to relationship satisfa...
Article
Responding to D. E. Balk (20042. Balk , D. E. ( 2004 ). Recovery following bereavement: An examination of the concept . Death Studies , 28 , 361 – 374 . [Taylor & Francis Online], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) about use of the term recovery to describe bereavement outcome, the authors take the view that this term is inadequate....
Article
Full-text available
To determine the underlying factor structure of the Japanese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-J), a principal components analysis was performed on data from 312 Japanese undergraduate students who reported growth due to their most traumatic event within the last 5 years. Results showed the PTGI-J has high internal consistency and...
Article
In a response to an article by Hobfoll and colleagues, theoretical and empirical considerations regarding the concept of posttraumatic growth are reviewed. It is noted that posttraumatic growth should be assessed as such, with measures developed specifically to address this construct; that it follows a challenge to and re-examination of core belief...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the psychological impact of personal traumatic events in a sample of 30 Judeo-Christian clergy. Use of religion-based coping strategies following a difficult life event was expected to facilitate posttraumatic growth, and posttraumatic growth was, in turn, expected to result in greater current well being. Both predictions we...
Article
The negative consequences of intimate partner violence are well documented. This study investigated the possibility that some survivors of intimate partner violence may also experience posttraumatic growth because of their struggle with this highly stressful circumstance. In addition, the relationships between posttraumatic growth and relationship...
Article
Coping with grief can include, in part, trying either to assimilate the loss into the existing worldview and its spiritual and religious components, or changing those components in congruence with the new reality. This spiritual or religious challenge can lead to loss of faith and a loss of spiritual meaning, but it can also provide a struggle that...
Article
This study extends L. G. Calhoun and R. G. Tedeschi's (1998) model of posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma, to children by exploring the construct among youngsters who experienced Hurricane Floyd and the subsequent flooding. Despite burgeoning interest in PTG, few studies have examined the phenomenon a...
Article
This special issue is devoted to research on posttraumatic growth. Articles vary in their focus but shed light on the understanding of this phenomenon through of a variety of samples, variables related to posttraumatic growth, and methods of study. Topics include a case of chemical poisoning, the impact of trauma on individuals and organizations, c...
Article
Previous investigations of the impact of trauma-related psychotherapy on clinicians have emphasized the hazardous nature of such work. The present study is the first exploration of clinicians’ perceptions of trauma work to investigate in depth the positive consequences of working with trauma survivors. A sample of 21 psychotherapists participated i...
Article
Henriques' effort to develop a unified theory for psychology represents a noble quest (this issue). Even if the quest fails, the effort itself may produce benefits for psychology. This article focuses first on some general comments on the unified theory, with some suggestions about elements that seem desirable in the theory and some elements that m...
Article
This article describes the concept of posttraumatic growth, its conceptual foundations, and supporting empirical evidence. Posttraumatic growth is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life crises. It is manifested in a variety of ways, including an increased appreciation for life in gener...
Article
In response to comments on our model of posttraumatic growth, we consider the validity of reports of posttraumatic growth, appropriate methodology to use to assess posttraumatic growth, and its relation with other variables that appear to bear a resemblance to posttraumatic growth (e.g., well-being and psychological adjustment). The potentially imp...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the concept of posttraumatic growth. its conceptual founda- tions, a/id supporting empirical evidence. Posttraumatic growth is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life cri- ses. It is manifested in a variety ofways, including an increased appreciationfor life in ge...
Article
Research carried out with survivors of a variety of different traumata indicates that a large proportion of them perceive positive changes in themselves after the trauma. This study investigated whether posttraumatic growth also could be found among people who had been exposed to particularly severe traumata over a period of several years (1991 to...
Article
Full-text available
Having a high sense of humor has been found to be a general social asset, but there has been no assessment of the specific qualities that are assumed to be associated with variations in sense of humor. Two studies were conducted to examine the assumptions observers would make about the personal qualities associated with varying levels of sense of h...
Article
The present study examined the degree to which event related rumination, a quest orientation to religion, and religious involvement is related to posttraumatic growth. Fifty-four young adults, selected based on prescreening for experience of a traumatic event, completed a measure of event related ruminations, the Quest Scale, an index of religious...
Article
This research explored the differences between women who had left abusive dating relationships and those who were still involved on factors derived from the Investment Model variables (Rusbult & Martz, 1995), Feminine Gender Role Stress (FGRS; Gillespie & Eisler, 1992), and attribution of responsibility for a typical violent event. On Investment Mo...
Article
Full-text available
Humor, in the form of a humorous videotape, was presented before or after exposure to an unpleasant videotape designed to arouse negative emotions. The effectiveness of the humor treatment was compared to a nonhumorous treatment to see which mood states and negative emotions were affected by the humor. The results indicate that the humor treatment...
Article
Gender and ethnic differences in the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem were examined to assess the degree to which these variables change in relation to each other over time. Difference scores (between Time 1 and Time 2, 1 week apart) were obtained using the Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the Body Esteem Scale (S. L. Fran...