Lawrence C. Long's research while affiliated with North Carolina State University and other places

Publications (3)

Article
Full-text available
Predation by natural enemies is important for regulating herbivore abundance and herbivory. Theory predicts that complex habitats support more natural enemies, which exert top-down control over arthropods and therefore can reduce herbivory. However, it is unclear if theory developed in other more natural systems similarly apply to predation by vert...
Article
Urban landscapes are characterized by high proportions of impervious surface resulting in higher temperatures than adjacent natural landscapes. In some cities, like those at cooler latitudes, trees may benefit from warmer urban temperatures, but trees in many cities are beset with problems like drought stress and increased herbivory. What drives pa...
Article
Trees are important components of urban landscapes because of the ecosystem services they provide. However, the effects of urbanization, particularly high temperatures, can benefit chronic insect pests and threaten ecosystem services offered by urban trees. Urban forest fragments are an often-overlooked component of the greater urban forest which m...

Citations

... We found a significant negative correlation between predator attack rate and insect herbivory measured later in the season. This finding suggests a potential relationship between herbivory and predation in urban environments (Faeth et al., 2005; but see Long & Frank, 2020). However, we refrain from concluding that predation was the main driver of insect herbivory for several reasons. ...
... Fifty per cent of scales die within 5 hours at −15.2 • C which frequently occurs at the northern edge of their range (Frank andJust 2020, Just and. However, the urban heat island effect allows gloomy scales to persist on urban trees north of their previously recorded range (Just et al. 2019, Frank andJust 2020). The frequency and rate of freezing define the geographic extent and severity of black pineleaf scale outbreaks in the Pacific Northwest, US (Edmunds 1973). ...
... Analyses of insect herbivory patterns on woody and herbaceous plants along urban-rural gradients have received increasing attention in recent decades (Dreistadt et al., 1990;Kozlov et al., 2017;Moreira et al., 2019;Raupp et al., 2010). Several studies measured the response of a single herbivore species (Dale & Frank, 2014a;Long et al., 2019;Meineke et al., 2013;Parsons & Frank, 2019;Shrewsbury & Raupp, 2000;Turrini et al., 2016), responses of different herbivore feeding guilds (Cuevas-Reyes et al., 2013;Kozlov et al., 2017;Moreira et al., 2019), or diversity and abundance of herbivores (Fenoglio et al., 2020;Rickman & Connor, 2003;Shrewsbury & Raupp, 2006;Youngsteadt et al., 2015) in urban compared to rural environments (but see Parsons & Frank, 2019). Although there seems to be a general tendency toward reduced insect abundance and diversity in urban settings compared to rural environments (Baldock, 2020;Blair & Launer, 1997;Fenoglio et al., 2020), there is no consensus on whether insect herbivory is higher (Christie & Hochuli, 2005;Moreira et al., 2019) or lower (Kozlov et al., 2017;Moreira et al., 2019;Nuckols & Connor, 1995) in urban compared to rural habitats. ...