Laura A Schieve's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (236)

Article
Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD), a group of inherited blood cell disorders that primarily affects Black or African American persons, is associated with severe complications and a >20-year reduction in life expectancy. In 2014, an expert panel convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute issued recommendations to prevent or red...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD), a group of inherited disorders, is a bellwether example of a chronic, disabling, life-threatening condition that is disproportionately underserved by the medical community. SCD is arguably associated with the most significant health inequities of both the 20th and 21st centuries. Although these inequities, which are linke...
Article
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Increasing evidence exists for an association between early life fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and several neurodevelopmental outcomes, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the association between PM2.5 and adaptive and cognitive function remains poorly understood. Participants included 658 children with ASD, 771 with a non...
Article
Women and girls with bleeding disorders experience abnormal and excessive bleeding that can negatively impact their overall health and quality of life. In this report, we provide an overview of the biology, types, clinical care, and state of the science related to bleeding disorders in girls and women and describe Centers for Disease Control and Pr...
Article
Background: Current knowledge about parental reasons for allowing child participation in research comes mainly from clinical trials. Fewer data exist on parents' motivations to enrol children in observational studies. Objectives: Describe reasons parents of preschoolers gave for participating in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a U...
Article
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Background: Population-based data about cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) are limited. Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology of CVST in the United States. Patients/methods: Three administrative data systems were analyzed: the 2018 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS) the 2019 IBM MarketScan Commer...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased risk of poor health outcomes from respiratory infections, including COVID-19 illness. We used US death data to investigate changes in SCD-related mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated annual age- and quarter-adjusted SCD-related mortality rates for 2014-2020. We estima...
Article
The heterogeneous nature of children with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) makes it difficult to identify risk factors and effective treatment options. We sought to identify behavioral and developmental features that best define the heterogeneity and homogeneity in 2–5-year-old children classified with ASD and subthreshold ASD characteris...
Article
The association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with self-reported maternal cannabis use from 3 months pre-conception to delivery (“peri-pregnancy”) was assessed in children aged 30–68 months, born 2003 to 2011. Children with ASD (N = 1428) were compared to children with other developmental delays/disorders (DD, N = 1198) and population controls...
Article
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Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This multi-site study evaluated the prevalence of GIS in preschool-aged children with ASD/(n = 672), with other developmental delays (DD)/(n = 938), and children in the general population (POP)/(n = 851). After adjusting for covariates, children i...
Article
Background: Personswith sickle cell disease (SCD) face increased risks for pulmonary and infection-related complications. This study examines influenza vaccination coverage and estimates influenza-related morbidity among Medicaid enrollees with and without SCD. Procedure: Influenza vaccination coverage and hospitalizations related to influenza a...
Article
Objective Maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) are examined in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in offspring in a multisite case–control study. Methods Maternal prepregnancy BMI, obtained from medical records or self-report, was categorized as underweight, normal weight, overw...
Article
Background and aims Research in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has found sex-based differences in behavioral, developmental, and diagnostic outcomes. These findings have not been consistently replicated in preschool-aged children. We examined sex-based differences in a large sample of 2–5-year-old...
Article
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Background The present study aims to clarify relationships of maternal psychiatric conditions and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) use during preconception and pregnancy with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. Methods We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multisite case-control study conducted in...
Article
Background and objectives: Pica, the repeated ingestion of nonfood items, can be life-threatening. Although case reports describe pica in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID), there has been little systematic study of pica prevalence. We assessed pica in children 30 to 68 months of age (median = 55.4 months)...
Article
Background Pica, the repeated ingestion of nonfood items, can result in gastrointestinal (GI) outcomes. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DDs) are disproportionately affected by both pica and GI symptoms. Study of the inter-relationship between pica, GI symptoms, and ASD/DD is limited. Objective/Hyp...
Chapter
This custom collection consists of important studies, expert recommendations, and practice pathways that inform pediatricians on practical ways to improve the lives of children with ASD and their families. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-autism-spectrum-disorder-paperback/
Chapter
This custom collection consists of important studies, expert recommendations, and practice pathways that inform pediatricians on practical ways to improve the lives of children with ASD and their families. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-autism-spectrum-disorder-paperback/
Article
Problem/condition: Hemophilia is an X-linked genetic disorder that primarily affects males and results in deficiencies in blood-clotting proteins. Hemophilia A is a deficiency in factor VIII, and hemophilia B is a deficiency in factor IX. Approximately one in 5,000 males are born with hemophilia, and hemophilia A is about four times as common as h...
Article
This article describes a significant decline in emergency department visits for acute life‐threatening conditions during the COVID‐19 pandemic, suggesting that patients may be delaying or avoiding care or unable to access care during the pandemic.
Article
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) disproportionately affects Black or African American persons in the United States and can cause multisystem organ damage and reduced lifespan. Among 178 persons with SCD in the United States who were reported to an SCD-coronavirus disease case registry, 122 (69%) were hospitalized and 13 (7%) died.
Article
Previous studies investigating the association between dysmorphology and cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited by the binary classification of dysmorphology and lack of comparison groups. We assessed the association using a continuous measure of dysmorphology severi...
Article
On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Subsequently, states enacted stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and reduce the burden on the U.S. health care system. CDC* and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Serv...
Article
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To examine the association between neonatal jaundice and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD developmental disorder (DD). We analyzed data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a US multisite, case-control study conducted from 2007 to 2011. Developmental assessment classified children aged 2–5 years into: ASD (n = 636), DD (n = 777),...
Article
Objectives: (1) Report the occurrence of wandering, or leaving a supervised space, among children with confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental delay (DD) with a previous but unconfirmed ASD diagnosis (DDprevASD), DD without a previous ASD diagnosis, and a population comparison group (POP) at an age when wandering is no longer...
Article
Background ASD-related services can improve outcomes for children, but less is known about service outside of school settings during preschool age. We aimed to describe amount and category of community-based service use among 3–5-year-old children with ASD and examine differences by health insurance. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 792 chi...
Article
Background: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between prenatal and early postnatal air pollution exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, findings differ by pollutant and developmental window. Objectives: We examined associations between early life exposure to PM2.5 and ozone in association with ASD across multiple US...
Article
Background Evidence about injury management and outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. Method Cross-sectional analyses included children aged 30–68 months with at least one medically attended injury. Standardized diagnostic instruments determined ASD cases. Parent-reported injury treatments and outcomes were examined...
Article
Objectives: To study the national prevalence of 10 developmental disabilities in US children aged 3 to 17 years and explore changes over time by associated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, using the National Health Interview Survey. Methods: Data come from the 2009 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representati...
Article
Background: To examine whether neighborhood deprivation modifies the association between early life air pollution exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we used resources from a multisite case-control study, the Study to Explore Early Development. Methods: Cases were 674 children with confirmed ASD born in 2003-2006; controls were 855 rand...
Article
Maternal infection and fever during pregnancy have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, studies have not been able to separate the effects of fever itself from the impact of a specific infectious organism on the developing brain. We utilized data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a case–contr...
Article
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We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD featur...
Article
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Objective To compare prevalence estimates obtained by the ADDM cerebral palsy surveillance method to other administrative or diagnostic indications of cerebral palsy.IntroductionCerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common cause of motor disability in children. CP registries often rely on administrative data such as CP diagnoses or International Classifi...
Article
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The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3–6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Devel...
Article
Previous studies have shown complications of pregnancy, often examined in aggregate, to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results for specific complications, such as maternal diabetes and hypertension, have not been uniformly consistent and should be investigated independently in relation to ASD in a large community‐based sample. T...
Article
Studies report inconsistent findings on the relationship between ASD and breastfeeding. We explored associations between ASD and breastfeeding initiation (yes/no) and duration (months categorized in tertiles) in the Study to Explore Early Development, a community‐based case–control study in six sites in the Unites States. We adjusted for various ch...
Article
: media-1vid110.1542/5984243260001PEDS-VA_2018-0492Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Sleep problems can impact daytime behavior, quality of life, and overall health. We compared sleep habits in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays and disorders and in children from the general population (POP). Methods: We in...
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Table 2. The "Time of use" should be the column header with the corresponding row with "N = 126" belonging to the "Peri-pregnancy" row. The "Preconception" row should be the row with "N = 17", "Trimester 1" should be the "N = 29" row, "Trimester 2" should be the "N = 25" row,...
Article
Most prior studies examining maternal pre‐pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in relation to offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reported an association, though findings are not uniform and few have also examined gestational weight gain (GWG). Therefore, we examined both in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi‐site case–control st...
Article
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: media-1vid110.1542/5839990273001PEDS-VA_2017-4161Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis among US children aged 3 to 17 years as well as their treatment and health care experiences using the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Methods: The 2016 NSCH...
Article
Immune system abnormalities have been widely reported among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may increase the risk of childhood infections. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multisite case‐control study of children aged 30–69 months, born in 2003–2006. Cases are children previously diagnosed and newly identified...
Conference Paper
Evidence about injury outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. We compared injury treatments and outcomes in children with ASD versus typically-developing (TD) controls. Children aged 30–68 months were recruited from education and health providers and randomly sampled birth certificates. Cases were determined using estab...
Article
Background: The 2003 revision of the US Standard Certificate of Live Birth (birth certificate) and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) are important for maternal weight research and surveillance. We examined quality of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and component variables from these sources. Methods...
Article
Objective: To assess contributing factors to increased obesity risk, by comparing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays/disorders, and general population controls in weight status, and to examine associations between weight status and presence of co-occurring medical, behavioral, developmental, or psychiatric condition...
Article
Background: Autism spectrumdisorder (ASD) commonly presents with co-occurring medical conditions (CoCs). Little is known about patterns in CoCs in a time of rising ASD prevalence. Aims: To describe trends in number and type of documented CoCs in 8-year-old children with ASD. Methods: We used Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Net...
Article
Opioid use during pregnancy is associated with suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about child neurodevelopmental outcomes. We examined associations between maternal opioid prescriptions preconception to delivery (peri-pregnancy) and child’s risk of ASD, developmental delay/disorder (DD) with no ASD features, or ASD/DD with autism featur...
Article
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Background Participation in epidemiologic studies has declined, raising concerns about selection bias. While estimates derived from epidemiologic studies have been shown to be robust under a wide range of scenarios, additional empiric study is needed. The Georgia Study to Explore Early Development (GA SEED), a population-based case–control study of...
Article
We examined associations between child body mass index at 2–5 years and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and rapid weight gain during infancy in children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delays, or population controls. The Study to Explore Early Development is a multi-site case–control study of children,...
Article
Numerous studies have reported immune system disturbances in individuals with autism and their family members; however, there is considerable variability in findings with respect to the specific immune conditions involved, their timing, and the family members affected and little understanding of variation by autism subphenotype. Using data from the...
Article
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This study explored whether ASD phenotypes in the child were associated with a history of anxiety or depression in the mother. We hypothesized that an ASD profile in children characterized by mild delays and increased rates of dysregulation would be associated with preexisting maternal anxiety or depression. Participants were 672 preschool children...
Article
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We compared the prevalence of various medical and behavioral co-occurring conditions/symptoms between 4- and 8-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from five sites in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network during the 2010 survey year, accounting for sociodemographic differences. Over 95% of children had at least one c...
Article
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The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and 2...
Article
Objective: Mothers of advanced maternal age (AMA) at childbirth (age ≥35 years) may have different perceptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk, independent of sociodemographic factors, that may affect ASD identification. We aimed to estimate associations between AMA and both age of a child's first evaluation noting developmental concerns an...
Article
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Background Several reports have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may shed light on particular biological mechanisms. However, studies of ASD cases versus controls have been limited by post-mortem timing and severely small sample sizes. Reports fro...
Preprint
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Background: Several reports have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may shed light on particular biological mechanisms. However, studies of ASD cases versus controls have been limited by post-mortem timing and severely small sample sizes. Reports fr...
Article
Participant attrition can limit inferences drawn from study results and inflate research costs. We examined factors associated with completion of the Study to Explore Early Development (2007-2011), a multiple-component, case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in preschoolers, conducted in California, Colorado, Georgia, Maryl...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent developmental disorder. Studies indicate that while ASD etiology has a genetic component, the risk is polygenic, with gene-environment interactions being likely. The prenatal period is a critical exposure window for nongenetic risk factors. Previous studies have found positive associations between conge...
Article
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This study examined caregiver-reported medically-attended injuries among 30–68 month old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population (POP) and non-ASD developmental disorders (DD) controls in the Study to Explore Early Development. Injuries were common in ASD cases (32.3%) as well as POP (30.2%) and DD (27.8%) contro...
Article
The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype—a set of sub-clinical characteristics of au...
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Objective: Although data on publicly available special education are informative and offer a glimpse of trends in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and use of educational services, using these data for population-based public health monitoring has drawbacks. Our objective was to evaluate trends in special education eligibility among 8-year-old childr...
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Previous studies of associations between ASD and conception using assisted reproductive technology (ART) are inconsistent and few studies have examined associations with other infertility treatments or infertility disorders. We examined associations between ASD and maternal/paternal infertility disorders and numerous maternal treatments among 1538...
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The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algo...
Article
Lay summary: We investigated whether the amount of time between pregnancies was associated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disabilities (DD) in children. ASD was increased in second and later-born children who were conceived less than 18 months or 60 or more months after the mother's previous birth. Other DDs were not associa...
Article
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Lay summary: Gluten free diets (GFDs) are commonly used as an alternative therapy for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the effectiveness is still uncertain which makes it important to know who tries this type of diet. We found that one in five preschool aged children with ASD had ever used a GFD. Children with gastrointestinal conditions a...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis relies on parent-reported and clinician-observed instruments. Sometimes, results between these instruments disagree. The broader autism phenotype (BAP) in parent-reporters may be associated with discordance. Study to Explore Early Development data (N = 712) were used to address whether mothers with BAP and c...
Article
Objectives: To describe the association between indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the United States during the period 2002 to 2010, when overall ASD prevalence among children more than doubled, and to determine whether SES disparities account for ongoing racial and ethnic disparities i...
Article
Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: We assessed the association between maternal alcohol use and ASD in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born between September 2003 and August...
Article
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We compared early-diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (defined as diagnosis by age 4 years) between the 2002 and 2006 birth cohorts, in five sites of the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. In the 2002 cohort, the prevalence/1000 of early-diagnosed ASD was half the 8-year-old prevalence (7.2 vs. 14.7, prevalence ratio [PR...