# Lars K. Rasmussen's research while affiliated with KTH Royal Institute of Technology and other places

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## Publications (267)

Belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a widely used message-passing method for inference in graphical models. BP on loop-free graphs converges in linear time. But for graphs with loops, BP's performance is uncertain, and the understanding of its solution is limited. To gain a better understanding of BP in general graphs, we derive an interpretable b...

Region-based free energy was originally proposed for generalized belief propagation (GBP) to improve loopy belief propagation (loopy BP). In this paper, we propose a neural network based energy model for inference in general Markov random fields (MRFs), which directly minimizes the region-based free energy defined on region graphs. We term our mode...

In this paper, we investigate jointly optimized resource allocation with hybrid multiple access in energy-efficient Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), where some devices (e.g., those for critical control devices) have higher transmission priority and stable energy supply while some devices (e.g., those for comprehensive sensors) may not. We cons...

In this paper, we study the characteristics of dominant interference power with directional reception in a random network modelled by a Poisson Point Process. Additionally, the Laplace functional of cumulative interference excluding the $n$ dominant interferers is also derived, which turns out to be a generalization of omni-directional reception an...

Empirical results show that spatial factors such as distance, population density and communication range affect our social activities, also reflected by the development of ties in social networks. This motivates the need for social network models that take these spatial factors into account. Therefore, in this paper we propose a gravity-low-based g...

Hidden Markov model (HMM) has been successfully used for sequential data modeling problems. In this work, we propose to power the modeling capacity of HMM by bringing in neural network based generative models. The proposed model is termed as GenHMM. In the proposed GenHMM, each HMM hidden state is associated with a neural network based generative m...

Belief propagation (BP) can do exact inference in loop-free graphs, but its performance could be poor in graphs with loops, and the understanding of its solution is limited. This work gives an interpretable belief propagation rule that is actually minimization of a localized $\alpha$-divergence. We term this algorithm as $\alpha$ belief propagation...

We propose two neural network based mixture models in this article. The proposed mixture models are explicit in nature. The explicit models have analytical forms with the advantages of computing likelihood and efficiency of generating samples. Computation of likelihood is an important aspect of our models. Expectation-maximization based algorithms...

Discontinuous reception (DRX) techniques have successfully been proposed for energy savings in 4G radio access systems, which are deployed on legacy 2GHz spectrum bands with signal features of omni-directional propagation. In upcoming 5G systems, higher frequency spectrum bands will also be utilized. Unfortunately higher frequency bands encounter m...

We investigate the use of entropy-regularized optimal transport (EOT) cost in developing generative models to learn implicit distributions. Two generative models are proposed. One uses EOT cost directly in an one-shot optimization problem and the other uses EOT cost iteratively in an adversarial game. The proposed generative models show improved pe...

We consider optimized cooperation in joint orthogonal multiple access and non-orthogonal multiple access in industrial cognitive networks, in which lots of devices may have to share spectrum and some devices (e.g., those for critical control devices) have higher transmission priority, known as primary users. We consider one secondary transmitter (l...

Empirical results show that spatial factors such as distance, population density and communication range affect our social activities, also reflected by the development of ties in social networks. This motivates the need for social network models that take these spatial factors into account. Therefore, in this paper we propose a gravity-low-based g...

We consider a cognitive radio network where a primary and a secondary transmitter, respectively, communicate a message to their primary and secondary receivers over a packet-based wireless link, using a joint automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) error control scheme. The secondary transmitter assists in the retransmission of the primary message, which im...

We consider a distributed learning setup where a sparse signal is estimated over a network. Our main interest is to save communication resource for information exchange over the network and reduce processing time. Each node of the network uses a convex optimization based algorithm that provides a locally optimum solution for that node. The nodes ex...

In this work, targeting, e.g., future generation cellular, microwave-links, or optical fiber systems, we propose a new geometric shaping design for golden angle modulation (GAM) based on a (double) truncated Gaussian input distribution. The design improves the mutual information (MI), and the peak-to-average power ratio, over the full signal-to-noi...

We investigate an existing distributed algorithm for learning sparse signals or data over networks. The algorithm is iterative and exchanges intermediate estimates of a sparse signal over a network. This learning strategy using exchange of intermediate estimates over the network requires a limited communication overhead for information transmission...

The problem of quantizing a circularly-symmetric complex Gaussian random variable is considered. For this purpose, we design two non-uniform quantizers, a high-rate-, and a Lloyd-Max-, quantizer that are both based on the (golden angle) spiral-phyllotaxis packing principle. We find that the proposed schemes have lower mean-square error distortion c...

In this paper, an intelligently cooperative communication network with cognitive users is considered, where in a primary system and a secondary system, respectively, a message is communicated to their respective receiver over a packet-based wireless link. The secondary system assists in the transmission of the primary message employing network codi...

In this article, we develop a greedy algorithm for solving the problem of sparse learning over a right stochastic network in a distributed manner. The nodes iteratively estimate the sparse signal by exchanging a weighted version of their individual intermediate estimates over the network. We provide a restricted-isometry-property (RIP)-based theore...

We design a generalized fusion algorithm for compressive sampling (gFACS) reconstruction. In the gFACS algorithm, several individual compressive sampling (CS) reconstruction algorithms participate to achieve a better performance than the individual algorithms. The gFACS algorithm is iterative in nature and its convergence is proved under certain co...

Presentation of some results from arXiv preprint, arXiv:1612.06809, at INRS, Montreal, Canada, 2017-01-17. In this presentation, we present a new, matrix algebraic, performance analysis framework for wireless systems with fading channels based on the matrix exponential (ME)-distribution. The core idea is to use the compact, powerful, and easy-to-us...

In [1], we introduced a new, matrix algebraic, performance analysis framework for wireless systems with fading channels based on the matrix exponential distribution. The main idea was to use the compact, powerful, and easy-to-use, matrix exponential (ME)-distribution for i) modeling the unprocessed channel signal to noise ratio (SNR), ii) exploitin...

We consider the effective capacity performance measure of persistent-and truncated-retransmission schemes that can involve any combination of multiple transmissions per packet, multiple communication modes, or multiple packet communication. We present a structured unified analytical approach, based on a random walk model and recurrence relation for...

We consider the effective capacity performance measure of persistent- and truncated-retransmission schemes
that can involve any combination of multiple transmissions per packet, multiple communication modes, or multiple packet communication. We present a structured unified analytical approach, based on a random walk model and recurrence relation fo...

The present paper studies the asymptotic performance of multi-hop amplify-and-forward relay multiple-antenna communication channels. Each multi-antenna relay terminal in the considered network amplifies the received signal, sent by a source, and retransmits it upstream towards a destination. Achievable ergodic rates of the relay channel with both j...

We propose a novel performance analysis framework for lossless- and truncated-hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) that enables neat, general, closed-form throughput expressions in a matrix exponential (ME) distribution form. This approach is applicable to all HARQ schemes for which the prob- ability density function of the effective channel can...

We consider an interference network with independent links, whose multi-antenna transmitters have access to an imperfect analog estimate of their local channels. Assuming that the receivers treat the interference as noise, we define the outage rate region as the set of rate-tuples that are achievable with a given probability and we characterize the...

We consider a cognitive radio network scenario where a primary transmitter
and a secondary transmitter, respectively, communicate a message to their
respective primary receiver and secondary receiver over a packet-based wireless
link, using a joint automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) error control scheme. The
secondary transmitter assists in the retrans...

In a standard compressive sampling (CS) setup, we develop a universal algorithm where multiple CS reconstruction algorithms participate and their outputs are fused to achieve a better reconstruction performance. The new method is called universal algorithm for CS (UACS) that is iterative in nature and has a restricted isometry property (RIP) based...

We investigate the erasure floor performance of distributed Luby transform (DLT) codes for transmission within a multi-source, single-relay, and single-destination erasure-link network. In general, Luby transform (LT) codes exhibit a high erasure floor due to poor minimum-distance properties, which can be improved by maximizing the minimum variable...

We consider a downlink cellular communication system with a multi-antenna base station (BS). A regularized zero forcing precoder is employed at the BS to manage the inter-user interference within the cell. Using methods from random matrix theory, we derive a deterministic approximation for the achievable ergodic sum rate, taking into account the ra...

We study a multinode network, where a multiantenna transmitter $text{T}_mathrm{x}$ communicates with its desired receiver $text{R}_mathrm{x}$, whereas a cluster $mathcal{P}triangleq{text{P}_{mathrm{x,n}}, n=1,ldots,N}$ of unintended nodes is disturbed by the $text{T}_mathrm{x}$– $text{R}_mathrm{x} $ (TR) communication. To prevent severe performance...

We consider a dual-hop underlay cognitive radio network with a single transceiver pair, which utilizes an amplify-and-forward relay to establish end-to-end communication. The secondary nodes, i.e., the transmitter and the relay, obey transmit power constraints, which are imposed within the underlay paradigm, to guarantee that the instantaneous peak...

We consider a downlink cellular communication system with a multi-antenna base station (BS). A regularized zero forcing precoder is employed at the BS to manage the inter-user interference within the cell. Using methods from random matrix theory, we derive a deterministic approximation for the achievable ergodic sum rate, taking into account the ra...

Hardware impairments in radio-frequency components of a wireless system cause unavoidable distortions to transmission that are not captured by the conventional linear channel model. In this paper, a "binoisy" single-user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO) relation is considered where the additional distortions are modeled via an additive nois...

In this paper, we consider throughput and rate optimized throughput for large-scale MIMO-(H)ARQ systems in i.i.d. complex Gaussian block fading channels. Exact analysis of large-scale MIMO is generally intractable, yet the field of random matrix theory has provided asymptotic expressions for the instantaneous channel capacity, which we propose for...

Wireless security has become an important issue for modern wireless networks. Due to the broadcast nature of wireless channels possibility of eavesdropping the transmission is provided for non-legitimate receivers. In the present paper, we consider a multi-antenna wiretap channel in a fast-fading environment with only statistical channel state info...

Here we propose an ensemble of non-terminated systematic LDPC convolutional codes with increasing memory, and show that, over the binary erasure channel (BEC), these codes achieve anytime reliability asymptotically when decoded with an expanding-window message-passing decoder. The corresponding anytime exponents are determined through protograph-ba...

With the growth of wireless networks, security has become a fundamental issue
in wireless communications due to the broadcast nature of these networks. In
this work, we consider MIMO wiretap channels in a fast fading environment, for
which the overall performance is characterized by the ergodic MIMO secrecy
rate. Unfortunately, the direct solution...

We consider distributed Luby transform (DLT) codes for efficient packet
transmission in a multi-way relay network, where the links are modeled as
erasure channels. Density evolution is applied for asymptotic performance
analysis, and subsequently used in a linear-programming design framework for
optimizing the degree distribution at the relay in te...

We focus on the design of distributed Luby transform (DLT) codes for erasure
networks with multiple sources and multiple relays, communicating to a single
destination. The erasure-floor performance of DLT codes improves with the
maximum degree of the relay-degree distribution. However, for conventional DLT
codes, the maximum degree is upper-bounded...

We consider a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) block-fading channel with a
general model for channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). The
model covers systems with causal CSIT, where only CSIT of past fading blocks is
available, and predictive CSIT, where CSIT of some future fading blocks is
available. The optimal diversity-multiplexing...

We consider a scenario consisting of a primary and a secondary system, each represented by a pair of a transmitter and a receiver. The secondary transmitter assists in the retransmission of the primary message, which prevents the primary performance from being degraded by allowing the secondary system to access the transmission resources. Two netwo...

This paper examines throughput performance, and its optimization, for lossless and truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) schemes in Gaussian block fading channels. Specifically, ARQ, repetition redundancy, and in part also incremental redundancy-hybrid ARQ, are considered with various diversity schemes. We propose a parameterization-based method...

Hardware impairments in radio-frequency components of a wireless system cause unavoidable distortions to transmission that are not captured by the conventional linear channel model. In this paper, a 'binoisy' single-user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO) relation is considered where the additional distortions are modeled via an additive nois...

Luby transform (LT) codes are a class of rateless codes that automatically adapt their rate to the quality of the communication channel. In the original LT codes, fixed check-node degree distributions are used to combine variable nodes uniformly at random to extend the code graph and produce code bits. Here we propose a different approach: we desig...

The present paper studies the asymptotic performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output relay communication systems. In the corresponding setup, a relay amplifies the signal received from a source, retransmitting it towards a destination, while the direct source-destination link is absent. Ergodic achievable rates under...

A cognitive radio network with a multiple-input single-output secondary link and a multi-antenna primary receiver is considered. The secondary transmitter steers its transmission into the direction of its intended destination in order to maximize the received signal-to-noise ratio. Under this beam-forming strategy, the power allocation is optimized...

This paper characterizes achievable rate regions for the Gaussian partially cognitive interference channel with multiple cognitive pairs ( $K$-PCIFC), where the cognitive transmitters know one part of the primary transmitter's message. We explore a novel methodology using the deterministic discrete superposition model (DSM). We find codes and their...

Motivation:
Estimation of bacterial community composition from a high-throughput sequenced sample is an important task in metagenomics applications. As the sample sequence data typically harbors reads of variable lengths and different levels of biological and technical noise, accurate statistical analysis of such data is challenging. Currently pop...

Presence of multiple antennas on both sides of a communication channel promises significant improvements in system throughput and power efficiency. In effect, a new class of large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems has recently emerged and attracted both scientific and industrial attention. To analyze these systems in reali...

This paper analyzes the impact of error propagation on the achievable throughput and throughput-delay tradeoff in wireless networks. It addresses the particular class of multihop routing schemes for parallel unicast that achieve a throughput scaling of Θ(n^{-frac{1}{2}}) per node in a network of n nodes. It is shown that in the finite-block-length...

This paper investigates cooperation for secrecy in cognitive radio networks. In particular, we consider a four-node cognitive scenario where the secondary receiver is treated as a potential eavesdropper with respect to the primary transmission. The cognitive transmitter can help the primary transmission, and it should also ensure that the primary m...

The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation problem is considered for an amplitude modulated known signal in Gaussian noise. The benchmark method is the maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE), whose merits are well-documented in the literature. In this work, an affinely modified version of the MLE (AMMLE) that uniformly outperforms, over all SNR values,...

Base station cooperation in cellular networks has been recently recognized as a key technology for mitigating interference, providing thus significant improvements in the system performance. In this paper, we consider a simple scenario consisting of two one-dimensional cells, where the base stations have fixed locations, while the user terminals ar...

We consider the problem of finding secrecy rate of a multiple-input
multiple-output (MIMO) wire-tap channel. A transmitter, a legitimate receiver,
and an eavesdropper are all equipped with multiple antennas. The channel states
from the transmitter to the legitimate user and to the eavesdropper are assumed
to be known at the transmitter. In this con...

We propose a decode-forward protocol for streaming over a relay network using sequential random tree codes. An achievable bound on the end-to-end error performance is derived. The bound is parameterised by the number of errors occuring at the relay, which is the sum of correlated Bernoulli processes. The bound is useful for determining the achievab...

High capacity requirements in wireless systems can be met, at the network level, by using dense small cell deployments and, at the link level, by improving spectral efficiency via spectrum reuse. In this context, we consider a small-area radio system, e.g. a pico-or femtocell, where a full-duplex access point serves simultaneously two half-duplex d...

The present paper investigates the achievable data rates of multi-hop amplify-and-forward multi-antenna relay channels with arbitrary number of hops K. Each multi-antenna terminal in the system amplifies the received signal and retransmits it upstream. To analyze the ergodic end-to-end mutual information of the system, one has to perform averaging...

We propose an adaptive decoding scheme for Luby Transform (LT) codes over noisy channels which exhibits lower complexity as compared to the conventional LT decoder. The corresponding modified degree distributions have been derived for the low-complexity LT decoder. The complexity and performance comparison demonstrate that the decoding complexity c...

The interference channel (IC) is the basic underlying channel model for many practical multi-terminal communication scenarios. Here, we consider a modified three-user IC with dual-antenna transmitters and receivers where we allow one receiver to have a finite-rate unidirectional link to another receiver. This kind of receiver-to-receiver link may e...

We consider a pair of secondary users that coexist, in a cognitive network, with multiple primary user pairs. The secondary link is supplied with partial network side information (NSI), which comprises message side information and partial channel side information (CSI), available in different levels at both the transmitter and the receiver of the c...

The erasure floor performance of Luby Transform (LT) codes is mainly determined by the minimum variable-node degree. Thus we propose a modified encoding scheme that maximizes the minimum variable-node degree for transmission over binary erasure channels. The proposed scheme leads to an almost-regular variable-node degree distribution. The encoding...