Larry L. Jacoby's research while affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis and other places

Publications (164)

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A number of recent studies have shown that older adults are more susceptible to context-based misperceptions in hearing (Rogers, Jacoby, & Sommers, Psychology and Aging, 27, 33–45, 2012; Sommers, Morton, & Rogers, Remembering: Attributions, Processes, and Control in Human Memory [Essays in Honor of Larry Jacoby], pp. 269–284, 2015) than are young a...
Article
Cognitive control constrains retrieval processing and so restricts what comes to mind as input to the attribution system. We review evidence that older adults, patients with Alzheimer's disease, and people with traumatic brain injury exert less cognitive control during retrieval, and so are susceptible to memory misattributions in the form of drama...
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Change has been described as detrimental for later memory for the original event in research on retroactive interference. Popular accounts of retroactive interference treat learning as the formation of simple associations and explain interference as due to response competition, perhaps along with unlearning or inhibition of the original response. B...
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Dual-process models of episodic retrieval reveal consistent deficits of controlled recollection in aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). In contrast, automatic familiarity is relatively spared. We extend standard dual-process models by showing the importance of a third capture process. Capture produces a failure to attempt recollection, which might ref...
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Most metacognition research has focused on aggregate judgments of overall performance or item-level judgments about performance on particular questions. However, metacognitive judgments at the category level, which have not been as extensively explored, also play a role in students’ study strategies, for example, when students determine what topics...
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Three experiments contrasted recollection of change with differentiation as means of avoiding retroactive interference and proactive interference. We manipulated the extent to which participants looked back to notice change between pairs of cues and targets (A-B, A-D) and measured the effects on later cued recall of either the first or second respo...
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Three experiments examined the issue of whether faces could be better recognized in a simultaneous test format (2- alternative forced choice [2afc]) or a sequential test format (yes-no). all experiments showed that when target faces were present in the test, the simultaneous procedure led to superior performance (area under the roc curve), whether...
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Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms with short definitions of the abstract concepts denoted by those terms) are a common kind of information that students are expected to learn in many domains. A common pedagogical approach for supporting learning of declarative concepts involves presenting students with concrete examples that illustrate how the...
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During political campaigns, candidates often change their positions on controversial issues. Does changing positions create confusion and impair memory for a politician's current position? In 3 experiments, two political candidates held positions on controversial issues in two debates. Across the debates, their positions were repeated, changed, or...
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Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared twice...
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In two experiments, we examined the importance of the detection and recollection of change for list discrimination. Two lists of pairs were presented, with the right-hand member being changed between lists for some pairs. Participants in Experiment 1 were instructed to explicitly indicate when they detected a change between pairs during the present...
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Suppose that you were asked which of two movies you had most recently seen. The results of the experiments reported here suggest that your answer would be more accurate if, when viewing the later movie, you were reminded of the earlier one. In the present experiments, we investigated the role of remindings in recency judgments and cued-recall perfo...
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Despite decades of research focused on the representation of concepts, little is known about the influence of self-regulatory processes when learning natural categories. Such work is vital, as many contexts require self-regulation when we form complex concepts. Previous research has demonstrated that interleaving, as compared to blocking, can impro...
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In three experiments, we examined the role of the detection and recollection of change in proactive effects of memory in a classic A-B, A-D paradigm. Participants studied two lists of word pairs that included pairs repeated across lists (A-B, A-B), pairs with the same cue but a changed response (A-B, A-D) in the second list, and control pairs (A-B,...
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People often use what they know as a basis to estimate what others know. This egocentrism can bias their estimates of others' knowledge. In 2 experiments, we examined whether people can diminish egocentrism when predicting for others. Participants answered general knowledge questions and then estimated how many of their peers would know the answers...
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Impairments in the ability to recollect specific details of personally experienced events are one of the main cognitive changes associated with aging. Cognitive training can improve older adults' recollection. However, little is currently known regarding the neural correlates of these training-related changes in recollection. Prior research suggest...
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The process-dissociation procedure was developed to separate the controlled and automatic contributions of memory. It has spawned the development of a host of new measurement approaches and has been applied across a broad range of fields in the behavioral sciences, ranging from studies of memory and perception to neuroscience and social psychology....
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Results of three experiments revealed that older, as compared to young, adults are more reliant on context when "seeing" a briefly flashed word that was preceded by a prime. In a congruent condition, the prime was the same word as flashed (e.g., DIRT dirt) whereas in an incongruent condition, the prime differed in a single letter from the word that...
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In four experiments, we examined the effects of repetitions and variability on the learning of bird families and metacognitive awareness of such effects. Of particular interest was the accuracy of, and bases for, predictions regarding classification of novel bird species, referred to as category learning judgments (CLJs). Participants studied birds...
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In two experiments testing age differences in the subjective experience of listening, which we call meta-audition, young and older adults were first trained to learn pairs of semantic associates. Following training, both groups were tested on identification of words presented in noise, with the critical manipulation being whether the target item wa...
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Research on the strategic regulation of memory accuracy has focused primarily on monitoring and control processes used to edit out incorrect information after it is retrieved (back-end control). Recent studies, however, suggest that rememberers also enhance accuracy by preventing the retrieval of incorrect information in the first place (front-end...
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Low-frequency (LF) words produce higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates than high-frequency (HF) words. This word frequency mirror pattern has been interpreted within dual-process models of recognition, which assume the contributions of a slower recollective process and a relatively fast-acting familiarity process. In the present experiments,...
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In two experiments, we examined spacing effects on the learning of bird families and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that spacing enhanced learning beyond massed study. These effects were increased by presenting birds in pairs so as to highlight differences among families during study (Experiment 1). Self-allocated stud...
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Prior research suggests that older adults are less likely than young adults to use effective learning strategies during intentional encoding. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether training older adults to use semantic encoding strategies can increase their self-initiated use of these strategies and improve the...
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The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is the finding of attenuated interference for mostly incongruent as compared to mostly congruent items. A debate in the Stroop literature concerns the mechanisms underlying this effect. Noting a confound between proportion congruency and contingency, Schmidt and Besner (2008) suggested that ISPC...
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In three experiments, we examined the mechanisms by which prior experience with proactive interference (PI) diminished its effects. Cued recall tasks conforming to an A-B, A-D paradigm were used to induce PI effects. Experiment 1 showed that reduced PI was not due to a reduction in attention to the source of PI. Experiment 2 revealed that participa...
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Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test tria...
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Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words fol...
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Two experiments examined age-related differences in a misinformation paradigm. Young and elderly participants studied a list of related word pairs (e.g. bed sheet) and were then given a cued-recall test (“bed s_ee_” presented as cues for recall of “sheet”). A ‘prime’ stimulus was presented briefly before each test trial. On congruent trials the pri...
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Results from two experiments revealed that prior experience with proactive interference (PI) diminished PI's effects for both young and older adults. Participants were given two rounds of experience, with different materials, in a situation that produced PI. Comparisons with a control condition showed that the effects of PI on accuracy and on high-...
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Previous studies have indicated that aging is associated with declines in recollection whereas familiarity-based recognition is left largely unaffected. The brain changes underlying these recollection declines are yet not well understood. In the current study we examined the role of white matter integrity as measured by white matter hyperintensitie...
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This study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between aging and the earliest stage of DAT and between APOe4...
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The field of history is premised on the idea that knowledge of our past can inform our behaviors in the future. Indeed, this idea is central to many assumptions within personality, developmental, and clinical psychology. Implicit in this thinking is that history is somehow made up of immutable facts that are set in stone in society's memory. Who, a...
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Multiple levels of control may be used in service of reducing Stroop interference. One is list-wide, whereby interference is reduced strategically in lists that include disproportionately more incongruent trials. A second, item-specific control is observed when proportion congruence is manipulated at the level of items. Item-specific control reduce...
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Previous research suggested that older adults have a specific impairment in remembering verbal associative information, but it is unclear how elaboration and familiarity might influence this deficit in situations that involve perceptual processing. In the present experiments, younger and older participants studied male-female pairs of faces. Partic...
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This article considers methodological issues arising from recent efforts to provide field tests of eyewitness identification procedures. We focus in particular on a field study (Mecklenburg 2006) that examined the "double blind, sequential" technique, and consider the implications of an acknowledged methodological confound in the study. We explain...
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Spaced retrieval is a memory-training technique whereby information is tested at progressively longer delays. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine the effects of spaced retrieval on controlled recollection and automatic influences of memory. In Experiment 1, word pairs were read once, three times, or once and retrieved twice by young...
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Previous reviews of memory and aging, including those in prior volumes of The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, have critically examined the well-documented age-related declines in memory. We examine recent work indicating that variables other than purely cognitive ones may account for at least some of the age-related decline. Next, we explore and...
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Advanced aging is associated with slower and less flexible performance on demanding cognitive tasks. Here we used rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore differences between young (n = 65) and older adults (n = 75) during memory retrieval. Methods were optimized to afford exploration of both amplitude and timing differe...
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Probabilistic retroactive interference (RI) refers to the interfering effects of intermixing presentations of an earlier studied response (A-B) with presentations of a competing response (A-D). As an example, for a 2/3 condition, a cue word was presented with its earlier studied response twice and its competing response once during the interference...
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The authors examined whether participants can shift their criterion for recognition decisions in response to the probability that an item was previously studied. Participants in 3 experiments were given recognition tests in which the probability that an item was studied was correlated with its location during the test. Results from all 3 experiment...
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This chapter first discusses the nature of memory illusions, drawing on classic work indicating that memory, like perception, results from the construction of experience. Next, the authors examine approaches to the subjective experience of memory, highlighting both quantitative and qualitative factors that influence subjective experience and contro...
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Segmenting ongoing activity into events is important for later memory of those activities. In the experiments reported in this article, older adults' segmentation of activity into events was less consistent with group norms than younger adults' segmentation, particularly for older adults diagnosed with mild dementia of the Alzheimer type. Among old...
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This chapter highlights an important distinction that has been made in social cognition research between automatic or implicit attitudes and more controlled, explicit processes as distinct influences on judgments. It describes a process dissociation approach that treats implicit attitudes as a source of "guessing" or "accessibility bias." The empha...
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Researchers studying human memory have increasingly focused on memory accuracy in aging populations. In this article we briefly review the literature on memory accuracy in healthy older adults. The prevailing evidence indicates that, compared to younger adults, older adults exhibit both diminished memory accuracy and greater susceptibility to misin...
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Exposure to misleading information, presented after a critical episode, can alter or impair memory reports about that episode. Here, we examine vulnerability to misleading information in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The ability to initiate an effective retrieval strategy and inhibit irrelevant or interfering information requires part...
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Recognition memory is usually regarded as a judgment based on trace strength or familiarity. But recognition may also be accomplished by constraining retrieval so that only sought after information comes to mind (source-constrained retrieval). We introduce a memory-for-foils paradigm that provides evidence for source-constrained retrieval in recogn...
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A dual-process theory of memory was applied to processes in normal aging, with a focus on recognition errors in the feature-conjunction paradigm (i.e., false recognition of blackbird after studying parent words blackmail and/or jailbird). Study repetition was manipulated so that some parent words occurred once and others occurred three times. Age-r...
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Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was...
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Control over memory can be achieved in two ways: by constraining retrieval such that only sought after information comes to mind or, alternatively, by means of post-access monitoring. We used a memory-for-foils paradigm to gain evidence of differences in retrieval constraints. In this paradigm, participants studied words under deep or shallow encod...
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Lee Brooks has done important work to show that categorization often reflects reliance on specific instances rather than on an abstract representation. His work on the advantages of using a diagnostic hypothesis to search medical stimuli has demonstrated how constraining what one looks for influences clinical reasoning. Similarly, cognitive control...
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People are biased to misidentify harmless objects as weapons when the objects are associated with African Americans (Payne, 2001). Two studies examined the processes underlying this bias. The illusory perception hypothesis argues that stereotypes alter the subjective construal of the object. In contrast, the executive failure hypothesis argues that...
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New learning often interferes with the production of older, previously learned responses. However, the original responses usually appear to spontaneously recover and regain their dominance after a delay. This article takes a new approach to questions of interference and recovery by examining performance on immediate and delayed tests using direct o...
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In light of an historical obsession with human error, Krueger & Funder (K&F) suggest that social psychologists should emphasize the strengths of social perception. In our view, however, absolute levels of accuracy (or error) in any given experiment are less important than underlying processes. We discuss the use of the process-dissociation procedur...
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We propose a framework for investigating the role of conscious experience in regulating stereotype-based memory distortions. Memory biases are mediated by multiple memory processes, including forms of discriminability and response biases. Different psychological interpretations of these processes depend on how they relate to subjective experiences...
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The influence of word reading on Stroop color naming decreases as a function of the proportion of test items that are incongruent. This proportion-congruent effect is usually ascribed to strategies (e.g., maintaining task set) that operate at a general level to moderate the extent to which participants are influenced by word reading. However, in th...
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Controlled processing is central to episodic memory retrieval. In the present study, neural correlates of sustained, as well as transient, processing components were explored during controlled retrieval using a mixed blocked event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Results from 29 participants suggest that certain regions in pr...
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In the present study, an implicit strategy manipulation was used to explore the contribution of memory strategy to brain activation and behavioral performance. Participants were biased to use either a short-term (maintenance-focused) or long-term (retrieval-focused) memory strategy within a single memory task through manipulation of task context. I...
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Controlled processing is central to episodic memory retrieval. In the present study, neural correlates of sustained, as well as transient, processing components were explored during controlled retrieval using a mixed blocked event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Results from 29 participants suggest that certain regions in pr...
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We explore a novel theory‐guided approach for training memory in older adults that distinguishes between recollection and automatic influences. Participants were given multiple trials of a continuous recognition task in which they had to use recollection to identify repeated items. After each correct trial, the number of intervening items between r...
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This article challenges the highly intuitive assumption that prejudice should be less likely in public compared with private settings. It proposes that stereotypes may be conceptualized as a type of dominant response (C. L. Hull, 1943; R. B. Zajonc, 1965) whose expression may be enhanced in public settings, especially among individuals high in soci...
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This article challenges the highly intuitive assumption that prejudice should be less likely in public compared with private settings. It proposes that stereotypes may be conceptualized as a type of dominant response (C. L. Hull, 1943; R. B. Zajonc, 1965) whose expression may be enhanced in public settings, especially among individuals high in soci...
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This study applied process dissociation (PD) to investigate the role of conscious goals in controlling automatic influences of stereotypes. A priming procedure was used to show that the presence of Black (vs. White) faces caused stereotypical misidentifications of objects. Specifically, Black primes caused lures to be misidentified as weapons, wher...
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Feature and conjunction errors in recognition memory were investigated using a dual-process framework. In Experiment 1, dividing attention at study or test decreased old word recognition but did not influence feature and conjunction recognition errors after correcting for false alarms to new words (baseline). In Experiment 2, a response deadline ma...
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Proactive interference was assessed with a variant of the process-dissociation procedure, which separates effects of habit (accessibility bias) and recollection (discriminability). In three cued-recall experiments, proactive interference was shown to be an effect of bias rather than an effect on actual remembering. Divided attention, age, and study...
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Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether a modality-specific familiarity contributes to feature and conjunction errors and, hence, to recognition memory. In each experiment, the presentation modality of compound words was manipulated at study (auditory or visual), and in Experiment 2 the presentation modality for the test also was man...
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Provides a new perspective on retroactive interference in memory. The authors dissociate two forms of memory, recollection and accessibility bias, and show how their ideas can account for both classic and new findings in this area. They forward a dual-process account of retroactive and proactive interference that differs from the traditional accoun...
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Recognition memory may be mediated by the retrieval of distinct types of information, notably, a general assessment of familiarity and the recovery of specific source information. A response-signal speed-accuracy trade-off variant of an exclusion procedure was used to isolate the retrieval time course for familiarity and source information. In 2 ex...
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An extension of L. L. Jacoby's (1991) process-dissociation procedure was used to examine the effects of aging on recollection and automatic influences of memory (habit). Experiment 1 showed that older adults were impaired in their ability to engage in recollection but did not differ from young adults in their reliance on habit. Elderly adults were...
Article
An extension of Hay and Jacoby's (1996) paradigm was used to separate the contribution of habit and recollection to memory performance in young and elderly adults. In an initial training session, participants learned A-B, A-C associations in which stimulus-response strength was manipulated across contexts. The extent to which context-dependent habi...
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Four experiments examined ironic effects of repetition, effects opposite to those desired (cf. D. M. Wegner, 1994). For an exclusion task, participants were to respond "yes" to words heard earlier but "no" to words that were read earlier. Results from young adults given adequate time to respond showed that false alarms to earlier-read words decreas...
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Automatic processes can operate to increase the accessibility of a particular response. A series of experiments using the process dissociation procedure will be reported to show that the effects of such accessibility bias are independent of those of more algorithmic (consciously controlled) bases for responding. For example, habit originating from...
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In three experiments, aremember/know recognition test (Experiments 1–2) and an exclusion test (Experiments 2–3) were used to examine effects of repeated study presentations. An effect of study repetition was obtained for remember but not know judgments, similar to results reported by Gardiner, Kaminska, Dixon, and Java (1996). Experiment 2 demonstr...
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We review research on the fluency heuristic as a basis for the subjective experience of familiarity. Then, we explore the links between the construct of fluency and the automatic versus consciously controlled memory processes that are estimated using the process dissociation procedure, and the phenomenological experiences studied using “Remember” a...
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Three experiments investigated assumptions of the process-dissociation procedure for separating consciously controlled and automatic influences of memory. Conditions that encouraged direct retrieval revealed process dissociations. Manipulating attention during study or manipulating study time affected recollection but left automatic influences of m...
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The Stroop counter model, which shares the assumptions of the application of process dissociation to the Stroop task presented by D. S. Lindsay and L. L. Jacoby (see record 1994-28287-001), is described in order to demonstrate the viability of these assumptions in quantitative models of the Stroop phenomenon. An experiment is presented to show con...