L. Podio's research while affiliated with National Institute of Astrophysics and other places

Publications (217)

Article
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The chemical diversity of low-mass protostellar sources has so far been recognized, and environmental effects are invoked as its origin. In this context, observations of isolated protostellar sources without the influence of nearby objects are of particular importance. Here, we report the chemical and physical structures of the low-mass Class 0 pro...
Article
The ALMA interferometer, with its unprecedented combination of high-sensitivity and high-angular resolution, allows for (sub-)mm wavelength mapping of protostellar systems at Solar System scales. Astrochemistry has benefited from imaging interstellar complex organic molecules in these jet-disk systems. Here we report the first detection of methanol...
Preprint
The ALMA interferometer, with its unprecedented combination of high-sensitivity and high-angular resolution, allows for (sub-)mm wavelength mapping of protostellar systems at Solar System scales. Astrochemistry has benefited from imaging interstellar complex organic molecules in these jet-disk systems. Here we report the first detection of methanol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methanol is a ubiquitous species commonly found in the molecular interstellar medium. It is also a crucial seed species for the building-up of the chemical complexity in star forming regions. Thus, understanding how its abundance evolves during the star formation process and whether it enriches the emerging planetary system is of paramount importan...
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Context. Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and on the nature of the driving source. Aims. We characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work...
Article
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The goal of the Ariel space mission is to observe a large and diversified population of transiting planets around a range of host star types to collect information on their atmospheric composition. The planetary bulk and atmospheric compositions bear the marks of the way the planets formed: Ariel’s observations will therefore provide an unprecedent...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass-ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and the nature of the driving source. We want to characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work in the Cla...
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We present ALMA high-angular resolution ($\sim$ 50 au) observations of the Class I binary system SVS13-A. We report images of SVS13-A in numerous interstellar complex organic molecules: CH$_{\rm 3}$OH, $^{13}$CH$_{\rm 3}$OH, CH$_{\rm 3}$CHO, CH$_{\rm 3}$OCH$_{\rm 3}$, and NH$_{\rm 2}$CHO. Two hot corinos at different velocities are imaged in VLA4A...
Article
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We report a study of the low-mass Class 0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H ¹³ CO ⁺ ( J = 3–2), CS ( J = 5–4), and CCH ( N = 3–2) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 200...
Article
We present ALMA high-angular-resolution (∼50 au) observations of the Class I binary system SVS13-A. We report images of SVS13-A in numerous interstellar complex organic molecules: CH 3 OH, ¹³ CH 3 OH, CH 3 CHO, CH 3 OCH 3 , and NH 2 CHO. Two hot corinos at different velocities are imaged in VLA4A ( V sys = +7.7 km s ⁻¹ ) and VLA4B ( V sys = +8.5 km...
Preprint
We studied the line emission from CH3CN and its deuterated isotopologue CH$_2$DCN towards the prototypical Class I object SVS13-A, where the deuteration of a large number of species has already been reported. Our goal is to measure the CH$_3$CN deuteration in a Class I protostar, for the first time, in order to constrain the CH$_3$CN formation path...
Preprint
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We report a study of the low-mass Class-0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H$^{13}$CO$^+$ ($J=3-2$), CS ($J=5-4$), and CCH ($N=3-2$) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 2...
Preprint
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Hot corinos are compact regions around solar-mass protostellar objects that are very rich in interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs). They are believed to represent the very early phases of our Solar System's birth, which was very likely also characterized by rich organic chemistry. While most of the studied hot corinos are either isolated o...
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Class I protostars are a bridge between Class 0 protostars, and Class II protoplanetary disks. Recent studies show gaps and rings in the dust distribution of disks younger than 1 Myr, suggesting that planet formation may start already at the Class I stage. To understand what chemistry planets will inherit, it is crucial to characterize the chemistr...
Article
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In this era of spatially resolved observations of planet-forming disks with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and large ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Keck, and Subaru, we still lack statistically relevant information on the quantity and composition of the material that is building the planets, such as the total...
Preprint
Planet-forming disks are not isolated systems. Their interaction with the surrounding medium affects their mass budget and chemical content. In the context of the ALMA-DOT program, we obtained high-resolution maps of assorted lines from six disks that are still partly embedded in their natal envelope. In this work, we examine the SO and SO$_2$ emis...
Article
Context. Recent results in astrochemistry have revealed that some molecules, such as interstellar complex organic species and deuterated species, can serve as valuable tools in the investigation of star-forming regions. Sulphuretted species can also be used to follow the chemical evolution of the early stages of a Sun-like star formation process. A...
Preprint
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Aims: The goal is to obtain a census of S-bearing species using interferometric images, towards SVS13-A, a Class I object associated with a hot corino rich in interstellar complex organic molecules. Methods: We used data at 3mm and 1.4mm obtained with IRAM-NOEMA in the framework of the Large Program SOLIS. Results: We imaged the spatial distributio...
Preprint
The goal of the Ariel space mission is to observe a large and diversified population of transiting planets around a range of host star types to collect information on their atmospheric composition. The planetary bulk and atmospheric compositions bear the marks of the way the planets formed: Ariel's observations will therefore provide an unprecedent...
Article
Full-text available
HCN and its isomer HNC play an important role in molecular cloud chemistry and the formation of more complex molecules. We investigate here the impact of protostellar shocks on the HCN and HNC abundances from high-sensitivity IRAM 30m observations of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1 and the envelope of the associated Class 0 protostar, as a p...
Preprint
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HCN and its isomer HNC play an important role in molecular cloud chemistry and the formation of more complex molecules. We investigate here the impact of protostellar shocks on the HCN and HNC abundances from high-sensitivity IRAM 30m observations of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1 and the envelope of the associated Class 0 protostar, as a p...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this era of spatially resolved observations of planet forming disks with ALMA and large ground-based telescopes such as the VLT, Keck and Subaru, we still lack statistically relevant information on the quantity and composition of the material that is building the planets, such as the total disk gas mass, the ice content of dust, and the state of...
Preprint
Millimeter and centimeter observations are discovering an increasing number of interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) in a large variety of star forming sites, from the earliest stages of star formation to protoplanetary disks and in comets. In this context it is pivotal to understand how the solid phase interactions between iCOMs and grain...
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Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey, was adopted as the fourth medium-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision programme to be launched in 2029. During its 4-year mission, Ariel will study what exoplanets are made of, how they formed and how they evolve, by surveying a diverse sample of about 1000 extrasolar planets, s...
Article
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398−3359 at scales ranging from 50 to 1800 au, as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H_{2}CO, SO, and C^{18}O line emission, which extends from the source in a direction almost perpendicular to the known act...
Preprint
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MAORY is the adaptive optics module for ELT providing two gravity invariant ports with the same optical quality for two different client instruments. It enable high angular resolution observations in the near infrared over a large field of view (~1 arcmin2 ) by real time compensation of the wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence. Wavef...
Article
Aims. As a part of the CALYPSO Large Program, we aim to constrain the properties of protostellar jets and outflows by searching for corresponding emission in a sample of 21 Class 0 protostars covering a broad range of internal luminosities ( L int from 0.035 L ⊙ to 47 L ⊙ ). Methods. We analyzed high angular (~0.′′5–1.′′0) resolution IRAM Plateau d...
Preprint
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We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 at scales ranging from 50 au to 1800 au, as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H2CO, SO, and C18O line emission, which extends from the source along a direction almost perpendicular to the known active outflow. Molecular line emission fro...
Preprint
Rotating outflows from protostellar disks might trace extended magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disk winds (DWs), providing a solution to the angular momentum problem in disk accretion for star formation. In the jet system HH 212, a rotating outflow was detected in SO around an episodic jet detected in SiO. Here we spatially resolve this SO outflow into...
Preprint
As a part of the CALYPSO large programme, we constrain the properties of protostellar jets and outflows in a sample of 21 Class 0 protostars with internal luminosities, Lint, from 0.035 to 47 Lsun. We analyse high angular resolution (~0.5"-1") IRAM PdBI observations in CO (2-1), SO ($5_6-4_5$), and SiO (5-4). CO (2-1), which probes outflowing gas,...
Article
We present an overview of the ALMA chemical survey of disk-outflow sources in Taurus (ALMA-DOT), a campaign devoted to the characterization of the molecular emission from partly embedded young stars. The project is aimed at attaining a better understanding of the gaseous products delivered to planets by means of high-resolution maps of the assorted...
Preprint
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Context. Previous numerical studies have shown that in protostellar outflows, the outflowing gas mass per unit velocity, or mass–velocity distribution m ( v ), can be well described by a broken power law ∝ v − γ . On the other hand, recent observations of a sample of outflows at various stages of evolution show that the CO intensity–velocity distri...
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We present an overview of the ALMA chemical survey of disk-outflow sources in Taurus (ALMA-DOT), a campaign devoted to the characterization of the molecular emission from partly embedded, young stars. The project aims at better understanding the gaseous products that are delivered to planets by means of high-resolution maps of assorted lines probin...
Article
Context. The isotopic ratio of nitrogen presents a wide range of values in the Solar System: from ~140 in meteorites and comets to 441 in the solar wind. In star-forming systems, we observe even a higher spread of ~150–1000. The origin of these differences is still unclear. Aims. Chemical reactions in the gas phase are one of the possible processes...
Preprint
The isotopic ratio of nitrogen presents a wide range of values in the Solar System and in star forming system whose origin is still unclear. Chemical reactions in the gas phase are one of the possible processes that could modify the $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratio. We aim at investigating if and how the passage of a shock wave in the interstellar medium, c...
Article
Context. Planets form in protoplanetary disks and inherit their chemical composition. It is therefore crucial to understand the molecular content of protoplanetary disks in their gaseous and solid components. Aims. We aim to characterize the distribution and abundance of molecules in the protoplanetary disk of DG Tau and to compare them with its du...
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Context. The process of mass accretion in the earliest phases of star formation is still not fully understood: Does the accretion rate smoothly decline with the age of the protostar or are there short, intermittent accretion bursts? Aims. We aim to explore whether or not the observed C$^{18}$O and N$_2$H$^+$ emission pattern towards the VeLLO IRAM...
Article
Context. Planet formation starts around Sun-like protostars with ages ≤1 Myr, but the chemical compositions of the surrounding discs remains unknown. Aims. We aim to trace the radial and vertical spatial distribution of a key species of S-bearing chemistry, namely H 2 CS, in protoplanetary discs. We also aim to analyse the observed distributions in...
Preprint
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Aims: To trace the radial and vertical spatial distribution of H2CS, a key species of the S-bearing chemistry, in protoplanetary disks. To analyse the observed distributions in light of the H2CS binding energy, in order to discuss the role of thermal desorption in enriching the gas disk component. Methods: In the context of the ALMA chemical survey...
Preprint
Planets form in protoplanetary disks and inherit their chemical composition. It is therefore crucial to understand the disks molecular content. We aim to characterize the distribution and abundance of molecules in the disk of DG Tau. In the context of the ALMA chemical survey of Disk-Outflow sources in Taurus (ALMA-DOT) we analyse ALMA observations...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The process of mass accretion in the earliest phases of star formation is still not fully understood: does the accretion rate smoothly decline with the age of the protostar or are there short, intermittent accretion bursts? The latter option would also yield the possibility for very low-luminosity objects (VeLLOs) to be precursors of solar...
Article
The study of hot corinos in solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which therefore represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical compositi...
Article
The chemical composition of planets is inherited from that of the natal protoplanetary disk at the time of planet formation. Increasing observational evidence suggests that planet formation occurs in less than 1−2 Myr. This motivates the need for spatially resolved spectral observations of young Class I disks, as carried out by the ALMA chemical su...
Preprint
The chemical composition of planets is inherited from the one of protoplanetary disks at the time of their formation. Increasing observational evidence suggests that planet formation occurs in less than $1-2$ Myr. This motivates the need for spatially resolved spectral observations of young Class I disks, as carried out by the ALMA-DOT campaign in...
Preprint
The study of hot corinos in Solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which, therefore, represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical composi...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Contrary to what is expected from models of Galactic chemical evolution, the isotopic fractionation of silicon (Si) in the Galaxy has recently been found to be constant. This finding calls for new observations, also at core scales, to re-evaluate the fractionation of Si. Aims. L1157-B1 is one of the outflow-shocked regions along the blue-s...
Article
Context. Large millimeter interferometers (ALMA, NOEMA, SMA), with their high spectral resolution and sensitivity, are revealing a growing number of rotating outflows, which are suggested to trace magneto-centrifugal disk winds (MHD DWs). However, the angular momentum flux that they extract and its impact on disk accretion are not yet well quantifi...
Article
We present observations of SO and SO2 lines toward the shocked regions along the L1157 chemically rich outflow, taken in the context of the Seeds of Life in Space IRAM Northern Extended Millimeter Array Large Program, and supported by data from the Submillimeter Array and IRAM-30 m telescope at 1.1–3.6 mm wavelengths. We simultaneously analyze, for...
Preprint
L1157-B1 is one of the outflow shocked regions along the blue-shifted outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar L1157-mm, and is an ideal laboratory to study the material ejected from the grains in very short timescales, i.e. its chemical composition is representative of the composition of the grains. We imaged $^{28}$SiO, $^{29}$SiO and $^{30}$SiO J...
Preprint
We present observations of SO and $\rm SO_2$ lines toward the shocked regions along the L1157 chemically rich outflow, taken in the context of the Seeds Of Life In Space IRAM-NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array Large Program, and supported by data from Submillimeter Array and IRAM-30 m telescope at 1.1--3.6 mm wavelengths. We simultaneously analyze,...
Article
Context: Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims: The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the...
Preprint
Large millimeter interferometers are revealing a growing number of rotating outflows, which are suggested to trace magneto-centrifugal disk winds (MHD DWs). However, their impact on disk accretion is not yet well quantified. Here we identify systematic biases in retrieving the true launch zone, magnetic lever arm, and angular momentum flux of an MH...
Article
We show the first interferometric maps of the 14N/15N ratio obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) towards the Solar-like forming protocluster OMC–2 FIR4. We observed N2H+, 15NNH+, N15NH+ (1–0), and N2D+(2–1) from which we derive the isotopic ratios 14N/15N and D/H. The target, OMC–2 FIR4, is one of the closest analogues of the env...
Article
The chemical composition of planets is determined by the distribution of the various molecular species in the protoplanetary disk at the time of their formation. To date, only a handful of disks have been imaged in multiple spectral lines with high spatial resolution. As part of a small campaign devoted to the chemical characterization of disk-outf...
Article
Aims. The Seeds Of Life In Space IRAM/NOEMA large program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources with a well-known physical structure that covers the various phases of solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Understanding the initial properties of star forming material and how they affect the star formation process is a key question. The infalling gas must redistribute most of its initial angular momentum inherited from prestellar cores before reaching the central stellar embryo. Disk formation has been naturally considered as a possible solut...
Preprint
The chemical composition of planets is inherited by the distribution of the various molecular species in the protoplanetary disk at thetime of their formation. As of today, only a handful of disks has been imaged in multiple spectral lines with high spatial resolution. As part of a small campaign devoted to the chemical characterization of disk-out...
Preprint
The SOLIS (Seeds Of Life In Space) IRAM/NOEMA Large Program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources, with well-known physical structure, covering the various phases of Solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed t...
Preprint
We show the first interferometric maps of the 14N/15N ratio obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) towards the Solar-like forming protocluster OMC-2 FIR4. We observed N2H+, 15NNH+, N15NH+ (1-0), and N2D+ (2-1), from which we derive the isotopic ratios 14N/15N and D/H. The target is one of the closest analogues of the environment in...