L L Cavalli-Sforza's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

Publications (330)

Article
Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest th...
Article
In 1951, the geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza was teaching in Parma when a student--a priest named Antonio Moroni--told him about rich church records of demography and marriages between relatives. After convincing the Church to open its records, Cavalli-Sforza, Moroni, and Gianna Zei embarked on a landmark study that would last fifty years and...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest th...
Article
Full-text available
By using 19 Y chromosome biallelic markers and 3 Y chromosome microsatellite markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of 31 indigenous Sino-Tibetan speaking populations (607 individuals) currently residing in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Our results showed that a T to C mutation at locus M122 is highly prevalent in almost all of the Sino-Tibe...
Article
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (M.D., Pavia, 1944), started doing research on sex in bacteria and the origin of resistance to antibiotics. In the early 1950s he moved to research in human population genetics and evolution, showing the major role played by random genetic drift and how to take into account this evolutionary factor for a better reconstruct...
Article
Full-text available
Various observations argue for a role of adaptation in recent human evolution, including results from genome-wide studies and analyses of selection signals at candidate genes. Here, we use genome-wide SNP data from the HapMap and CEPH-Human Genome Diversity Panel samples to study the geographic distributions of putatively selected alleles at a rang...
Data
Full-text available
Supplementary material. (2.61 MB PDF)
Article
Full-text available
A 100 kb region on 9p21.3 harbors two major disease susceptibility loci: one for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and one for coronary heart disease (CHD). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with these two diseases in Europeans reside on two adjacent haplotype blocks with independent effects on disease. To help delimit the regions that like...
Data
R2 values between each SNP pair are shown in shades of grey (black R2 = 1, white R2 = 0) and within each box. The SNPs best tagging the disease-associating haplotypes (rs4977574 and rs10811661) are in bold. The positions of two SNPs that have been identified as most strongly associated with CHD in two separate fine-mapping studies of Europeans, rs2...
Article
Full-text available
Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing abundance of human genetic data has shown that the geographical patterns of worldwide genetic diversity are best explained by human expansion out of Africa. This expansion is modelled well by prolonged migration from a single origin in Africa with multiple subsequent serial founding events. We discuss a new simulation model for the s...
Article
Full-text available
We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation.
Article
Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they...
Article
Full-text available
Human genetic diversity is shaped by both demographic and biological factors and has fundamental implications for understanding the genetic basis of diseases. We studied 938 unrelated individuals from 51 populations of the Human Genome Diversity Panel at 650,000 common single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Individual ancestry and population substruc...
Article
Full-text available
The Sahel that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ethiopian highland is a historical reservoir of Africa's cultures and grandest populations and a known arena of ancient and recent migrations. We are interested in the issue whether such migrations were also carriers of genetic traits and whether this introgression could be associated with popul...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of non-consensus DYS458.2 short tandem repeat alleles and evaluate their phylogenetic substructure and frequency in representative samples from the Middle East, Europe, and Pakistan. Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup defining...
Article
High-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup analyses coupled with Y-short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes were used to (1) investigate the genetic affinities of three populations from Nepal--including Newar, Tamang, and people from cosmopolitan Kathmandu (referred to as "Kathmandu" subsequently)--as well as a collection from Tibet and (2) evaluate wheth...
Article
Full-text available
The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine...
Article
Full-text available
The island of Crete, credited by some historical scholars as a central crucible of western civilization, has been under continuous archeological investigation since the second half of the nineteenth century. In the present work, the geographic stratification of the contemporary Cretan Y-chromosome gene pool was assessed by high-resolution haplotypi...
Article
The origin of the Etruscan people has been a source of major controversy for the past 2,500 years, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their language and sophisticated culture, including an Aegean/Anatolian origin. To address this issue, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 322 subjects from three well-defined areas of Tusc...
Article
The invitation to write the prefatory article to this volume of the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics inspired me to collect some thoughts, a few involving ideas that are not new, but perhaps worth resurrecting in light of recent observations made with the data emerging from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP). Data from the many r...
Data
The Sahel that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ethiopian highland is a historical reservoir of Africa's cultures and grandest populations and a known arena of ancient and recent migrations. We are interested in the issue whether such migrations were also carriers of genetic traits and whether this introgression could be associated with popul...
Article
Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, usin...
Article
The presence of a geographical pattern in the distribution of the sickle cell gene (S gene) and its association with malaria is well documented. To study the distribution of the S gene among various ethnic and linguistic groups in the Sudan we analyzed a hospital-based sample of 189 sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients who reported to the Khartoum Tea...
Article
Full-text available
Equilibrium models of isolation by distance predict an increase in genetic differentiation with geographic distance. Here we find a linear relationship between genetic and geographic distance in a worldwide sample of human populations, with major deviations from the fitted line explicable by admixture or extreme isolation. A close relationship is s...
Article
Full-text available
We study different physical, chemical, or biological processes involving replication, transformation, and disappearance processes, as well as transport processes, and assume that the time and space dependence of the species densities are known. We derive two types of Fisher equations. The first type relates the average value of the time derivative...
Article
Full-text available
MRGX2, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is specifically expressed in the sensory neurons of the human peripheral nervous system and involved in nociception. Here, we studied DNA polymorphism patterns and evolution of the MRGX2 gene in world-wide human populations and the representative nonhuman primate species. Our results demonstrated that MRGX2 had...
Article
Full-text available
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and involved in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal signal transduction. The amino acid sequence of PACAP is extremely conserved across vertebrate species, indicating a strong functional constraint during the course of ev...
Article
The Human Genome Project, in accomplishing its goal of sequencing one human genome, heralded a new era of research, a component of which is the systematic study of human genetic variation. Despite delays, the Human Genome Diversity Project has started to make progress in understanding the patterns of this variation and its causes, and also promises...
Article
Genetic structure of Italian population is described as regards the level of inbreeding measured through the frequency of consanguineous marriages during a long period of time in different geographical areas. Analyses of spatial and temporal variation of the different types of marriages between close biological relatives allow us to point out the m...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a system made up of different physical, chemical, or biological species undergoing replication, transformation, and disappearance processes, as well as slow diffusive motion. We show that for systems with net growth the balance between kinetics and the diffusion process may lead to fast, enhanced hydrodynamic transport. Solitary waves i...
Article
Full-text available
Three populations from northern Pakistan, the Burusho, Kalash, and Pathan, claim descent from soldiers left behind by Alexander the Great after his invasion of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. In order to investigate their genetic relationships, we analyzed nine Alu insertion polymorphisms and 113 autosomal microsatellites in the extant Pakistani and Gre...
Article
The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroups E (Hg E) and J (Hg J) was investigated in >2400 subjects from 29 populations, mainly from Europe and the Mediterranean area but also from Africa and Asia. The observed 501 Hg E and 445 Hg J samples were subtyped using 36 binary markers and eight microsatellite loci. Spatial patterns reveal that (1). th...
Article
Full-text available
The wave-of-advance model has been previously applied to Neolithic human range expansions, yielding good agreement to the speeds inferred from archaeological data. Here, we apply it for the first time to Palaeolithic human expansions by using reproduction and mobility parameters appropriate to hunter-gatherers (instead of the corresponding values f...
Article
Paleoanthropological evidence indicates that both the Levantine corridor and the Horn of Africa served, repeatedly, as migratory corridors between Africa and Eurasia. We have begun investigating the roles of these passageways in bidirectional migrations of anatomically modern humans, by analyzing 45 informative biallelic markers as well as 10 micro...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of 89 biallelic polymorphisms in 523 Turkish Y chromosomes revealed 52 distinct haplotypes with considerable haplogroup substructure, as exemplified by their respective levels of accumulated diversity at ten short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The major components (haplogroups E3b, G, J, I, L, N, K2, and R1; 94.1%) are shared with European and...
Article
The ability to infer the time and place of origin of a mutation can be very useful when reconstructing the evolutionary histories of populations and species. We use forward computer simulations of population growth, migration, and mutation in an analysis of an expanding population with a wave front that advances at a constant slow rate. A pronounce...
Article
Atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, are caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Here we show that infection by hepatitis A virus (HAV) may protect individuals from atopy if they carry a particular variant of the gene that encodes TIM-1 (also known as HAVcr-1) - the cell-surface receptor used by HAV...
Article
Full-text available
Allelic frequencies of 182 tri- and tetra-autosomal microsatellites were used to examine phylogenetic relationships among 19 extant human populations. In particular, because the languages of the Basques and Hunza Burusho have been suggested to have an ancient relationship, this study sought to explore the genetic relationship between these two majo...
Article
Full-text available
An informative set of biallelic polymorphisms was used to study the structure of Y-chromosome variability in a sample from the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sicily, and compared with data on Sardinia to gain insights into the ethnogenesis of these island populations. The results were interpreted in a broader Mediterranean context by includin...
Article
The past decade of advances in molecular genetic technology has heralded a new era for all evolutionary studies, but especially the science of human evolution. Data on various kinds of DNA variation in human populations have rapidly accumulated. There is increasing recognition of the importance of this variation for medicine and developmental biolo...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic composition of the Norwegian population was investigated by analysing polymorphisms associated with both the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome loci in a sample of 74 Norwegian males. The combination of their uniparental mode of inheritance and the absence of recombination make these haplotypic stretches of DNA the tools of choi...
Article
Full-text available
We study a general class of nonlinear macroscopic evolution equations with "transport" and "reaction" terms which describe the dynamics of a species of moving individuals (atoms, molecules, quasiparticles, organisms, etc.). We consider that two types of individuals exist, "not marked" and "marked," respectively. We assume that the concentrations of...
Article
The variation of 77 biallelic sites located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 608 male subjects from 22 African populations. This survey revealed a total of 37 binary haplotypes, which were combined with microsatellite polymorphism data to evaluate internal diversities and to estimate coalescence ages of the binary h...
Article
Full-text available
A resource of 1064 cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) (1) from individuals in different world populations and corresponding milligram quantities of DNA is deposited at the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH) (2) in Paris. LCLs were collected from various laboratories by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) (3) and CEPH to provide unlimited s...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Article
The genetic structure of 126 Ethiopian and 139 Senegalese Y chromosomes was investigated by a hierarchical analysis of 30 diagnostic biallelic markers selected from the worldwide Y-chromosome genealogy. The present study reveals that (1) only the Ethiopians share with the Khoisan the deepest human Y-chromosome clades (the African-specific Groups I...
Chapter
Current genetic and fossil data has consistently pointed to a recent common origin of man in Africa, less than 200,000 years ago, with subsequent migrations and dispersals of modern humans throughout the rest of the world1. Although fossil evidence is lacking, it is postulated that humans arrived in Pakistan, that lies on the postulated coastal rou...
Article
Full-text available
We have analyzed a sample of 40 centenarians and 116 young controls from Sardinia, with a set of new Y chromosome binary markers, to evaluate if Y chromosome genes are involved in the high prevalence of males among centenarian Sardinians (1/2 vs. 1/4 in other populations studied). The results indicate that none of the seven lineages that account fo...
Article
Full-text available
An assessment of 28 pertinent binary genetic markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in New Zealand Maori and other relevant populations has revealed a diverse genetic paternal heritage of extant Maori. A maximum parsimony phylogeny was constructed in which nine of the 25 possible binary haplotypes were observed. Although ∼...
Article
Full-text available
Although molecular genetic evidence continues to accumulate that is consistent with a recent common African ancestry of modern humans, its ability to illuminate regional histories remains incomplete. A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence c...
Article
Full-text available
Binary polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) preserve the paternal genetic legacy of our species that has persisted to the present, permitting inference of human evolution, population affinity and demographic history. We used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC; ref. 2) to iden...
Article
Full-text available
A genetic perspective of human history in Europe was derived from 22 binary markers of the nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY). Ten lineages account for >95% of the 1007 European Y chromosomes studied. Geographic distribution and age estimates of alleles are compatible with two Paleolithic and one Neolithic migratory episode that have contributed to...
Article
Principal components (PCs) were calculated based on gene frequencies of 130 alleles at 38 loci in Chinese populations, and geographic PC maps were constructed. The first PC map of the Han shows the genetic difference between Southern and Northern Mongoloids, while the second PC indicates the gene flow between Caucasoid and Mongoloids. The first PC...
Article
Full-text available
Some insight into human evolution has been gained from the sequencing of four Y chromosome genes. Primary genomic sequencing determined gene SMCY to be composed of 27 exons that comprise 4,620 bp of coding sequence. The unfinished sequencing of the 5' portion of gene UTY1 was completed by primer walking, and a total of 20 exons were found. By using...
Article
Full-text available
We genotyped 64 dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in individuals from populations that represent all inhabited continents. Microsatellite summary statistics are reported for these data, as well as for a data set that includes 28 out of 30 loci studied by Bowcock et al. (1994) in the same individuals. For both data sets, diversity statistics such...
Article
The first set of geographic distribution maps of human gene in China are published, including 12 alleles: IB and IO of ABO system, m of MNS system, P1, Rh-D, A1 and A11 of HLA system, Gm1;21 and Gm1,3;5 of immunoglobulin, AK1, deficient type of G6PD, and PTC test blindness gene t. These maps not only show the geographic distribution of alleles, but...
Article
Full-text available
The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which...
Book
The genetic history of a group of populations is usually analyzed by reconstructing a tree of their origins. Reliability of the reconstruction depends on the validity of the hypothesis that genetic differentiation of the populations is mostly due to population fissions followed by independent evolution. If necessary, adjustment for major population...
Article
Guided by life-history theory, we examine the contexts in which reproductive interests (e.g., attracting and keeping a spouse) shape forager mobility. Using quantitative intercultural and intracultural mating distance data, we report significant correlations between mating distance and population density not only among foragers but also among farme...
Article
We have conducted a genome screen of autism, by linkage analysis in an initial set of 90 multiplex sibships, with parents, containing 97 independent affected sib pairs (ASPs), with follow-up in 49 additional multiplex sibships, containing 50 ASPs. In total, 519 markers were genotyped, including 362 for the initial screen, and an additional 157 were...
Article
Full-text available
Despite mounting genetic evidence implicating a recent origin of modern humans, the elucidation of early migratory gene-flow episodes remains incomplete. Geographic distribution of haplotypes may show traces of ancestral migrations. However, such evolutionary signatures can be erased easily by recombination and mutational perturbations. A 565-bp ch...
Chapter
Full-text available
In an attempt to investigate the origin of the present-day Pakistani populations, we have analysed a microsatellite locus (DYS19) and theAluinsertion polymorphism (YAP) in a sample of nine ethnic groups from the Northern (viz., Punjabi, Burusho, Pathan, Kalash, and Hazara) and the Southern (Brahui, Baloch, Makrani, and Sindhi) parts of the country....