L John Horwood's research while affiliated with University of Otago and other places

Publications (454)

Article
Background: Executive function difficulties are common among children born very preterm and/or very low birthweight (<1500 g; VLBW), but little is known about whether they persist into adulthood. Objectives: Examine the nature and pattern of self-reported executive functioning at 23 and 28 years of age using data from a national cohort study of...
Article
Background: Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers with anticipated very preterm delivery are widely used and improve infant outcomes. Follow-up studies of the first trials of ACS have shown no adverse effects, but recently there have been concerns about possible longer-term harms. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship of ACS...
Article
Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy is a large driver of health inequalities and a higher prevalence of conduct problem (CP) has been observed in exposed offspring. Further, maternal tobacco use during pregnancy can also alter offspring DNA methylation. However, currently, limited molecular evidence has been found to support this observation....
Article
Objective: Knowledge surrounding the link between childhood adversity and reproductive outcomes at midlife is limited. The present study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment (childhood sexual abuse [CSA], childhood physical punishment [CPP]), and menopause status at age 40. Methods: Data were gathered from female members of t...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study examined differences in ADHD symptoms and diagnosis between preterm and term-born adults (≥18 years), and tested if ADHD is related to gestational age, birth weight, multiple births, or neonatal complications in preterm borns. Methods (1) A systematic review compared ADHD symptom self-reports and diagnosis between preterm and...
Article
This paper examines the visuospatial working memory (WM) performance of children and adults born very preterm (VPT) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) relative to their full-term (FT)-born peers. Of interest was the nature and severity of observed impairments, as well associations with educational/occupational functioning at each age point. Partic...
Data
Online resource for the paper "Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster" https://figshare.com/articles/online_resource/Online_resource_1_and_2_docx/14410700
Data
Background: There is little current research on the transition to natural menopause among contemporary groups of mid-life women at age 40 years. Objective: This study reports on female members of the Christchurch Health and Development Study cohort. This research aimed to: document the menopause status, reproductive outcomes and climacteric symptom...
Article
Background Genetics and biology may influence the age at onset of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aims of this study were to determine whether common genetic variation contributes to AN age at onset and to investigate the genetic associations between age at onset of AN and age at menarche. Methods A secondary analysis of the Psychiatric Genomics Consor...
Article
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Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children ag...
Article
Background: There is little current research on the transition to natural menopause among contemporary groups of mid-life women at age 40 years. Objective: This study reports on female members of the Christchurch Health and Development Study cohort. This research aimed to: document the menopause status, reproductive outcomes and climacteric symp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the known adverse effects of in utero tobacco exposure on offspring health, maternal tobacco use during pregnancy remains prevalent and is a major driver of health inequalities. One such health inequality is the development of conduct problem (CP) in exposed offspring which may be mediated by methylation changes that persist into adulthood....
Article
Climate change and population growth will increase vulnerability to natural and human-made disasters or pandemics. Longitudinal research studies may be adversely impacted by a lack of access to study resources, inability to travel around the urban environment, reluctance of sample members to attend appointments, sample members moving residence and...
Article
Full-text available
The Illumina Infinium ® MethylationEPIC BeadChip system (hereafter EPIC array) is considered to be the current gold standard detection method for assessing DNA methylation at the genome-wide level. EPIC arrays are often used for hypothesis generation or pilot studies, the natural conclusion to which is to validate methylation candidates and expand...
Article
Objectives Little is known about the oral health of very low birthweight (<1500 g: VLBW) young adults. This study compared the oral health and self‐reported oral health in a 1986 birth cohort of VLBW young adults with that of term‐born controls. Methods Oral health interviews and dental examinations were conducted. The dental examinations were car...
Article
Objective The International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision classification of personality disorder removes all categories of disorder in favour of a single diagnostic spectrum extending from no personality dysfunction to severe personality disorder. Following concerns from some clinicians and Personality Disorder Societies, it was subsequ...
Article
Aim To determine IQ at 26 to 30 years in very‐low‐birthweight (VLBW) adults compared with term‐born controls; and to examine the stability of IQ in VLBW individuals between 7 to 8 years and 26 to 30 years, identify perinatal and social predictors of IQ, and assess the contribution of brain volume to IQ. Method At 26 to 30 years, 229 VLBW adults (7...
Preprint
Full-text available
Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy is a large driver of health inequalities and a higher prevalence of conduct problem has been observed in exposed offspring. Further, maternal tobacco use during pregnancy can also alter offspring DNA methylation. However, currently, limited molecular evidence has been found to support this observation. Thus...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip system (hereafter EPIC array) is considered to be the current gold standard detection method for assessing DNA methylation at the genome-wide level. Due to their genome-wide nature, and their relatively high cost per sample, EPIC arrays are often used for hypothesis generation or pilot studies, the nat...
Article
Aims: Personal cannabis use is common across New Zealand, and an upcoming referendum will enable the public to vote on whether this should be legalised. The present research aimed to examine the attitudes of midlife New Zealand adults on cannabis use and legalisation, and to identify potential predictors of those attitudes. Methods: At age 40, 8...
Article
Full-text available
Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis use is of increasing public health interest globally. Here we examined the effect of heavy cannabis use, with and without tobacco, on genome-wide DNA methylation in a longitudinal birth cohort (Christchurch Health and Development Study, CHDS). A total of 48 heavy cannabis users were selected from the CHDS cohort, on the basis of their adul...
Article
Full-text available
Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co‐occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg], twin‐based = 0.23‐0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children bo...
Preprint
Heavy, long term cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of adverse psychosocial outcomes, depression and schizophrenia. Here we examined the effect of cannabis use, with and without tobacco, on genome-wide DNA methylation in a longitudinal birth cohort (Christchurch Health and Development Study). We found the most differentially methylat...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Little is known about how cannabis use over the life course relates to harms in adulthood. The present study aimed to identify trajectories of cannabis use from adolescence to adulthood and examine both the predictors of these trajectories and adverse adult outcomes associated with those trajectories. Design: A latent trajec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg], twin-based=0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlati...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Unemployment has been related to smoking, yet the causal nature of the association is subject to continued debate. Social causation argues that unemployment triggers changes in smoking, whereas the social selection hypothesis proposes that preexisting smoking behavior lowers the probability of maintaining employment. The present study...
Article
Full-text available
Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness¹, affecting 0.9–4% of women and 0.3% of men2–4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50–60%⁵. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders⁶, and outcomes are unacceptably poor⁷. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nerv...
Article
Objective: Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common and associated with high consumption of health care resources. Cross-sectional studies in selected and clinical populations show consistent linkages between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and presentation with MUS and somatization. However, there are almost no well-controlled pros...
Article
Background Sexual minority individuals consistently report higher rates of mental disorder than heterosexuals. However, much of the research has methodological limitations related to the classification of sexuality, the use of cross-sectional data and problematic sampling procedures such as using convenience samples. Methods We used longitudinal d...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTIONYoung adults are often reluctant to seek medical attention. Compared with full-term controls, very low birthweight (<1500 g; VLBW) young adults may have more health problems. AIMTo assess the frequency of unrecognised or unmet physical health needs during a comprehensive health and welfare assessment of a national cohort of VLBW adults...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the long-term effects of being born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1500 g) on adult cerebral structural development using a multi-method neuroimaging approach. The New Zealand VLBW study cohort comprised 413 individuals born VLBW in 1986. Of the 338 who survived to discharge, 229 were assessed at age 27–29 years. Of these, 150 ha...
Article
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Aims: To determine the extent to which the transition to parenthood protects against heavy and problematic alcohol consumption in young men and women. Design: Integrated participant-level data analysis from three population-based prospective Australasian cohort studies. Setting: General community; participants from the Australian Temperament S...
Article
Objective: To assess the physical well-being and components of the metabolic syndrome in a national cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) young adults and same age controls. Study design: The New Zealand VLBW Study cohort prospectively included all infants with birth weight <1500 g born in 1986, with 338 (82%) surviving to discharge home. Heigh...
Article
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Background The extent to which exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse increases the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood is currently unclear. Aims To examine the relationship between childhood sexual and physical abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood taking into account potential confounding and time-dynamic covariate factor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN as well as ancestrally matched controls. We p...
Article
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Purpose: To examine associations between offending trajectory in adolescence/young adulthood and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Methods: Data were used from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal birth cohort studied to age 35. Latent trajectory models were fitted to conduct problems and offending data from ages 8 to 21...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the associations between attendance at early childhood education (ECE) and longer-term academic attainment and socioeconomic wellbeing in a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 30. Nearly 95% of the cohort had attended ECE by age 5. After adjustment for family background and child characteristics, results showed statistically...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims Studies have linked adolescent alcohol use with adverse consequences in adulthood; yet it is unclear how strong the associations are and to what extent they may be due to confounding. Our aim was to estimate the strength of association between different patterns of adolescent drinking and longer‐term psychosocial harms taking in...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children bo...
Preprint
Background Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13000 individuals with AN as well as ancestrally matched controls. We pres...
Article
Objective There are few data on visual outcomes in adulthood of former very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) infants. We aimed to assess vision at 27–29 years in a national cohort of VLBW infants born in 1986 and assessed for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when no treatment was available, compared with term born controls. Methods The cohort and c...
Article
Background: In community studies, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is positively associated with cardiovascular disorders. Those born with very low birth weight (VLBW) have increased risk of metabolic and vascular disorders in later life, but plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides have not been studied. The objectives here were to ev...
Presentation
Full-text available
Research into outcomes of attendance at early childhood education (ECE) facilities has been ongoing for more than five decades. While this research grew from questions pertaining to attachment theory, particularly for children experiencing non-parental daycare, it became evident that those children attending preschool or ECE services had advantages...
Article
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported that common variation in the human Niemann-Pick C1 gene (NPC1) is associated with morbid adult obesity. This study was confirmed using our BALB/cJ Npc1 mouse model, whereby heterozygous mice (Npc1(+/-)) with decreased gene dosage were susceptible to weight gain when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared...
Article
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Background and aims: There has been a great deal of evidence showing high novelty seeking (NS) is a risk factor for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the possible causal role of NS in SUDs is unconfirmed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NS at age 16 and SUDs from age 18 to 35 years, net of a...
Article
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Objective: Few studies have examined the contribution of specific disaster-related experiences to symptoms of depression. The aims of this study were to do this by examining the roles of peri-traumatic stress and distress due to lingering disaster-related disruption in explaining linkages between disaster exposure and major depressive disorder sym...
Article
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Background The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. Methods We tested for associations between...
Article
Objective: To investigate the concordance between medically documented childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and recall of same by adults aged 35 years. Participants: A total of 962 birth cohort members from the Christchurch Health and Development Study available at the 35-year follow-up. Main measures: Childhood TBI information prospectively...
Article
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin coh...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Previous literature has shown gender differences in reactivity to stressful life events. However, it is unclear whether gender differences in stress reactivity are consistent across a series of life event domains among longitudinal adult sample populations. Methods Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS)...
Article
Background: Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Ze...
Article
Background: Childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been associated with negative adult outcomes. Effective interventions require identification of the injury event. There is currently little information regarding the accuracy of adult recall of childhood mTBI. Method: Prospectively collected information from a large birth cohort was us...
Article
Cognitive impairment is common among children born very preterm (VPT), yet little is known about how this risk changes over time. To examine this issue, a regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤ 32 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term (FT) born children was prospectively assessed at ages 4, 6, 9, and 12 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of I...
Article
Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently during child and early adulthood, and is associated with negative outcomes including increased risk of drug abuse, mental health disorders and criminal offending. Identification of previous TBI for at-risk populations in clinical settings often relies on self-report, despite little informati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol use and affective or anxiety symptoms, with abstainers experiencing more severe symptoms than moderate drinkers. It is less clear whether this relationship is also present for the risk of syndromal internalizing disorders such as depression or anxiety disorders. Method...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently during childhood and early adulthood and has been associated with a number of negative outcomes including increased drug abuse, disorders of mental health and criminal offending. Identification of previous TBI in at risk populations is important for effective rehabilitation, but frequently...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently during childhood and early adulthood and has been associated with a number of negative outcomes including increased drug abuse, disorders of mental health and criminal offending. Identification of previous TBI in at risk populations is important for effective rehabilitation, but frequently...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is limited information on long-term outcomes of adolescent depression. This study examines the associations between severity of depression in adolescence and a broad array of adult functional outcomes. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year longitudinal study of a birth co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Met...