Kurt Benirschke's research while affiliated with Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and other places

Publications (100)

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Four specimens of this species have been studied with similar results. These animals usually have fraternal twins and are blood chimeras. Species designation is in conformity with Hill. The preparations shown were prepared from bone marrow following in vivo administration of colchicine. Quantitative measurements and comparisons have been presented...
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The karyotypes were prepared from tissue cultures of skin biopsies kindly supplied by Dr. R. W. Cooper. The animals are at the San Diego Zoo, San Diego, California, USA. The animals were purchased from a dealer in Nairobi, Kenya.
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Several pairs of autosomes are easy to recognize. Identification of the sex chromosomes is unequivocal.
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The karyotypes presented here are gifts of Drs. A. J. Kniazeff and W. A. Nelson-Rees, Naval Biological Research Laboratory, University of California, Oakland, California, USA. The karyotypes were constructed from lung cultures of embryos of Aleutian mink. A cell line is available at the American Type Culture Collection bearing catalogue number CCL6...
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These findings are based on 9 animals trapped in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. All had similar karyotypes from blood, kidney and skin cultures. The karyotypes displayed here are from fibroblast cultures. The chromosomes are difficult to pair accurately. Some pairs of small autosomes and the two X chromosomes often differ in size. The short arm of...
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Skin biopsies of these animals (1♂;1♀) were made available by Dr. H. Heck, Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA. Pairing of autosomes is arbitrary and the X chromosome could only be distinguished using tritiated thymidine and observing late replication of one X in the female specimen.
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Only the two largest pairs of autosomes and the X chromosome are individually identifiable. Pairing of all other autosomes and identification of the Y are arbitrary. In females, one entire X and possibly the short arm of the second X are late replicating. Several teams of investigators have found that the short arm of the largest subtelocentric aut...
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Identification of the X chromosome is equivocal, but identification of the Y chromosome is relatively easy. Secondary constriction can often be detected on some small submetacentrics.
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Identification of the sex chromosomes is relatively easy.
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The preparations shown were made from skin biopsies of two immature animals from the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA, courtesy of Dr. C. Gray. The karyotype is essentially the same as that of the striped hyena, Hyaena hyaena, reported by Hsu and Arrighi. The smallest autosome has prominent satellites similar to the marker autosome o...
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The Y chromosome is indistinguishable from the two pairs of the smallest telocentric autosomes, but identification of the X chromosome is unequivocal.
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The karyotypes presented here are gifts of Mr. James L. Patton, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. The male specimen belongs to subspecies P. p. atrodorsalis, collected 4km west of Tula, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The female belongs to P. p. eremicus, collected 24 miles north of Saltillo, Conhuila, Mexico. Direct bone marrow preparations were us...
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Skin biopsies of the male animal were made available by Dr. H. Heck, Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA. The karyotype of the female animal was prepared from fibroblast cultures of an animal of the Philadelphia Zoo and kindly supplied by Dr. D. A. Hungerford, Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Another male anim...
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Identification of the X chromosome is unequivocal, but the Y chromosome is not distinguishable from the two smallest autosomes. The specimens were collected by Mr. James L. Patton from 16km north of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
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The karyotypes were prepared from tissue cultures of skin biopsies. The animals, identified by Dr. H. Heck, came from the Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA.
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Identification of the sex elements is unequivocal.
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The female specimen was collected by Mr. J. L. Patton from Ranch Rd. 2424, 18 mi. N.W. of Kent, Culberson County, Texas, USA, and the male, by Dr. Murray L. Johnson from Fresno, California, USA. Lung cultures were initiated for cytological studies.
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Skin biopsies of two animals at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA, were used for initiation of cultures. The karyotypes differ from Fells catus (Folio 31, Vol. 1) in that Felis bengalensis has one less pair of acrocentric autosomes. The satellited pair (El) is the same as in the domestic cat. The Y chromosome is the smallest chrom...
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Skin biopsies of these animals (l♂,l♀) were made available by Dr. H. Heck, Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA. Pairing of autosomes is arbitrary with the exception of the largest pair whose long arms usually bear minute satellites.
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Two specimens obtained from Austria were studied and donated by Prof. A. Gropp, Pathologisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany. These karyotypes differ markedly from those of the Western subspecies displayed in Folio 52. The differences have been described and discussed by Geisler and Gropp. Identification of sex chromosomes is tentati...
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Three animals of the Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York were studied with identical results. The karyotypes shown were prepared from cultures of skin biopsies. It is interesting to note that the nombre fondamental is 60, the same as in most Bovidae studied, and that the morphology of the X is similar to members of subfamily Caprinae but it diff...
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Identification of the X can be ascertained by H3-thymidine autoradiography. Identification of the Y is unequivocal by morphology. One pair of the large submetacentrics has a deep secondary constriction on the short arm near the centromere.
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The karyotype of Bos indicus is identical with that of Bos taurus except for the morphology of the Y chromosome. The Y chromosome of B. taurus is a small metacentric, but that of B. indicus is a small acrocentric. Autoradiographs of DNA synthesis during the late S phase invariably show a late replicating small acrocentric. Therefore, the Y chromoso...
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This is one of the several species in Phyllostomidae which possess XY1Y2 sex-determination system. Satellites are seen on short arms of some large subtelocentrics.
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Two animals have been studied through the courtesy of the Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA. The preparations shown were made from cultures of skin biopsies. Identification of the sex chromosomes is tentative. A pronounced secondary constriction is often seen in the largest autosome.
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Skin biopsies of two animals (l♂,l♀) were made available by Dr. C. Gray, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA. Karyological data are identical between the 2 specimens except the sex pair. Although the diploid number is the same as that found by Hsu and Arrighi, the present specimens have 2 pairs of acrocentric autosomes (group F) whereas...
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The karyotypes shown were kindly donated by Dr. K. Fredga, Genetics Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, and were prepared from bone marrow after in vivo colchicine administration.
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Identification of the X chromosome is unequivocal, but identification of the Y is not. Several pairs of small acrocentric autosomes are indistinguishable from the Y chromosome.
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Identification of the sex elements is unequivocal. The 6 pairs of subtelocentric autosomes can be roughly classified into 3 size groups.
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Identification of the sex elements is unequivocal.
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Skin cultures of two animals from the Catskill Game Farm were initiated for karyological studies. The results are identical with the karyotypes constructed from lymphocyte cultures by Tietz and Teal. The X chromosome was identified by H3-thymidine radioautography in the female as one late replicating element.
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According to the San Juan nomenclature system, the autosomes of P. tigris are classified as follows: Group A, 5 pairs; Group B, 3 pairs; Group C, 2 pairs; Group D, 3 pairs; Group E, 3 pairs; and Group F, 2 pairs. Pair El has a deep secondary constriction on its short arm.
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Identification of the X chromosome is unequivocal. In females, the two X chromosomes may differ in morphology, one being more metacentric than the other, presumably the result of differential heteropycnotic behavior.
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The karyotypes shown were prepared from skin cultures of animals from the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA. They have been arranged in a manner similar to the domestic cat (Vol. 1, Fol. 31). The satellited marker chromosome is the 15th autosome shown here. Three previous karyotypes have been shown of this species which are in essenti...
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The metaphases from which these karyotypes were prepared came from bone marrow preparations after in vivo application of colchicine and were supplied by Dr. K. Fredga, Genetics Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. Terminology of the last 14 autosomes is equivocal. These elements have very short second arm and are perhaps best labeled as sub...
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Lung biopsies from 1♀ and l♂ animals were furnished through the courtesy of Dr. Murray L. Johnson.
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These karyotypes are based on fibrous tissue and kidney cultures of three male and two female beavers trapped in central Vermont, USA. All gave similar results. The karyotypes shown are from fibrous tissue cultures.
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Two specimens of this species have been studied by us, one of which was blood chimeric; other specimens have been examined by Gengozian et al. The animals were identified according to Hill; since then Hershkovitz has endeavored to further define the members of this confusing genus. Wohnus and Benirschke have compared the idiogram of this species wi...
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The karyotypes displayed are donated by Dr. U. Wolf, Freiburg, Germany. The animals were collected in southern Germany. Long arm of the X and the Y are late replicating. Hansen-Melander describes a submetacentric Y in animals from Sweden; however, those from Zealand, Denmark, have the Y as shown here. Thus the Y chromosome of M. agrestis is polymor...
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The autosomal pair placed in No. 11 position has a characteristic secondary constriction near its centromere.
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The X chromosome is slightly smaller than the large subtelocentric autosomal pair, but its short arm is slightly longer than that of the autosomes. The morphology of the Y chromosome is unique. Identification of both the X and the Y is unequivocal.
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Several pairs of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes can be distinguished from one another, but most of the acrocentrics are similar. Two pairs of the acrocentrics, however, are unique. One has a deep secondary constriction at the middle, and the other is distinctly smaller than the rest. There is no great difficulty identifying the sex chro...
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Most biarmed chromosomes are morphologically distinct. Among the acrocentrics, one pair is outstandingly large. Some small ones have secondary constrictions. One or two pairs of the small acrocentrics may have a short second arm; thus they may be regarded as small subtelocentric.
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The karyotypes shown were prepared from bone marrow preparations made after in vivo colchicine administration. They were kindly supplied by Dr. K. Fredga, Genetics Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, who studied three animals. The findings are similar to those of Tsigalidou et al. All chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric with the...
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Identification of the X chromosome by morphology alone is unreliable. Hauschteck-Jungen and Meili found that X of C. ibex is the second longest of the haploid set and that the karyotypes of C. hircus and C. ibex are identical. Taylor et al. considered the longest element as the X. From H3 thymidine autoradiographs, Evans identified the X as the thi...
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According to the San Juan nomenclature system, the autosomes of P. pardus are classified as follows: Group A, 4 pairs; Group B, 3 pairs; Group C, 2 pairs; Group D, 4 pairs; Group E, 3 pairs; Group F, 2 pairs. Pair El has a deep secondary constriction on its short arm.
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The X chromosome is the most outstanding element of the entire complement, but determination of the Y is somewhat equivocal, since several pairs of autosomes have similar morphology. From karyotypes of a large number of specimens, representing several subspecies, no variation (except the Y chromosome) was found. In some individuals, the Y chromosom...
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The karyotypes presented here are donated by Prof. A. Gropp, Pathologisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany. The specimens were collected in the vicinity of Bonn. A total of 4 animals were analyzed. The karyotypes differ markedly from those of the Eastern European subspecies of hedgehog shown in Folio 53. The X chromosome has been iden...
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Skin biopsies of these two specimens (l♂,1♀) were made available by Dr. H. Heck, Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA. The sex chromosomes are readily identified; pairing of autosomes is arbitrary. Two or three of the larger acrocentric autosomes have delicate satellites on their long arms (Chandra et al).
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The sex chromosomes are the only acrocentric elements of the complement. The autosomes can be roughly classified into three groups: 6 pairs of large metacentrics and submetacentrics, 6 pairs of medium-sized to small submetacentrics, and 3 pairs of large subtelocentrics. The karyotypes presented here are quite different from the ones described by Ta...
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Among the small submetacentrics (3 pairs), the largest pair (El) bears a deep secondary constriction on the short arm. This pair is present in karyotypes of all members of Felidae thus far analyzed.
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The specimens (2♂♂,1♀) were collected by Mr. Larry L. Deaven from Center County, Pennsylvania, USA. Bone marrow and lung cultures were used for karyological studies.
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No distinct secondary constrictions. Identification of X somewhat equivocal but not too difficult. Identification of Y very easy.
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The karyotypes shown here were taken from slides made from lymphocyte cultures, courtesy of Dr. Nat M. Kieffer, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
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The classification of the element here placed as No. 11 is difficult. In some preprations (top) it appears acrocentric, in others (bottom) it is more subtelocentric.
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At least 25 animals have now been studied with similar findings, Chiarelli, and Hamerton et al. report minor structural differences for the subspecies P. t. paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee). Satellites occur on the short arms of the acrocentrics. The Y may occasionally be metacentric (Chu and Bender). Quantitative comparisons of the karyotypes of apes h...
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The karyotype is arranged according to the London conference agreement. Secondary constrictions of the ninth autosome are often prominent; the acrocentric autosomes all have satellites; elements 16 often differ in size more than other autosomes; Y is of variable length and structure. Karyotypes from several races show no distinguishable differences...
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One pair of subtelocentric autosomes bears a deep secondary constriction on the long arm near the centromere. Satellites may also be detected on the short arm of the smallest acrocentric chromosomes.
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One pair of small submetacentric autosomes bears a secondary constriction on the short arm. The morphology of this chromosome pair is very similar to that of chromosomes El of domestic cat. Identification of the X is unequivocal.
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Identification of the sex chromosomes is not difficult.
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The second largest autosome has satellites. Two types of X have been described within strains. It may have prominent short arms or none. The Y is polymorphic among strains, acrocentric and the smallest element with positive heteropyknosis or, equal in size to medium-sized autosomal acrocentrics without heteropyknosis.
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Karyotypes were obtained from kidney cultures of male and female domestic white rabbits.
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The last autosome shown, a small submetacentric element, has always large satellites, often bent back over the main portion of this chromosome.
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One animal of each sex (Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, USA) was studied by the lymphocyte technique. Many elements are difficult to classify (subtelocentrics or acrocentrics); however, the karyotypes are similar to other camelidae published in that seven pairs of small metacentric chromosomes can readily be distinguished.
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One acrocentric element has frequently marked secondary constrictions of the long arms near the centromere. Delicate satellites occur on the short arm of the largest chromosome.
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This species differs from all other members of this family by having 44 elements as compared to 46 for the others. Two acrocentrics have presumably fused to make a new submetacentric element, here placed as number 5, Quantitative comparisons of some of these species can be found by Wohnus and Benirschke. Like other marmosets, the pygmy marmoset bea...
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Secondary constrictions may occur on a number of chromosomes, but usually not on homologous chromosomes.
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Delicate satellites are often seen in ideal preparations at the short arm of the submetacentric elements shown here as number 3.
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The karyotypes displayed were prepared from fetal tissue cultures and kindly supplied by Dr. M. Galton, Hanover, New Hampshire. They have been published by Galton & Holt and are reproduced with permission of the publishers. The long arm of X and Y are late replicating as shown by the autoradiographs. In several publications the Y chromosome is not...
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One pair of relatively large autosomes shows a knob-like short arm. Secondary constriction is located on the short arm of a pair of small subtelocentric. Identification of X is somewhat equivocal, because one pair of autosomes possesses similar morphology. However, this autosomal pair tends to be more metacentric than the X. Identification of the Y...
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The male karyotype was obtained from lymphocyte culture of a normal domestic dog. Skin and kidney cultures were established from a female “grey collie”, and the karyotypes obtained from these were indistinguishable from those of a normal dog. The karyotype appears to be identical in all races of dogs with the exception of the Y which is described a...
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The autosomes form a continuous length gradation. Two pairs of the smallest members of autosomes may show secondary constriction near the centromere.
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The specimens were collected by Mr. David Hinds in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Muscles were used to initiate cultures for karyological studies.
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One pair of the small subtelocentric autosomes bears a secondary constriction on the long arm. The identification of the X is equivocal, since one or two pairs of autosomes show similar morphology.
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One of the small acrocentrics shows frequently a pronounced secondary constriction of the long arm near the centromere, similar to that of the domestic horse. Delicate satellites occur on the short arms of the largest chromosome.
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The specimens were collected in Tucson area, by Mr. David Hinds, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Muscle tissues were used to initiate cell cultures for karyological studies.
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Specimens collected by Mr. James L. Patton in Vernon, Texas, USA. Lung cultures were used for karyological studies.
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Skin biopsies of the two animals from the State of Washington, USA were kindly provided by Dr. H. V. Thuline. The karyotypes are indistinguishable from various races of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).
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One of the largest autosomal pairs bears a deep secondary constriction in the middle. Identification of the sex elements is not difficult.
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The X is slightly larger than the largest acrocentric autosome. It is not difficult to identify. The Y is very easy to identify.
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No telocentric chromosomes (Group F of the cat karyotype), but an extra metacentric pair in Group G.
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Secondary constrictions are present in one or more pairs of acrocentrics, similar to those seen in the American black bear. The male animal’s metaphase was kindly supplied by Dr. Rosemary E. Newnham (London, England). Specimens from the female were obtained at Antwerp Zoo (Belgium) through the courtesy of Dr. Agathe Gijzen. Both preparations shown...
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One pair of small metacentrics bears a deep secondary constriction on the short arm near the centromere.
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Three pairs of the acrocentric autosomes are distinctly smaller than other chromosomes.
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The long arm of the X may show a weak secondary constriction at the distal third. However, without autoradiography with tritiated thymidine, the X may be indistinguishable from chromosomes No. 4. The Y chromosome is morphologically unique.
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Characterization of two small pairs of acrocentrics is arbitrary; they could also be considered subtelocentrics in some preparations. In contrast to other equidae, the X of the donkey has a more terminal centromere. The Y is the smallest acrocentric.
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One pair of medium-sized submetacentrics bears a deep secondary constriction on the long arm near the centromere.
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The largest pair of autosomes possesses very delicate satellites at the ends of the long arms, not visible in the reproductions.
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The largest pair of autosomes possesses very delicate satellites at the ends of the long arms, not visible in the reproductions.
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The X chromosome has been identified as the largest acrocentric element by its “late replication” in radioautography using tritiated thymidine.
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All chromosome pairs are morphologically distinguishable. The X chromosome has a deep secondary constriction on the long arm near the centromere.
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One or two pairs of small acrocentrics often have secondary constrictions of the long arms near the centromere.
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The specimens (one male and one female) were collected in Vera Cruz, Mexico by Mr. Robert Dooley, Houston Zoological Garden, Houston, Texas, USA. Lung cultures were used for karyological studies.
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A pair of small subtelocentrics (pair No. 14) possesses distinctive satellite on the short arm, similar to pair El of domestic cat.
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Classification of the fourth row, particularly the fourth pair (here called subtelocentrics) is difficult with the limited material available. Delicate satellites on the short arms of the second pair in the fourth row (autosome No, 20) are seen occasionally.
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The individual elements cannot be distinguished; however, by radioautography Galton and Holt were able to identify X and Y as shown (karyotypes kindly provided by Dr. M. Galton, Hanover, New Hampshire. Preparations shown are from G57BL/10J mouse embryos).
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Like other marmosets, this species bears fraternal twins and most animals are blood chimerae. There appears to be polymorphism of the structure of Y. In some of our specimens it is the smallest metacentric element as shown here, in other specimens this is a minute chromosome having an apparent subtelocentric configuration (Wohnus and Benirschke). T...
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One pair of small submetacentric elements has prominent satellites.
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One of the smallest pairs of acrocentric autosomes bears a secondary-constriction on the long arm near the centromere. The short arm is much shorter than the satellite-bearing autosomes of the cat or a number of the Carnivores.
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One pair of small metacentrics bears a secondary constriction on the short arm near the centromere. The X also has a secondary constriction.

Citations

... Sixty-four autosomes are acrocentric or telocentric, and 8 autosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The X chromosome is large and submetacentric, and the Y chromosome is small and acrocentric (Hsu and Benirschke 1967). Microsatellite analysis suggests that Newfoundland bears possess low levels of genetic variation Strobeck 1994, 1996;Wathen et al. 1985). ...
Reference: Ursus americanus
... By this time, some of the complications involved in attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of embryonic diapause amongst all species were becoming apparent [51]. In contrast to all species examined previously, in vivo hormone administration did not reactivate the blastocyst in the mink, skunk, fur seal, or armadillo [41,83,84]. Furthermore, the tammar wallaby was described as the first mammal to exhibit both lactational and seasonal diapause [85]. ...
... It probably occurs because free living animals have different diet and higher activity level due to territory defense, searching food and running away from predators. Considering the captive animals, our results for absolute weight values are in agreement to Clarke [6]. However, Wadsworth et al. [26], and Araújo et al. [2] have found much lighter specimens. ...
... The biology of vampires was summarized by Greenhall et al. (1983) and Greenhall and Schmidt (1988). Turner (1975Turner ( , 1983 summarized natural history information for Costa Rica. ...
... Although both species have an identical diploid number (2n ¼ 48), the 2 differ substantially in the number of autosomal arms or fundamental number (FN). Hsu and Benirschke (1967) reported that the autosomal karyotype of B. taylori was entirely acrocentric (FN ¼ 46), whereas Lee and Elder (1977) reported the karyotype of B. musculus possessed several pairs of biarmed chromosomes . Similarly, Calhoun et al. (1989) revealed that B. taylori and B. musculus were fixed for alternative alleles at the hemoglobin and peptidase D allozyme loci. ...
... Chromosome analysis of Giemsastained preparations showed a similar karyotype to that of Castor canadensis in the Northern Hemisphere (Genest et al., 1979;Hsu and Benirschke, 1968;Ward et al., 1991;Lizarralde et al., 1996b). However, the austral karyotype differs only in the X sexual chromosome because it was more variable and totally metacentric in all the animals analyzed. ...
... The diploid chromosome number (2n) of Crocuta crocuta is 40 with 20 meta-and submetacentric and 18 acro-and subtelocentric autosomes. The X chromosome is metacentric; the Y is submetacentric; and small submetacentric chromosomes have satellites (Wurster and Gray 1967;Hsu and Benirschke 1968;Wallace and Fairall 1970). Photos of C-and G-banded karyotypes are available (Perelman et al. 2005). ...
... Records of Hispid Cotton Rats.-Hispid cotton rats occur from parts of northern South America to the southern half of the United States, with the northernmost records occurring in southern Nebraska (Hall 1981, Cameron 1999, Wright et al. 2010. In Nebraska, the hispid cotton rat currently is known from 13 counties, with many county records reported during the last decade (Wright et al. 2010). ...
... Despite being widely considered one of the most adaptable of the world's large felids, the leopard (Panthera pardus) is classified as vulnerable by the IUCN (Stein et al., 2016). In Africa, the species is primarily threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation (Di Minin et al., 2016b), prey depletion (Wolf and Ripple, 2016), and direct persecution by humans (Inskip and Zimmermann, 2009), which have collectively contributed to the species losing at least 48% of its historical range on the continent (Jacobson et al., 2016). ...